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Full text of "Printers and printing in Providence, 1762-1907"

{INTERS 
AND PRTTs 



IN PJ. 














* :> V 



1 / <&*' 

PRINTERS 
AND PRINTING 
IN PROVIDENCE 
1762-1907 



PREPARED BY A COMMITTEE OF 
PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL 
UNION NUMBER THIRTY-THREE 
AS A SOUVENIR OF THE FIFTIETH 
ANNIVERSARY OF ITS INSTITUTION 




C.F. W. Marshall, M. R. Hal- 
laday, Harold Eugene Winslow, 
Michael J. McHugh, Artists. 
C. Frank M. Mills, George M. 
Murray, Nacib Boyoshian, Al- 
bert Rueckert, Charles Gorman, 
Photo-Engravers. L Providence 
Printing Co., Hugh F. Carroll, 
Manager; Anita Metivier, Ed- 
ward Leslie Pike, Maurice E. 
Hughes, Compositors. L Theo- 
dore A. Miller, Pressman, 
Providence, R. I. C, Thomas 
Hearn & Co., Binders, Boston. 
Nineteen Hundred and Seven. 



INDEX 

Introduction . . . 5-8 

Providence Newspapers Before 1800 . . . . . 9-20 

Democratic Newspapers in Providence . , . . . . 21-26 

Rhode Island American 27-28 

The Providence Journal . . . . . . . . 29-38 

Dorrite-Knownothing . ..... . . , , 39 

The Morning Mirror . . 40 

Press and Star 41-42 

The Providence News 43 

The Evening Record ........ 44-45 

The Tribune 46-47 

The Labor Press . . . ... . . . . 48-50 

List of Daily Newspapers . 51 

Sunday Newspapers 52 

Fifty- Year History of Providence Typographical Union . . 53-93 

The Reorganization 94-174 

The Eight-Hour Day and the Great Strike in Providence . 175-188 

The Book and Job Section 189-208 

Reminiscent 209-212 

The Journeymen . . " ; . . .... i-xcvi 

Subscribers xcvii-xcvm 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Opposite Page 

Souvenir Committee 4 

Printer Publishers . 12 

Early Providence Newspaper Headings .... 20 

Providence Journal Co. Building, 1905 .... 28 

Homes of the Providence Journal ..... 36 

Tribune Counting Room 44 

Providence Typographical Union : 

1857 Charter Members 52-60 

Presidents of No. 33 68 

I. T. U. Delegates ........ 76 

Officers of No. 33 for 1907 84 

Groups of the Journeymen : 

Journal Employes . . 92-100-108 

Tribune Employes 116-124 

News-Democrat Employes 132 

Headquarters Chapel .... . 140 

Former Providence Printers Now Employed on Boston Globe 148-156 

In the Composing Room 164 

Work on the Evening Bulletin Momentarily Suspended . 172 

Women's Auxiliary, No. 51 180 

Famous Providence Printers 188 

Early Printing Houses . . . .... 204 



PREFACE 

To prepare for the proper observance of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the organiza- 
tion of Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, a committee of five was appointed at 
the December meeting of the Union, 1903. The original committee consisted of William 
Carroll, William J. Meegan, William Palmer, George B. Sullivan and John A. Shannon. 
Mr. Shannon removed to New York City in a short time, and John J. Horton was ap- 
pointed in his place. This was the only change in the personnel of the committee dur- 
ing the four years of its existence. At the organization of the committee, William Carroll 
was elected Chairman and John A. Shannon, Secretary. William J. Meegan succeeded 
Mr. Shannon as Secretary. 

The committee was without specific instructions from the Union. At the first 
meeting, however, plans were adopted that have been closely followed. It was decided 
that the most fitting memorial of the anniversary would be a book, containing as much 
as possible about the craft since its establishment in Providence. The work of research 
was divided among the members of the committee, and frequent meetings were held, at 
which progress was reported. Valuable aid was given by many members of the Union, 
by persons whose ancestors had been connected with the craft, and by proprietors of 
various printing establishments in which the men were employed. To gain a knowledge 
of men and events preceding the organization of the Union in 1857, newspaper files of 
that period and the City Directory from 1824 to 1857, were carefully studied. The 
records of the Union since its organization, files of the Typographical Journal, and cor- 
respondence and consultation with printers scattered in various portions of the United 
States and Canada, have furnished information covering the period of the last fifty 
years. 

The effort to establish an Eight-Hour Day in the craft, with its accompanying heavy 
financial burdens, retarded the collecting of the necessary money and delayed the date 
of publication beyond the time fixed for celebrating the anniversary. Notwithstanding 
the financial difficulties confronting the committee, a decision made at the beginning, to 
exclude advertisements from the book, has been adhered to. At the meeting of the 
Union last February, it was decided to issue 500 certificates, to be sold for $2.00 each, and 
when the amount received from their sale should reach $200, the committee was author- 
ized to make a contract for the printing of the book. Later the number of certificates 
was increased to 1000. The contract was signed April 26, 1907. At the August meeting 
of the Union the committee was authorized to borrow $500 in the name of the Union, to 
assist in completing the book. As further aid the proceeds of a one per cent, assessment 
were granted at the November meeting. 

The committee desires to acknowledge the assistance it has received in its labors 
from the Rhode Island Historical Society, the Providence Journal Co., the Typographical 
Journal, and all those persons and organizations who have assisted it in any way, and 
especially those whose names appear in this book as subscribers. 



The unexpected death on November 26, 1907, of Rudolph DeLeeuw, who had been 
designated in the resolution creating the committee, its treasurer, occasioned sincere 
regret. Mr. DeLeeuw had the honorable distinction of being the longest continuous 
member of Providence Typographical Union, No. 33. He had held many important 
offices in its gift, the last one that of treasurer, of which office he was relieved, at his 
earnest request, at the regular November meeting of the Union, held two days before his 
death. He was buried in Hartford, Conn. The Union and the Journal and Bulletin 
Chapel were officially represented at his funeral. 



CARROi-1-, 
CHAIR/^AN. 




INTRODUCTION 

Gregory Dexter was a stationer and printer in London, England. 
He came to Providence as early as 1638. In that year he had a lot of 
land assigned to him in this town. On July 27, 1640, he signed an 
agreement for a form of government for the town. While he resided 
here he continued his connection with the printing office in London. 
When Roger Williams went to England in 1643 for a charter for 
Providence Plantations he had printed in Gregory Dexter's office in 
London his "Key Into the Language of America." A copy of the book 
in its original edition is in the collection of the R. I. Historical Society, 
and the first volume of that society's publications is a reprint of the book. 

Dexter's reputation for skill in his craft is indicated by the fact that 
he was summoned in 1646 to Boston, Mass., "to set in order the printing 
office there, for which he desired no other reward than that one of their 
Almanacks should be sent him every year." 

While he was the first printer to live in Providence, there is no 
supposition that he worked at printing here. It was not until 1762 that 
a printing press was set up in the town by William Goddard. The 
population of Providence at that time was about 4000. There was but 
one house on Westminster street, and that street was not passable for 
carriages above Empire street, being obstructed by a high hill. 

Since that time there have been many changes in the printing trade 
as well as in the looks of the town. Goddard may have had an assistant 
in getting out the first number of the Gazette, but he could have 
attended to all the details alone. From the little writing required for 
the weekly paper first published, down through the process of clipping 
from other newspapers, putting the copy into type, making up the four 
small forms, inking the pages with leather balls, putting the damp 
paper on the tympan and the impression on the press, and finally 
delivering the edition to the subscribers, the whole operation was within 
his accomplishments, and perhaps he had time for it all. As the book 
and job business increased, specialization followed. The earliest adver- 
tisements for journeymen indicate that some printers could not work at 
both case and press, and there, probably, was where the first subdivision 
came. It must have been found advantageous to keep one man steadily 
at work at the press, if there was business enough to warrant it. The 
proprietor attended to estimating, did the buying and some of the 
mechanical work, and also the editing, if a paper was published and he 
was capable. Whatever the duties of an apprentice were before the 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



substitution of the roller for the ink ball, it is certain that with the 
adoption of this improvement he was put to manipulating the crank 
that controlled the roller, and ever after held that position unchallenged 
until the press came into use whose rollers worked automatically. 

For the first sixty years of printing in this town, and until radical 
improvements in presses began to appear, no important advance in the 
manner of conducting the work in printing offices is mentioned. 

There is a possibility that the first printing outfit was purchased 
from Benjamin Franklin, and also that he was interested in the enter- 
prise as a partner. Many printing offices in the Colonies were estab- 
lished with his aid. "Franklin would send a printing press and a 
certain quantity of type, and take one third of the profits and debts for 
his share. His partnerships lasted for six years, and all accounts were 
settled quarterly." 

Parker's office in New York city, where Goddard learned the trade, 
was started in that way. When Goddard abandoned his venture here 
and went to New York he did not take his printing materials with him, 
although he had use for them there and they were suitable for his 
work. In 1767, five years after the starting of the printing office, John 
Carter came from Franklin's office in Philadelphia, and became a partner 
with Mrs. Goddard. The next year the business came into Carter's 
possession. On the other hand, in the obituary of Mrs. Sarah Goddard, 
printed in the Gazette in 1770, it was stated that "through her means 
her son was instructed in the printing business and settled in a printing 
house in the town of Providence, to which place she soon after removed 
and became a partner with him in the business." 

There is no description in existence of the first press set up here. 
Robert Hoe of New York has furnished the committee with a picture of 
the Blaew press, so named from improvements made by William Jensen 
Blaew of Amsterdam about 1620. This press was used by Franklin 
while a workman in London. When he set up in business in Philadel- 
phia he bought his press and type in London, and as there was " little 
improvement in the printing press until 1798 " it is fair to presume that 
he purchased a Blaew and also that a similar press was first used in 
Providence. 

Robert M. Pearse has described the Ramage press in his story 
about the first issue of the Providence Journal. Adam Ramage of 
Philadelphia about 1800 made some improvements in construction on a 
hand press then in use without patenting them. Hence the name. 

A writer in the Pawtucket Gazette and Chronicle, on the occasion 
of its 50th anniversary, had this to say about the press that did the work 
of that office for about 30 years : 




INTRODUCTION 



"The old Wells hand press, upon which the paper was printed, and in fact everything 
else which was printed in the office, from a visiting card to a poster, was one of the first 
iron presses brought into Rhode Island. The Providence Patriot, published by Jones & 
Wheeler, was originally printed on this press. It was sold for old iron at half a cent a 
pound in 1855." 

While the output of printing offices was limited to the capacity of 
hand presses, profits were necessarily small and offered little induce- 
ment to capital. Goddard gives the cost of the materials in the Gazette 
office at the start as 300. A better outfit could be purchased now for 
one-third the money. The ambitious apprentice who could procure 
backing, at the end of his term of service either bought a share in some 
established office or started in business for himself. 




THE BLAEW PRESS 

(Courtesy of Robert Hoe) 

The Journal was printed on an Adams press in 1836. In 1842, 
Knowles & Vose, owners of the Journal job office, used a Ruggles, 
advertising its accomplishments as follows : 

"Ruggles' Patent Job Printing Engine. One of these machines is now in operation 
at the subscriber's office, No. 15 Market Square. It prints any job that may be desired, 
from an address card of a single line, to the size of a medium quarto, produces better 
work than any hand press, and executes, with the labor of but one person, about 10 or 12 
times as rapidly. It reduces the cost on large orders from 25 to 50 per cent." 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



It was worked with a treadle and was the first advance toward the 
modern job press. The first Hoe cylinder press used in this city was 
brought to the Mirror office. 

Steam was used for the first time in 1856, to operate a new single- 
cylinder Hoe press in the Journal office. That newspaper has led all its 
contemporaries in the introduction of improved machinery except in the 
matter of the single and double cylinder and color presses. The Evening 
Press used the first double cylinder, and the Evening News was the 
pioneer with the color press. The Journal followed its single-cylinder 
press with a double in 1862, a four-cylinder rotary in 1871, and a six- 
cylinder rotary in 1875. In 1881 the first stereotyping plant in the city 
came to the Journal office with a new Hoe web-perfecting press, fol- 
lowed by four other presses before it occupied its new building, when 
two new sextuple color presses were introduced. 

The Journal began to use Merganthaler Linotype machines in 
1889, the first paper in New England to have its composition done in 
that way, and the fifth office in the world. 

The division of work in the Journal office of to-day, with its 250 
employes, illustrates the changes from the conditions prevailing in the 
first printing office in the town. Five divisions exist in its composing 
room, viz : Admen, linotype operators, make-ups, machine tenders and 
proofreaders. Different trades prevail in the art, photo-engraving, 
stereotyping, mailing, press room and publishing departments, with 
subdivisions in some of these. The literary work is subdivided, and 
there are more janitors employed than there were employes of all kinds 
in the beginning of the paper in 1820. 



PROVIDENCE NEWSPAPERS BEFORE 1800 

William Goddard opened a book and job printing house in Provi- 
dence in 1762, in a building "opposite the Court House." Probably 
he began work early in July, as he occupied his first location until about 
the first of the following July. Another indication that the time could 
not have been much earlier is found in what is said to be the first work 
printed in the office, a hand-bill headed "Moro Castle taken by Storm." 
The Cuban fortress surrendered on the 30th of July and it took some 
time to bring the important news by sailing vessel to this town. 

The first number of the Providence Gazette and Country Journal 
was issued from this office Oct. 20 of the same year. The Gazette was 
a three-column folio, 8 x 14 inches, requiring the setting of about 
22,000 ems for the first issue. This amount was lessened thereafter by 
about one-quarter, the standing advertisements filling about one of the 
pages. Probably four full days of each week were consumed by one 
printer on the composition and press work for the paper. An average 
operator would set the entire matter for the Gazette on a linotype in 
less than four hours. The hand press used in those days could print 
about 200 papers an hour. The forms were inked by leather balls and 
the paper was fed into the press twice before both sides were printed 
One of the two sextuple perfecting presses made by R. Hoe & Co., and 
installed in the Journal press room in June, 1905, will print, fold and 
count 48,000 twelve-page papers an hour. 

An apprentice was advertised for in the Gazette of June 11, 1763. 
This would indicate a feeling of stability in the mind of the proprietor, 
as the obligations on both sides at that time were more strict than now, 
when no written guarantees are given by either party. The age for 
beginners has increased slightly, newspapers now preferring boys of 
at least 16 years. The wording of the advertisement follows: 

" Wanted, as an apprentice to the printing business, an ingenious lad about 13 or 14 
years of age, who can read well and write a tolerable hand." 

The original indentures of Daniel Bowen, apprenticed to John 
Carter in 1774, have been preserved. They were presented by A. J. 
Danforth to the Journal, and are now in the composing room of that 
paper, carefully pasted between glass and framed. A fac-simile will be 
found on another page. 

July 9, 1763, the imprint announced a removal " to the store of 
Judge Jenckes, near the Great Bridge, and published at his book shop 
just above it, at the sign of Shakespeare's Head, at both which places 



10 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



This INDENTURE witnefleth, 



That 



hath put wand by thefc Prefen 
and Accord, a/d/vidi the Coafcat of 




to learn /^<^, Arjj TraJe,^pr N 

fcrve froV: 

during the Term of ^ _ 

next enfuing.'to/ be cornplyt ^^5^- During M which fiid Tevfr, t':o fuiJ 

Apprentke, ~7&f<' \v.-\ffimf? jfa&f&fc. faithfully fhall ferve, yw_ Seorcis 

keep, ^A/ lawful J^Fnmands gladly obey t $/ fhall do no Damage to fief la; 
-iior lee it done by other*, without letting or gi'^i^; Nocico thereof ; 



(hall not walle 



bid 

Ihall not co:r.:T:> 



. - - _g^r}n j; i nor lend them unlawfully to any: 

Fornication, or central Matrimony, within t^e laid Teyn. At Carols, D;ce > or any 
other unlawful Game,' tyt/ flull not playy^hercby A<* faid ^^^r^^i/ " _ 

may have Daowge. With /Oy-y-own Goods, or t!ie Goodiof oihers, 

ence from n&S, faid t^a*/t*r /& fhall neither ^>uy nor 

fhaJl ncJt abler.t /fttru&uZ. 6y/j^or by A T ^K^ ( r o.rn <St<S-~, (aid- 
Service, without-^ fr* Leave ; or haunt Ale-ho'ufes, Tavern's, of 
but in all Tjnngs beluvfc A&n/+&--^-i * good and faithful Apprentice ought to da 

and .^U >fey. __ during the faid Term: 
do~75iri__---~hereby protnife to teach and 
entice to be taught and inftru&ed, in the Art, Trade, or 



but in all Tfcnngs 
towards yr.^ fa i 




ing of Great-Britain, &c. Ar.n^i\ Deri. 




PROVIDENCE NEWSPAPERS BEFORE 1800 11 

subscriptions, advertisements and letters of intelligence for this paper 
will be thankfully received. All business in the printing way for 
gentlemen in this Colony, the Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut will 
be correctly, expeditiously and reasonably performed." The price of the 
paper was seven shillings per year. 

The following advertisement for a printer appeared Dec. 17, 1763 : 

" Wanted a journeyman printer, who can work both at case and press. Such a one 
will meet with good encouragement from the printer hereof." 

There could have been no expectation in the mind of the advertiser 
that any idle journeymen were then living in the town. The paper 
exchanged with other papers in various towns, and the hope must have 
been that some craftsman would see the advertisement and be tempted 
to try his fortune in these plantations. 

One of the drawbacks to the successs of the newspaper was the 
non-payment of subscriptions. The complaints in regard to this began 
at the end of the first half year and continued until a better way was 
found than that of trusting customers who never paid for their news- 
papers. In the Gazette of April 26, 1763, Mr. Goddard requested 
payment from those of his patrons who were indebted to him in these 
words : 

" The great expense of carrying on the Printing Business, obliges the Printer hereof, 
to request those persons who have generously favored him with their custom, and are in 
arrears for the first half year of this Paper, to pay the same as soon as convenient, that 
he may be the better enabled to serve them for the future." 

When Mr. Carter had conducted the paper for 20 years he published 
the following: 

"The Editor to His Readers: In August next [1787] 20 years will have elapsed since 
the editor of this Gazette was first concerned in its publication. From some of the sub- 
scribers (who still favor him with their custom) nothing has been received during so long 
a period, and many others remain indebted from five to 15 years. All in arrears for one 
year or more, are earnestly requested to pay. Those who have been several years in- 
debted are particularly informed, that unless their accounts are speedily and honorably 
closed, their papers must and will be stopt. He reluctantly observes that for some years 
passed he has not received from the whole of his subscribers a sufficiency to defray even 
the charge of paper whereon the Gazette has been printed, which is but an inconsiderable 
part of the constant incidental expense." 

At almost the end of his career [Jan. 1, 1814] he wrote : 

"War prices being attached to every article made use of in the Printing Business, as 
well as to the common necessaries of life, imperiously compels the Editor of the Provi- 
dence Gazette (after 48 years laborious attention to the duties of his prof ession ) to call 
upon all persons in arrear to him for News-Papers, Advertisements, and other Printing 
Work, to make immediate Payment, which will highly oblige him, at this crisis of uncommon 
difficulty. The several accounts will be prepared ; and Although small, the aggregate 
amount would enable him to pay his Paper Maker, meet the demands of creditors he is 
anxious to pay, and obtain for himself and Family the common comforts of life. These 
are his objects, and the height of his speculations." 

When 134 numbers of the Gazette had been printed [May 11, 1765] 
it was suspended temporarily, because of the unsatisfactory financial 
returns. It was to be revived six months later " provided the oppressive 



12 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

and insupportable stamp duties, with which the colonies are threatened, 
should not render it impossible." The job printing business was con- 
tinued. 

Not until Aug. 9, 1766, when the Stamp Act had been repealed, did 
the Gazette begin a permanent existence. The imprint then contained 
the information that the paper was in the hands of Sarah Goddard and 
Company, and that one-half of the subscription price was to be paid on 
receiving the first paper; also, that "provisions, grain of any kind, 
tallow, wood, wool and many other articles of country produce" would 
be accepted instead of money. 

The second number of the paper contained a letter from Mr. 
Goddard, dated at New York, July 20, 1766, where he was trying to 
establish himself in business. In it he told of his efforts in Providence, 
through the Gazette, to promote the cause of liberty. He said also that 
he received a 

"letter, signed by many of my former readers, and others, urging my return, the 
necessity of their having a public paper, to continue such notices as the Providence 
Gazette used to convey in support of public liberty, and the almost certainty of my 
meeting with due encouragement.* * * I returned to make trial of their good will. I pub- 
lished a newspaper soon after, [Gazette Extraordinary, Aug. 24, 1765,] containing pro- 
posals for reviving the^Gazette, in which it was stipulated that in case I obtained 800 
subscribers in five weeks time, I would then begin ; but if not, no further trial would be 
made till the first Saturday in June, [1766] when it would either begin, or the design be 
entirely laid aside.* * * An arduous trial was made, in which I did everything in my power 
to insure success, but was not so happy as to meet with it.* * * Under these circumstances, 
being again invited by my friends here [New York] to return, bring my printing materials, 
and establish myself in a more extensive business, in which I was promised their counte- 
nance and support, prudence obliged me to follow their advice in part. But though I 
cannot reasonably expect to make any adequate advantage of my printing materials 
(which cost me near 300 sterling) where they are, yet I could not be persuaded to take 
them away; rather choosing to leave them for the benefit of my friends where they are, 
in the hands of my mother, Mrs. Sarah Goddard, who has engaged to do all she can for 
supporting the printing business in Providence.* * * And as I have lately sent her an assistant 
[Samuel Inslee] to enable her to carry on the business more extensively, I am convinced 
if she meets with real encouragement, she will be able to give satisfaction." 

Jan. 10, 1767, Inslee advertised for "one or two journeymen printers, 
who can work both at case and press, and are willing to go to the west- 
ward." Probably Inslee left about this time, for John Carter came from 
Benj. Franklin's office in Philadelphia in August, 1767, and on Sept. 19 
became a partner with Mrs. Goddard in the business. One year later 
[Nov. 12, 1768] the business came into possession of Carter and so 
remained until Feb. 19, 1814, except for the time between Nov. 2, 1793, 
and May 9, 1799, when William Wilkinson was Carter's partner. 

The changes in the imprint were frequent and now cause some con- 
fusion as to the exact place where the paper was printed. At first it 
read "opposite the Court House ;" then " near the Court House ;" now, 
at the " store of Judge Jenckes, near the Great Bridge, and published at 
his book shop, just above it, at the sign of Shakespeare's Head ;" again, 



<Joseph Knowles, John Miller , 
J81O-J874. Died 1848 




William Jone^ Mi-LLer, 
:Sl8 - J&86. 



George Whitm.a.n3>amelson . 
JS2-9 -~^ 



PROVIDENCE NEWSPAPERS BEFORE 1800 13 

" near the sign of the Golden Eagle, next door below Knight Dexter's, 
Esq.;" " at the sign of Shakespeare's Head, in the same building with 
the Post Office ;" " at the Printing Office near the Great Bridge ;" "de- 
livered either from the Post Office, near the Court House, or Printing 
Office near the Great Bridge ;" " both Post Office and Printing Office 
were removed to the house lately occupied by Mr. John Alpin, nearly 
opposite to Knight Dexter's, at the sign of the Golden Eagle ;" " at the 
sign of Shakespeare's Head, near the Court House, in King street ;" 
"the Printing and Post Offices are removed to Meeting street, nearly 
opposite the Friends Meeting House." [Now No. 21 Meeting street.] 

This last building was used when Carter came into possession. There 
were few houses in the town. A building might be opposite another 
and still be two or three streets away, or it might be next to another 
and half a dozen empty lots intervene. Only an acquaintance with the 
layout of the town could straighten the matter. 

With the establishment of a printing office came the necessity of 
having a paper mill. The industry was started in 1764, but the first 
evidence in the Gazette of its existence was an advertisement, June 7, 
1767, that John Waterman wanted an apprentice to learn paper making, 
at his mill on the Woonasquatucket, in the present Olneyville. Two 
years later Waterman added a printing press and types to his business 
at the paper mill. 

Isaiah Thomas says : " In 1769, he [Waterman] purchased the press 
and types which were for many years owned and used by Samuel 
Kneeland of Boston." Kneeland died that year. The name of [Ezekiel?] 
Russell was associated with Waterman in the printing office. Several 
small books were printed there, among them the "New England Primer," 
dated 1775, two copies of which are now in existence, "one in the Lenox 
Library, New York, and one in a private library in Hartford, Conn." 

Waterman died Feb. 7, 1777, and his successors at the paper mill 
abandoned the printing part of the business and devoted their energies 
to other lines, including the making and dyeing of cloth. 

When the materials used in the Gazette office needed replacing 
Carter ordered a new dress of types in England. Before it arrived the 
Revolutionary War had started, and when the type reached New York 
it was confiscated by the King's custom house authorities. Carter then 
purchased the printing materials at the paper mill. This sale occurred 
early in 1779. 

Solomon Southwick had published the Mercury in Newport up to 
the occupation of that town by the British. He then buried his types 
and press and sought safety in Providence. Here he found that the 
only way in which he could supply himself with materials for carrying 



14 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



on his business was through John Carter. He succeeded in inducing 
Carter to sell the press and part of the types that the latter had pur- 
chased from the Waterman heirs "at the cost price to himself with a 
verbal proviso" so Carter says, "that they should not be set up in the 
town, or used to oppose a friend in business who had served him in 
distress." 

Southwick at first started in business in Rehoboth, Mass., but 
secured one-half of the Rhode Island State printing and April 1, 1779, in 
company with Bennett Wheeler, began to publish The American 
Journal and General Advertiser, using the Updike house, next door 
to Carter's, for an office. There was much feeling displayed by Carter 
at Southwick's alleged treachery. The latter denied having made any 
such agreement as claimed by Carter. 

Southwick was connected with the Journal only until the December 
following, when it came into possession of Bennett Wheeler, who con- 
tinued it until Aug. 29, 1781. The last seven months it was issued as a 
semi-weekly, Wheeler printing two pages on Wednesday and two pages 
on Saturday. This was the first semi-weekly paper printed in the town. 
It was also the first paper to be printed on the west side of the river. 
The issue of Dec. 2, 1779, contained the following notice : 

" The printing office is removed from the house of Capt. John Updike to the store of 
Mr. Thomas Jones, next door but one to the sign of General Washington, on the west side 
of the Great Bridge." 

The Updike house was the one just west of No. 21 Meeting street, 
and is still standing. 

The Revolutionary War did not excite the newspapers very much, 
judging by the brief accounts of important events. The destruction of 
the Gaspee was described in 163 words, and from the beginning of the 
trouble to the end of the inquiry was referred to but five times by the 
editor of the Gazette. About a month after the end of the investigation 
an attempt was made to indict Mr. Carter for libel, the first of the kind 
in the town. The Gazette of July 3, 1773, tells the story as follows : 

" Last week, at the Inferior Court of Common Pleas for the County of Providence, a 
bill of indictment was preferred to the Grand Jury against the printer of this paper, for 
printing and publishing by request, not ' a false, scandalous and malicious libel,' but a 
well-known established truth, which cannot be disproved, viz: that J n C e, Esq., 
(a member of the committee of correspondence appointed by the General Assembly) had, 
' in a very flagrant manner, shamefully violated and betrayed the faith and confidence 
reposed in him by his country, in yielding obedience to a mandate from the commis- 
sioners of enquiry, and answering interrogatories before them on oath, thereby fully 
acknowledging their jurisdiction, and endeavoring to counteract the laudable design of 
the House in appointing the said committee' and that a motion had been made, at a 
meeting of the freemen for the town 'to instruct its Representatives, that in the next 
session of Assembly they use their influence to displace the said J n C e, Esq., from 
being a member of the committee of correspondence.' This very extraordinary attempt 
to destroy the liberty of the press became a matter of great expectation, and did not fail 
to alarm the Friends of Freedom; their apprehensions, however, soon subsided, the honest 
jury having returned the bill ignoramus." 



PROVIDENCE NEWSPAPERS BEFORE 1800 15 

The story of the battle of Lexington occupied nine inches in the 
Gazette with this significant statement from the editor: "Thus has 
commenced the American Civil War." 

Bunker Hill was told in six and one-half inches. The royal coat of 
arms was omitted from the heading of the Gazette May 11, 1776. 

The scarcity of material to make paper from was severely felt 
during the war. Blue tinted paper was sometimes used, and the size of 
the paper reduced one-half. March, 1777, an advertisement announced 
that " four coppers per pound will be given for fine linen and cotton 
rags, and two coppers for coarse, by John 0. Waterman, at the paper 
mills in Providence, and by the printer of the Gazette. A cart from 
the paper mills will go through the town of Providence once a month 
for the purpose of collecting rags." 

The price of the Gazette had risen from 7 to 42 shillings by June, 
1778, but the price was not changed in cases where payment was made 
in country produce. Aug. 31, 1779, the freemen of the town voted to 
fix the price of certain articles, including wages for printers and other 
tradesmen, at 20 per cent less than the prevailing rate. Notwith- 
standing this attempt the price of the Gazette rose to 6 per quarter in 
May, 1780, and in July of the same year $1 per pound was offered 
for rags. 

An extra was issued Oct. 25, 1781, containing the story of the 
capture of Lord Cornwallis, and on Nov. 8, 1781, another extra told of 
the surrender of York and Gloucester. 

When the Revolutionary War ended, the Gazette procured new 
printing materials. The first number issued in January, 1782, was 
printed from new types and with a new heading. Mr. Carter added 
bookselling to his business in 1783, importing directly from London. 

A supplement was issued Dec. 3, 1783, which contained a "scoop" 
of the whole newspaper press of the country. In these words the editor 
announced the important news : 

" By the brig Don Golvez, Capt. Silas Jones, arrived in the river from London, we 
have received a copy of the long looked-for Definitive Treaty, which we embrace the 
earliest occasion of handing to the public." 

This was the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United 
States that officially ended the war. 

On the 1st of January, 1784, a rival to the Gazette appeared. The 
United States Chronicle, Political, Commercial and Historical, was begun 
by Bennett Wheeler, in an office "on the west side of the river." The 
Chronicle lived a little more than 20 years, until May 24, 1804. It was 
moved five times. Its editor made the first attempt at reporting on 
record. He attended the Legislature during the session of 1788 and 
reported the proceedings for his paper. There is no evidence that he 



16 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



persisted in the business of reporting. His presence was probably more 
valuable in his printing office. 

The second building erected specially for a printing office was built 
for the Chronicle on land now occupied by the National Exchange Bank, 
corner Westminster and Exchange streets. The assessed valuation of 
the land was $1,100 and it was leased from Jacob Whitman, Jr., who 
then kept a store at the " Sign of the Turk's Head." Wheeler announced 
his purpose Jan. 28, 1796, as follows : 

" The subscriber having it in contemplation to erect a building, for the purpose of 
prosecuting the printing, book-binding and book-selling business, upon a more enlarged 
scale than heretofore, offers to receive of any of his customers or of any person indebted 
to him, ranging-timber, joists, boards, plank, shingles, laths, clapboards, nails, lime, brick, 
stone, or mason's and carpenter's work. Those who are indebted, and cannot supply any 
of the above articles, will please to furnish a little cash, which will also be wanted." 

The building was occupied by the Chronicle Sept. 28, 1796, 
Toward the end of its career the Chronicle became the organ of 
John Dorrance, an aggressive opponent of Gov. Arthur Fenner, and its 
course in that capacity provoked the General Assembly of the State to 
take action. At the October session in 1801, the following was adopted 
by that body : 

" Forasmuch as several publications have of late been made, in a certain newspaper, 
printed at Providence by Bennett Wheeler, called the United States Chronicle, slandering 
and defaming the Governor, Supreme Court, and other constituted authorities of this 
State, one of which publications was subscribed by John Dorrance : 

" Resolved, That, in the opinion of this General Assembly, the said publications tend 
to discredit this State abroad, and to disquiet the good people of the State, by weakening 
public confidence in the constituted authorities thereof. 

" Resolved, That, in the opinion of this General Assembly, his Excellency the Governor, 
the Supreme Court, and the other constituted authorities of this State, are well entitled to 
the public confidence, and have deserved well of their fellow citizens, by a faithful and 
meritorious execution of the trusts reposed in them by the people. 

" Voted, That the above resolutions be published, for three weeks successively, in all 
the newspapers printed in this State." 

On the whole Wheeler's conduct of his paper compared favorably 
with his contemporaries. There are few portraits in existence of the 
printers of those days. The following caricature from the Phoenix of 
Sept. 14, 1802, may convey some idea of Wheeler's personality : 

" I was, d'ye see ! a Gentleman, 

As neat and spruce as any: 

Betwixt th' 'Change and Billingsgate Bar, 

I caught the eye of many, 

With dress so tight, 

And head so white, 

Small shoes with pointed toe, 

I've oft surveyed myself and said, 

' Damme, I'm quite a beau.' 

When fresh from under Tonsor's hand, 

I strutted through the city, 

No cauliflower e'er could boast, 

A head so great and empty, 

With hat in hand, 

I'd often stand, 

My frizzled pate to show, 

And every "lass that saw me pass, 

Exclaimed, '0, what a Beau.' " 



PROVIDENCE NEWSPAPERS BEFORE 1800 17 

Mr. Carter of the Gazette was Postmaster of the town from July, 
1772, until June, 1792. In those days letters were sometimes delivered 
without payment of postage. After 18 years service, Mr. Carter gave 
notice that as "the Postmaster being obliged to settle his accounts 
quarterly with the General Post Office, and make payment on the very 
day a quarter becomes due, finds it particularly inconvenient to advance 
money for discharging the debts of others when he cannot collect his 
own," postage of letters in future must be paid on delivery. 

November, 1793, Mr. Carter formed a partnership with William 
Wilkinson who had succeeded him as Postmaster. Wilkinson was a 
bookseller. A building had been erected for the new firm, the first in 
the town for a printing office. This building was afterwards known as 
the "Old Coffee House." Canal street was then called North Water 
street and Market square Market street. The building was at the 
corner of North Water and Market streets. The Post Office was re- 
moved to the new building. Bookselling, bookbinding and printing 
were carried on by the firm of Carter & Wilkinson. 

The Gazette was enlarged Jan. 3, 1795, and column rules were used 
for the first time. Towards the end of December announcement was 
made that the Gazette would be issued semi-weekly, but the plan was 
abandoned. The partnership of Carter & Wilkinson expired May 9, 1799. 
The printing office was continued by Carter. 

The partnership did not end amicably, judging by the complaints 
of Carter in the Gazette. Letters and exchanges were missed. Isaiah 
Thomas, Deputy Postmaster at Worcester, wrote to Carter on April 26, 
1799, as follows : 

"It is a fact, that since 1793 I have addressed several letters to you (I think not less 
than three) and sent them by mail. In future, I will endeavor to write you by a private 
conveyance. But are letters to be stopped by Postmasters with impunity? " 

And Carter added to this in the Gazette, that " at a proper time and 
place the editor will be ready to testify on oath, that neither of the 
letters referred to in the above extract ever came to his hands ; and as 
the mails between Worcester and this town had never been robbed on 
the road, he has every reason to believe that his letters arrived safe at 
the Post Office in Providence." 

Two extracts from the Gazette referring to'the disagreements of 
the recent partners will show Carter's style when he intended to be 
satirical : 

" To be let, and entered on the 5th of July next (the present ground lease expiring on 
the 4th of that month.) The first floor of a large and commodious three-story building, 
40 -by 21 feet, in the center of the Town of Providence, originally erected in 1793 for the 
purpose of furnishing sentimental repasts ; but which, perhaps from a mutability peculiar 
to this strange world of ours, has been for some time transformed, as if by art magic, 
into a corn and meal store ! an ironmonger's shop ! a cotton factory ! &c. &c. &c. 



18 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



"Also to let, a large and commodious cellar, very handy for storing nail-rods bound, 
if not lettered iron in sheets oysters, open or shut cider beef pork, and such like 
miscellaneous and heterogeneous works, and raw materials. 

"One quarter's rent to be paid constantly in advance (a condition of the ground lease) 
that the proprietor of the building may save a little, in case the tenant should prove to be 
a professor of hocus pocus or legerdemain or should finesse, make over his property in 
trust, and prepare for washing to fouler stains, in the laver of an act provided for the 
relief only of honest men. An advance would also be proper from another consideration : 
Disputes might arise, in which case the tenant could propose submitting matters and 
things to referees, and require sixteen months to manufacture tragicomic accounts for 
their inspection and amusement ! 

" For terms, please to enquire on the second floor of said building, situated very near 
the east end of the 'Great and general' bridge, or (if not out of the way) at the NEW 
COTTON WORKS in Pawtucket. 

" Providence, June 28, A. D. 1800, 24th year of American Independence, and of the 
compass and square 5800." 

In January, 1802, the last reference to the trouble was made, as 
follows : 

"Book-keeping Improved. We learn that a celebrated accountant, who has long paid 
great attention to the subject, and made deep researches in the business of pounds, 
shillings and pence, is about to favor the world with the result of his labors, by publishing 
a method of book-keeping on a plan entirely new, which comprises some discoveries in 
that line highly interesting to every man of business, being an improvement on all other 
systems of bookkeeping. It proceeds neither by single nor double entry, but in a variety 
of cases requires no entry whatever. As for cash-book, sale-book, journal, invoice-book, 
and such like lumber, they are on this improved plan rendered totally unnecessary, 
whereby a very considerable saving will be made in bank-books, quills, ink, clerks' 
wages, &c. It is admirably adapted to co-partnership concerns, as after the dissolution of 
the firm, not more than seven years will be required to settle accounts between the 
co-partners. 

" The ingenious projector (William Swindle, Esq., Master of Arts, and Prof essor of 
Legerdemain) it is said, proposes not only securing the copy-right in the usual way, but 
intends also an application to Congress for a patent." 

The State Gazette and Town and Country Advertiser, a semi-weekly 
paper, was started Jan. 4, 1796, by Joseph Fry. It lived less than a year. 
Fry was a partner with Henry C. Southwick in a printing office in 
Albany, N. Y., in 1798. In 1813 he compiled and published the first 
Directory for that city. Southwick was a son of Solomon Southwick. 

John Carter, Jr., established the Providence Journal and Town and 
Country Advertiser, Jan. 3, 1799, issuing the paper on Wednesdays from 
"the new printing office, west side of the great bridge." The father 
was printing the Gazette on Saturdays and the son the Journal on 
Wednesdays, practically a semi-weekly. The Journal was a little larger 
than the other papers, and printed the laws of the United States, using 
one-half its space for this purpose. By separating the half sheets of 
the laws from the other half sheets of the paper, each subscriber 
received a complete copy of the laws of the United States in a form to 
be folded in a pamphlet unmixed with any other matter. This was by 
instruction of the Secretary of State. The Journal lived just three years. 

The Impartial Observer was issued by Benoni Williams in January, 
1801, from No. 3 Market House Chamber. There were few advertise- 
ments in the paper. The body type used was sometimes as large as 24 



PROVIDENCE NEWSPAPERS BEFORE 1800 19 

point. It was opposed to the Federalists. Oct. 10, 1801, Williams issued 
the following : 

" I want money ! and money I must have and money I will have, (if I can get it.) 
I must pay for paper I must have ink they must have wages and house rent they 
think. The party feds are so mad they will not suffer those who fear them to take the 
Impartial Observer. Four and six pence is easily paid. Therefore I shall expect that 
each one indebted for the paper will bring or send it to me without delay, and receive 
my thanks." 

The paper stopped March 6, 1802. 

Distributing newspapers has always been an important part of the 
business. Carriers were used in the town from the beginning. News- 
papers carried in the United States mails were by act of Congress, for 
establishing the Post-Office and Post-Roads, subjected to a postage of 
one cent each for any distance not exceeding 100 miles, and 1 1-2 cents 
for any greater distance. This law went into effect June 1, 1792. 
Printers were required to dry their papers and to wrap them in strong 
covers. All paper was subjected to a wetting in those days before 
being printed. 

The following advertisement of the post rider from Providence to 
Connecticut is taken from the Gazette of April 2, 1803 : 

"PAY THE POST, THAT HE MAY PAY THE PRINTER. 

"I who have been TWO YEARS at most 
(Strange as't may seem) a RIDING POST 
And worn my poor old DOBBIN'S shoes out 
With riding hard, to bring the news out, 
And made wry faces at the storm, 
While yet the news was moist and warm, 
That you might read, before the fire, 
Of battles fought, and sieges dire, 
What politician now is vext, 
Who's dead, and who is married next, 
And such like entertaining story, 
Which I have always laid before ye 
Solicit, my friends, the amount 
Of what is due ON OLD ACCOUNT. 

ALBE STONE." 

The price of the Gazette was raised to $2 per annum in May, 1805. 
In 1808 it claimed to have a circulation of 1300. The dollar sign ($) 
was first used in the paper May 20, 1809. The building erected for the 
paper and so long occupied by it was sold at auction Sept. 7, 1811, and 
on May 30, 1812, the imprint read " Removed to the building at the 
southeast corner of the Market House, directly opposite the street 
leading to Brown University." 

Feb. 19, 1814, the business came into possession of Hugh H. Brown 
and William H. Wilson. Both of the new owners had learned printing 
with Carter, who had conducted the business 45 years. He died on 
Aug. 20, 1815, and was buried in St. John's churchyard, on North Main 
street, where a monument, erected by his daughter, marks his grave. 



20 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Wilson was publisher of the Gazette for the week ending June 15, 
1816. The next week Brown was the publisher and continued in that 
relation until Jan. 3, 1820, when Walter R. Danforth, who had married 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Carter, became a partner and editor. A new 
hand press was added and also new types. The Gazette at last became 
a semi- weekly at $3 per annum. Danforth retired on the 1st of January, 
1825, and was succeeded by Albert G. Greene as editor, with Brown 
owner of the plant. The following October announcement was made 
of the union of the Gazette and American, and the issue of the 8th of 
that month was the last, within two weeks of 63 years after the first 
one was printed. Brown retained the book and job printing materials 
and conducted that portion of the business until his death in 1863. 
The Directory, started in 1824, was printed there; also the Rhode Island 
Register and occasionally the City Tax List. But it never progressed 
beyond the hand press stage. 

Alexander M. Robertson worked in the office getting out the Tax 
Book for 1857, and has furnished the following as his recollections of 
the man and the establishment : 

" Brown was a rather short, thickset man, who had grown exceedingly nervous in his long 
connection with the printing business. The office was in the attic story of an old building 
at the southwest corner of South Main and College streets. It was a dusty old place and 
its press facilities were limited to a hand press. There were no regular employes, Brown 
doing all the routine work himself. When the Tax List or Directory was to be printed 
special compositors were hired, and the press work was done at A. Crawford Greene's. 

"A story was often related about Brown going up to a press on which was being 
printed one of the forms, and exclaiming to the pressman : 

" ' Here, here, stop ! You are working my form without p'ints ! ' 

"In times gone by, both on hand presses and on the first Hoe book presses, 'points' 
were thought indispensable for getting a correct backing or register when the sheets were 
turned and run through the press a second time." 

At Brown's death in 1863 the materials went to the junk shop. 
Probably the original press brought here by Goddard in 1762 was in- 
cluded in the dump. 



[forth. ,,.} 

PROVIDENCE ^A|Bjr^ ; <3.AZETTEJ 
COUNTRY 



PROVIDENCE GAZETTE 

A N0 

COUNTRY JOURNAL: 

Captaining the frcftu:.ft ADVICES, Foreign and Domeftic. 



UNITED STATES 

CHRONICLE: 



Political, Commercial, and HiftoricaJ. 



AMERICAN 



THE MICROCOSH1 




DEMOCRATIC NEWSPAPERS 
IN PROVIDENCE 

The Providence Phoenix was begun May 11, 1802, to help the 
organization of the Democratic-Republican party, under the leader- 
ship of Thomas Jefferson, then President of the United States, and 
further the political interests of Hon. Theodore Foster, whose term as 
United States Senator from Rhode Island was about to expire. From 
its starting until the spring of 1873 that party was never without an 
organ in Providence. In the period from the beginning of the century 
until the Civil War the Democratic pa'rty was in control of the public 
patronage in Washington 48 years and the electoral votes of Rhode 
Island were cast for the candidates of that party five times. Of the 
Providence men who were financially interested in these Democratic 
papers, Bennett H. Wheeler and Welcome B. Sayles became Postmasters, 
Gideon Bradford, Collector of the Port, and William Jones Miller, Col- 
lector of the Ports of Warren and Bristol. 

The imprint on the first Phoenix read : " Printed by William W. 
Dunham for T. A. Foster and W. W. Dunham, at their printing office 
nearly opposite the Hon. Theodore Foster's house, Westminster street." 
The Theodore Foster residence stood at what is now the northeast 
corner of Westminster and Eddy streets, where the Journal Building is 
located. Theodore Foster was one of the first United States Senators 
from Rhode Island, serving from 1790 to 1803. 

The type used on the Phoenix was not new. Dunham was the 
practical printer of the concern. The price of the paper was $1.50 
per annum. 

In October the Phoenix was moved to Market square, and for the 
first five months of 1803 Samuel J. Williams was the printer. Then 
Dunham again took up the work and continued it until July, 1804, when 
William Olney bought the business. Olney purchased new type and 
enlarged the paper. One paragraph of his address to the patrons of the 
paper follows : 

"As his education or 'patriotism was not imbibed in the schools or the jails of England 
or Ireland,' nor learnt from British or Irish instructors, he professes not to be swayed by 
British, Irish or French politics; he will therefore endeavor to introduce into his paper, 
those principles and politics which shall be truly American." 

Olney raised the price of the paper to $2 per annum and made it 
the largest and best looking paper in the town, but death cut his career 
short on Jan. 10, 1807, at the age of 24. 



22 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Josiah Jones and Bennett H. Wheeler then became its publishers. 
In a few weeks the name was changed to The Phenix. The next 
January another change in name made it The Columbian Phenix and 
two years later the words " or Providence Patriot " were added. From 
Jan. 15, 1814, to the end of its existence, Dec. 29, 1832, it was known as 
Providence Patriot Columbian Phenix. It was issued semi- weekly from 
Jan. 2, 1819, until about six months before its end. During the year 
1819 Barzillai Cranston was in the firm with Jones & Wheeler. 

Under the editorial guidance of Wheeler the paper was fiercely 
aggressive, and so popular with the townspeople that in 1820 the 
Gazette made this complaint : 

" The Patriot has the largest circulation and their advertising patronage is the largest, 
notwithstanding it is a Democratic paper and the town is Federal." 

Imagine a paper of to-day making such an admission with regard 
to its business. 

Wheeler was appointed Postmaster in June, 1823. The next May, 
Eaton W. Maxcy, just out of his apprenticeship, acquired an interest, 
which he retained for one year. William Simons succeeded Maxcy in 
the partnership, retaining the connection about four years. He then 
went to the Republican Herald, which his son had purchased from John 
S. Greene. The Patriot languished after the departure of Simons. 
J. 0. Rockwell was its editor for the first five months of 1831. He died 
in June of that year. Josiah Jones retired at the end of 1832, and 
although Cornelius, his son, proposed to continue the paper, that was 
probably the end. 

The message of President Jefferson, delivered Oct. 27, 1807, reached 
Providence four days later, and was the occasion of an "extra" from 
the Phenix office. The last stage of the journey, from New York to 
Providence, was made by water. The first-class steamers of to-day 
make the passage in about 12 hours. Here is the time made on that 
occasion : 

" By the fast sailing packet Juno, Capt. Comstock, in the remarkably short passage of 
only 19 hours from New York, the editors of the Phenix were favored with a copy of the 
highly interesting State paper." 

The Republican Herald made its first appearance July 1, 1828, as a 
weekly. Its office was located at No. 7 North Main street and John S. 
Greene was its publisher. A year later William Simons, Jr., bought the 
paper and the elder Simons became its editor, retaining that position 
until his death, which occurred at Baltimore, Md., March 6, 1845, while 
returning from a visit to Richmond, Va. The son died three years later. 
Aaron Simons, another son, probably conducted the paper until it was 
united with the Weekly Post in 1853, although his name was not in 
the imprint. 



DEMOCRATIC NEWSPAPERS, IN PROVIDENCE 23 

The Herald was issued as a semi-weekly Jan. 7, 1832, and a man- 
power press was used in November, 1842. 

Col. Simons and his three sons, William, Aaron and Edward T., all 
printers, were a notable family. From the editorial room of the 
Herald the democracy of the State was dispensed. There met with the 
editor James Fenner, candidate for Governor 18 times and successful 13 
times, and his lieutenants, Dexter Randall and Jonas Titus, constituting 
the " Big Four." Nearly every issue of the Herald contained an attack 
on the opposition paper, generally of a witty turn, or an acknowledg- 
ment of some courtesy from it in the way of loaning matter or materials, 
which the Herald could not have obtained from any other source. 
Occasionally the Journal people would threaten to refuse such favors, 
but the point of absolute refusal never seems to have been reached. 

The suffrage issues of 1840-43 were handled gingerly by the Herald. 
To satisfy the Dorrites a weekly paper, the New Age, and a daily, the 
Express, came into existence. After the excitement was over, the 
Herald explained that it had the choice of silence or the destruction of 
its plant, and it chose the former alternative. 

When Dorr returned to Providence in 1843, he went to the residence 
of Col. Simons, then opposite the City Hotel, on Weybosset street, and 
was arrested there Nov. 1. 

The Providence Daily Gazette was started April 20, 1844, by Joseph 
M. Church, at 11 College street. The printing was done at the office of 
William Jones Miller. Its politics were neutral at the beginning, but it 
soon developed into a strong supporter of the Democratic party. The 
publication office was moved to the Granite building Nov. 16, 1844, and 
early in the following March a weekly paper was issued, The Demo- 
cratic Republican. At that time the daily claimed the largest circulation 
in the State and was an interesting evening paper. When ex-President 
Andrew Jackson died it took nine days to transmit the news of the 
event to Providence. Miller ceased to do the printing in June, 1845, 
and was succeeded by J. Howell Wilson. Publication was suspended 
Nov. 7, 1846. 

William Jones Miller, a practical printer, had been connected with 
the publication of the Dorrite Express in 1842-3 and the Daily Gazette 
in 1844-5. March 18, 1850, in company with Welcome B. Sayles, then 
Postmaster, he started the Providence Daily Post, at No. 15 Market 
square. Clement Webster was editor. The Weekly Post was issued 
from the same office. Webster's name disappeared from the editorial 
column in February, 1852. On the 1st of January, 1853, the Republican 
Herald and Weekly Post were consolidated and Aaron Simons was 
admitted to the partnership. For about a year from Nov. 6, 1854, 



24 PRINTERS AND .PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Edwin Metcalf s name was carried at the head of the editorial column. 
Sayles retired May 6, 1858, Gideon Bradford, Collector of the Port, 
buying his interest. In March, 1859, the columns were lengthened two 
inches, and in September, 1860, a column was added to each page. A 
new dress of type and a cylinder press enlarged the capacity of the 
office. But the outbreak of the Civil War the next year, and possibly 
the unpopularity of the politics of the Post, caused the paper to shrink 
to its old size on July 1, and early in January, 1862, the property passed 
to Alfred Anthony, who had some money to lose. Only Miller and 
Simons's names were signed to the transfer. The Post now resumed 
its largest size, but the increased cost of white paper caused a shrinkage 
again after an experience of one year and five months. Anthony 
continued its publisher until Sept. 7, 1866, when Albert S. Gallup, a 
cotton broker, tried his luck as publisher. After a six months expe- 
rience he offered the plant for sale to the Democratic politicians of the 
State, with the understanding that if it was not sold by May 1st, 1867, 
the newspapers would be discontinued. Thomas Steere had written 
the editorials for the Post since 1864. 

The politicians either had no money or no pressing use for the 
papers and they were stopped May 11. 

Albert A. Scott had been foreman of the composing room. In 
company with Noah D. Payne, a broker, he began the publication of 
The Morning Herald, May 20, 1867, using the equipment of the defunct 
Post. The paper was enlarged, and the weekly Herald was continued. 
Scott retired in September, 1868, going to New York, where he worked 
as a journeyman for years on the Sun. Payne continued the publication 
until the end, which came May 21, 1873. The A. & W. Sprague Co. had 
controlled the Herald, and the approaching troubles of that firm hastened 
the paper's collapse. In December, 1871, the editorial, composing and 
press roooms were removed to the Crabb building, junction Dyer and 
Peck streets. 

James A. Miller, George W. Danielson, Seabury S. Tompkins, Albert 
A. Scott, George W. Barry, Edward B. Rose and Edward A. Carter were 
at diffierent times foremen of the Post and Herald. 

Payne established a large job printing establishment after the 
demise of the Herald, now known as the Marion Printing Co. 

After the death of the Morning Herald in the spring of 1873, the 
city was without a Democratic paper until December, 1875. From the 
fifth of that month The Sun was issued weekly from No. 5 Washington 
row by Mann & Mellor, (Henry Mann and J. H. Mellor.) Mann had 
married a Rhode Island woman and had become interested in the State. 
He came from the New York Sun, at that time the leading Democratic 



DEMOCRATIC NEWSPAPERS IN PROVIDENCE 25 

paper of the country. A daily Sun was announced for Nov. 20, 1876. 
It was then thought by many that Samuel J. Tilden might be the 
next President of the United States. The Daily Sun did not survive 
the verdict of the Electoral Commission, which declared R. B. Hayes 
elected to the Presidency. Lester E. Ross was the publisher after 
Dec. 4, 1876. 

There was another break in the chain of Democratic papers from the 
demise of The Sun until June 14, 1879, when Albion N. Merchant, who 
had come from Vermont, began to publish The Rhode Island Democrat 
from the Brownell Building, 91 Westminster street. Merchant died 
suddenly on May 15, 1884, and the Democrat came into the possession 
of Schofield & Trumpler (John H. Schofield and Peter J. Trumpler.) 
Trumpler withdrew at the end of the year. Schofield remained with 
the paper until Sept. 27, 1889. Two years later Eldora J. Schofield sold 
it to the Rhode Islander Publishing Co., of which Benj. F. Evans was 
manager. The office had been removed four times since the death of 
Merchant. In March, 1892, Evans sold the paper to the proprietors of 
the Newport Herald, and it was removed to that city and became the 
weekly edition of the Herald. 

The Telegram was started as a Sunday paper in 1876 by Charles C. 
Corbett, who had been a policeman in this city and had made a success 
as a writer on the Sunday Dispatch. In 1879 an evening edition was 
added. A year later David 0. Black, who had successfully managed the 
Providence Opera House, became a partner of Corbett's. At this time 
the printing office was at 57 Weybosset street, next to the Arcade, and 
the business office at No. 1 Weybosset street. June 21, 1881, Black 
became sole proprietor. The following June the printing office was 
moved to 49 Peck street. September, 1884, it was again moved to corner 
Peck and Friendship streets. 

The size, politics and color of the Telegram about this time varied 
according to the demands of a policy that announced agreement with 
the popular will. Where now pages are added to the size of newspapers 
to meet the demands of news and advertisers; in 1883 columns were 
added in that office. Pink paper was often used instead of white. The 
Telegram's politics were undoubtedly independent. The labor sentiment 
of the State was at its height and the Telegram did much to aid its 
progress. The 1883 reorganization meeting of Providence Typographical 
Union was held in its composing room, and it had the first real printers' 
chapel in the city. 

The three years between 1886 and 1889, while F. A. Crandall was 
its editor, were marked. by an editorial influence unequalled in the 
paper's history, and an improved typographical appearance. Crandall 



26 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

came to this city from Buffalo, N. Y., where he had risen from the ranks 
of the compositors. 

After nine years control of the Telegram David 0. Black sold his 
interest to the Telegram Publishing Co., Sept. 29, 1889. The Telegram 
was to become a Democratic organ, and David F. Lingane took the 
helm, which he held until Feb. 13, 1906. The business office had been 
at 7 Weybosset street. April 21, 1892, the whole plant was installed in 
the Barton Block, the former home of the Journal. On that date the 
Telegram contained an historical sketch of its career. 

The plant was moved to the Francis building, 138-144 Westminster 
street, next west of the Arcade, on the evening of Saturday, Dec. 9, 
1899. The Weekly Telegram was begun Jan. 30, 1899 at 50 cents per 
annum. 

In February, 1906, Lingane sold the Telegram to a group of news- 
paper men from the Journal, who continued the name in connection 
with that of the Tribune for a while, but changed the politics of the 
paper to Republican. 

William H. Barbour, James H. Russell, Andrew F. Moran, Charles 
W. Oberton, Arthur C. Bierce, Charles M. Clark and Harry E. Gatrell 
were foremen of the Telegram before the change of management in 
February, 1906. 



RHODE ISLAND AMERICAN 

The American was started as a semi- weekly by Dunham & Hawkins 
(William W. Dunham and David Hawkins, Jr.,) Oct. 21, 1808, at the 
sign of the American Eagle, opposite the Market; $3 per annum. 

In May, 1812, Hawkins was sole publisher, and in October, 1813, it 
was published by Miller & Mann, (John Miller and William M. Mann.) 
Miller afterwards started the Journal, and Mann is believed to have 
made the first heading for the Journal. With this change in ownership 
the office was removed to the "Old Coffee House." In April, 1814, 
William G. Goddard, son of the original printer of the town, entered the 
partnership. Goddard edited the paper for ten years, and was well 
equipped for the work. Under his direction the American took high 
rank for excellence and character. In January, 1815, Miller withdrew, 
and from April, 1817, until July, 1819, Goddard was sole publisher. 
Then he took his foreman, James D. Knowles, into the firm. This 
arrangement lasted until October, 1820, when Goddard again became 
sole publisher and continued as such until he bade good-bye to his 
readers, Oct. 7, 1825. 

The American was then consolidated with the Gazette and published 
by Carlile & Brown (Francis Y. Carlile and H. H. Brown.) The office 
was removed, " together with Brown's job printing office, recently kept 
at No. 3 South Main street" to No. 4 Union buildings. About 18 months 
later the partnership was dissolved, Brown taking the job printing 
materials and Carlile the newspaper. B. F. Hallett, who had been 
editor of the Journal up to the day before, become editor of the American 
and Gazette April 3, 1827, and on Aug. 31, The Microcosm, which had 
been published by W. R. Danforth as a weekly since June 10, 1825, was 
purchased. It was to continue as a weekly, made up with the principal 
articles published in the American and Gazette. F. H. Manson bought 
an interest and became superintendent of the mechanical department. 

The circulation of the American and Gazette was said to be 1200, 
but the editor was candid enough to say, in reply to an article in the 
Journal, that "it is idle to boast about advertising patronage, where 
none of us but barely get a living with all our patronage." 

The Literary Cadet and Saturday Evening Bulletin was issued as a 
weekly on April 22, 1826, by Smith & Parmenter (S. J. Smith and John 



28 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

C. Parmenter) from 9 Market square at $2 per annum. One year later 
it was made a semi-weekly, and July 21, 1829, it was united with the 
American. Daniel Mowry, 3d., had become part owner with F. Y. Carlile 
of the united establishments and the name of the paper was changed to 
the Rhode Island American, Statesman and Providence Gazette. B. F. 
Hallett continued as editor, and the printing was done by F. Y. Carlile 
and J. C. Parmenter. 

Walter R. Danforth started a weekly paper, The Microcosm, June 
10, 1825, and continued it until Aug. 31, 1827, when he sold it to the 
proprietors of the American and Gazette. 

From this office the first daily newspaper printed in this city, the 
Providence Daily Advertiser, was issued July 20, 1829, one day before 
the Daily Journal appeared. The proprietor of the latter paper had not 
intended to start a daily at that time, but was forced into the enterprise 
by the appearance of the Advertiser. Carlile ceased to have any con- 
nection with the office the following November. B. H. Wheeler was 
removed from the office of Postmaster in July, 1831. About that time 
a partnership must have existed between B. H. Wheeler, Joseph Knowles 
and D. Mowry, 3d, as the following notice, signed by the three, was 
printed May 9, 1832: 

" The connection between B. H. Wheeler and Joseph Knowles, in the printing business 
and publication of the Daily Advertiser, and Chronicle and American, is dissolved and the 
establishments revert back and will be continued by Daniel Mowry, 3d, the said Wheeler 
having withdrawn under an arrangement with said Mowry and Knowles, satisfactory to 
the parties." 

Plans for deliberate suicide were perfected and announced in the 
following notice, Jan. 15, 1833 : 

" The patrons of the Daily Advertiser, and American and Gazette, are hereby informed 
that these papers will be discontinued on the 1st day of February, 1833. The patrons 
may enquire what are the reasons for this sudden change? The answer is, I have hinted 
that a Methodist clergyman is suspected of having committed an atrocious murder in 
Tiverton, in this State, and have displeased that church ; and these papers I intend shall 
give the whole history of that most foul transaction, without fear or favor, and the 
subscription list then, in my opinion, will be of no value. 

"The Microcosm and Weekly American not being concerned in the sin of exposing 
this foul murder, will be continued with unabated energy, and will be forwarded to all 
subscribers of the Rhode Island American after the first of February. 

" Whilst managing these papers, as a printer, I have endeavored to go by the rule I 
followed whilst tilling the ground that is, to deal justly in all business transactions, live 
soberly and work early and late. I have made no new debts since I have been a printer, 
that are unpaid, to my knowledge; if there are any, I am ready to settle them. The labor 
and paper I have always paid for weekly. I have, therefore, a clear conscience, a stout 
heart, and some money in my pocket. 

"DANIEL MOWRY, 3d." 

The name of the minister accused of the murder referred to was 
Avery. 

The Advertiser was discontinued, and the Microcosm, American and 
Gazette were continued as late as July 27, 1833, by James S. Ham & Co. 



V *!* *""^^^ -.fr v^ , ^^^, | *-; 




f .^^i%^l]-| 13 









THE PROVIDENCE JOURNAL 

A semi-weekly paper was issued from the printing office of Miller 
& Hutchens, in the " Old Coffee House," on Jan. 3, 1820. Its name was 
the Manufacturers and Farmers Journal and Providence and Pawtucket 
Advertiser. Miller had been concerned with the publication of The 
American in the years 1813-14, and had conducted a job office in the 
meantime. Hutchens was a bookseller. The new paper was intended 
to be neutral in politics, but to strongly advocate the protection of 
American industries. Among its backers were the leading manufac- 
turers of the State, including Samuel and John Slater, David Wilkinson, 
Timothy Green, Benjamin Aborn, George Jackson, Amasa and William 
H. Mason, James Burrill, William Anthony, Samuel Arnold, William 
Valentine, Richard Anthony, Joseph Harris, Richard Jackson, Nathan 
W. Jackson, William Sprague and his two sons, Amasa and William, 
and James, Christopher and William Rhodes. These names are men- 
tioned by William E. Richmond, the first editor of the Journal, in a 
letter written for the 50th anniversary number of that paper. Con- 
sidering the small sum of money required to supply such a plant as the 
Journal then needed and the deficiency in running expenses possible, 
when even the editor was not to receive a salary, it is conceivable that 
the cash support of these leading manufacturers of the State was not 
very extensive. In all the subsequent changes in ownership there is no 
evidence that any of them owned a dollar's worth of property in the 
enterprise. 

Mr. Richmond also describes in his letter the condition of the news- 
paper business at that time. He says : 

"There was no systematic and well-managed journalism. A printer and publisher, 
for the purpose of extending his business, put forth proposals and issued a subscription 
for a new paper. If the number of subscribers were, in his opinion, sufficient to pay the 
expense, he engaged a person to edit and supervise the paper. At that time literary labor of 
this description was so meanly compensated, that no lawyer, physician, or schoolmaster 
would undertake the business for merely the monetary remuneration. In the case of the 
first editor of the Journal, there was no demand or stipulation for pay. That person saw 
the necesssity of a sacrifice by some one for the advancement of great public interests, 
and he consented to a temporary supervision of the Journal.* * * It was almost exclusively 
in the night season that the Journal was edited, as a relaxation from the daily labors of 
another profession; and it was understood from the beginning, that so soon as the Journal 
could be considered as securely established, another editor should be procured. At the 
end of the first year the name of the editor was omitted from the imprint, in consequence 
of the increase of professional business, but he continued for several years thereafter an 
informal oversight of, and contribution to its columns, for which, and for all previous 
labors, he received the sum of $500." 



30 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



Deacon Robert M. Pearse was apprenticed to the printing firm of 
Miller & Hutchens in 1819, and set some of the type for the first number 
of the Journal. This is his story, somewhat abbreviated, printed in the 
Journal June 24, 1886: 

"The foreman of the office was Samuel Avery, a Boston printer. Four compositors 
were required to set the type for the Journal when it was first issued. The pay of a 
journeyman at that time was $8 per week. The hours of work were from sunrise to 
sunset, and as early as they could see to pick up the type in the winter, with a brief lay-off 
for supper, and then back to their cases or their presses until 9 o'clock, when the First 
Baptist bell would warn them that the time had come to quit. 

"The press used to print the Journal on was of the 'Ramage' pattern, with a platen 
of wood and a bed of stone, which required two pulls at the lever to each full impression ; 
or, rather, the form was run half way in, an impression pulled, then run clear in and an- 
other impression pulled, (very much the same sort of a press as was used by Franklin.) 
The lever worked a screw, there being no spring to lift up the platen after the impression, 
except what was given by some bookbinders 'scaleboards' placed in the top of the frame ; 
consequently the lever had to be pulled around and then literally pushed back. The ink 
was put on by the old-fashioned ink-balls, and 200 impressions per hour were considered 
fast work. Later a second press of the same make but of a larger size and with an iron 
bed, instead of one of stone, was used. In 1823 the office was moved into the Union 
building, and then an iron press was procured of the Wells make for printing the Journal, 
the first iron press in the city. About this time the ink-balls were laid aside for a large 
roller, made of blankets and covered with buckskin, which was laid on two smaller wooden 
rollers or cylinders, fixed in a frame behind the press and turned by a crank. The 
apprentice had the manipulation of the rollers, keeping the crank twirling that the ink 
might be evenly distributed, pushing the large roller over the form after each sheet was 
printed, and putting on ink in obedience to the orders of the pressman, who sang out 
'right!' 'left!' or 'centre!' as he wished more color on either of those places. 

"The cut for the heading of the Journal, which contained, besides the name, an eagle 
bearing in his beak the legend, 'Encourage National Industry,' and representations of 
farming tools and farm products, mechanical implements, an anchor, &c., was made in 
the office. The plate was cast by a workman named Mann [probably William M.] from 
old type, in a wooden mould, then planed down to the required height, and then engraved 
by an engraver named Morton. The paper went to press Sunday and Wednesday nights 
at or about midnight. The first edition was about 250 copies." 

Hutchens withdrew from the partnership Aug. 7, 1823, and the 
office was moved to the Union building on the west side of the bridge. 
It was again moved Nov. 29, 1824, to the Granite building, corner North 
Main street and Market square. Sept. 1, 1825, the Independent Inquirer 
was absorbed, and under the name of the Rhode Island Country Journal 
and Independent Inquirer was issued as a weekly until Oct. 8, 1897, 
when it was discontinued. Fire destroyed a large portion of the plant 
on March 30, 1827. 

No important change was made in the typographical appearance of 
the Journal during the first nine years of its existence. There had been 
a number of semi-weekly papers printed in the town. Three of them 
were consolidated and their manager then felt strong enough to venture 
a daily. The circumstances attending its publication and that of the 
starting of its rival, the Journal, are told in an editorial, probably written 
by Miller, and printed in the Journal at the time, as follows: 

"More than a year since we contemplated issuing a daily paper, but abandoned the 
project from the belief that it would much injure the semi-Weekly papers as to compel 
them also to come out daily. 



THE PROVIDENCE JOURNAL 31 



"At this time we have been compelled in our own defence to publish a daily Journal. 
Had not the union of the American and Statesman produced a daily paper, we should have 
willingly remained as we were. 

"On Friday last [July 17, 1829,] we called on the proprietors, publishers and editor 
of the American and Statesman with a view of ascertaining if it was their determination 
to issue a daily paper, and informed them if they did, we should be compelled to. From 
what the editor said, we concluded to issue a daily the next morning; but being informed 
subsequently by one of the publishers that they had not agreed to publish a daily paper, 
and that we should have seasonable notice if they did so agree, we changed our determi- 
nation, under the hope that we might not be driven to the measure. 

"On Monday morning [July 20, 1829,] after the Journal was out, we were informed 
that the American and Statesman was to come out a daily the next morning, and that the 
proprietors were then by themselves and their agents engaged procuring subscribers. 
We immediately determined, in self-defence, to publish the Journal daily, and gave notice 
accordingly to our friends and the public. Upon the receipt of our notice, which was 
long before the Daily Advertiser was put to press, it was determined to issue that paper 
on Monday [July 20] as in anticipation of Tuesday. This was, as we believe, in conse- 
quence of our notice and against their previous determination. 

"We find no fault with the publishers or editor of the Daily Advertiser, and publish 
this statement only to counteract the insinuation that the Daily Journal was got up to 
injure another establishment." 

Evidently Miller did not consider a daily newspaper necessary at 
that time, but the birth of the Daily Advertiser forced him to follow it 
one day later with the Daily Journal, and the increased expense prob- 
ably led to his forced withdrawal from the concern seven years later, 
and the loss of his entire interest in the newspapers and book and job 
business. 

On the first of May, 1833, the office was moved to College street 
and George Paine became a partner. Fourteen months later Knowles 
& Burroughs did the printing at their office, showing the loss of the 
plant from which the papers had been issued and the increasing financial 
difficulties of Miller ; and on Feb. 23, 1836, George W. Jackson became 
publisher. Dec. 18, 1837, Miller published a warning to the public not 
to purchase the property of the Journal, then in the possession of George 
W. Jackson, without the consent of John Miller, but one year later 
Jackson disposed of the entire plant to Knowles & Burroughs for $2500. 
An Adams press had been used to print the papers since 1836. Miller 
left the city not to return until his death in 1848. 

Both of the new owners were practical printers and of extensive 
experience. Up to that time the news from the South and West had 
been clipped from the New York papers and printed in the Journal 24 
hours after their arrival in Providence. W. H. Burroughs, son of 
William L. Burroughs, in a letter dated June 15, 1904, tells of an im- 
provement in news service that his father accomplished while connected 
with the Journal, as follows: 

"When interested as part owner in Journal, he had also a printing office at 113 Fulton 
street, New York, afterwards sold to Wynkoop, Hallenback & Thomas. I am informed 
that in the days before telegraphs, he set up one side of the Journal in New York and sent 
forms to Providence by Stonington boat. New York being a news centre, that side of the 
paper could be filled with news during the day and reach Providence in type as soon as 
the news itself could be received." 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

What was really done is slightly different. The type was set in 
New York city and put into the forms here, after its journey by boat 
and railroad. Burroughs continued with the paper seven months and 
then John W. Vose purchased his interest. Seventeen months later 
Henry B. Anthony bought a third interest, and the Journal secured a 
writer who was destined to guide it to popularity and financial success. 
It was further benefited by having a practical and economical printer 
like Knowles in control of the mechanical departments. This combi- 
nation of writer and mechanic gave the Journal an advantage that no 
other paper in Providence possessed, and possibly explains its success 
where so many other newspapers failed. 

The plan of bringing matter for the Journal from New York prob- 
ably ceased with the retirement of Burroughs. This paragraph, printed 
in the 250th anniversary number [June 24, 1886,] would indicate a 
different condition in the composing room after Senator Anthony became 
the head of the concern : 

"For many years the Journal went to press at about the hour when the work on a 
morning paper now begins; and there is a tradition that an old foreman [Joseph L. 
Burroughs] once complained to Gov. Anthony that the news was coming in so late that 
two or three men were obliged to work after supper." 

The telegraph service was utilized in 1848, just before the pres- 
idential election. Little attention was paid to local happenings, except 
matters that related to the government of the State and city until 1860. 
The policy of the paper in that respect is stated in the imprint, as follows : 

"No report, resolutions or proceedings of any corporation, society, association or 
public meeting, and no communication designed to call attention to any matter of limited 
or individual interest can be inserted, unless paid for as an advertisement." 

Reporters were not employed, except that the compositor who set 
the ship news also went along the river front and collected the local 
events of interest in that line of business, and scanned the exchanges 
for news of Providence vessels away from home. 

William Jones Miller was foreman of the composing room of the 
Journal for sometime previous to March, 1842, when he was succeeded 
by Joseph L. Burroughs. The other employes of the room in July, 
1845, were : D. B. Taylor, Marcus B. Young, Seth Simmons, Thomas M. 
Rounds, Samuel S. Wilson, William B. Maxfield, Jethro T. Briggs, 
apprentice. In the same year, the names of Jonathan P. Helme, W. 
Martin and John T. Tillinghast appear. Other journeymen who worked 
there were: George T. Arnold and Nathan M. Ormsbee (1846), J. W. 
Cory (1847), Alvin S. Arnold (1848), Albert N. Angell, Henry Phare 
and Stephen G. Holroyd (1849), E. Cheever, George Lafaye and Cyrille 
A. Carpenter (1850), T. Peterson, D. Doland and John Simmons (1851), 
G. W. Johnson (1852), J. F. Collins, R. Hughes and Orrin Scott Pond 



THE PROVIDENCE JOURNAL 33 

(1853), Edward B. Hall (1855), E. W. Guilford, B. A. Sweet, F. E. Kelly, 
D. S. Pearce, E. Sullivan, C. N. Caswell, George Whelden, Edward T. 
AngellandE. P. Hicks (1856), H. Leis, F. J. Connor, John P. Davis and 
James H. Elsbree (1857) , Volney Austin, Jeremiah N. Thomas and Peter 
H. Massie (1858). 

For 16 years after the death of John W. Vose, which occurred Nov. 
12, 1847, the business was conducted by Knowles & Anthony. When 
the transfer was made to that firm, the plant was valued at $16,000. 
The most important change during that time was made in the press room, 
where a Hoe single cylinder press, propelled by steam, was introduced 
in 1856. Gradually the greater portion of the work in the composing 
room had shifted from day to night, as the character of the news changed 
from newspaper clippings to dispatches and local reports. The junior 
partner was elected Governor of the State in 1849 and again in 1850. 
In May, 1858, he was elected to the United States Senate, where he 
served until his death, Sept. 2, 1884. 

Senator Anthony's duties in Washington precluded his giving the 
attention to the Journal that it now required. Newspapers everywhere 
were beginning careers made possible by the introduction of improve- 
ments in printing presses. Wider fields and more systematic manage- 
ment were necessities. James S. Ham filled Senator Anthony's place 
temporarily, but Prof. James B. Angell became the editor in 1860 and 
continued in that position until 1866. On his retirement, George W. 
Danielson, who had been admitted a partner Jan. 1, 1863, conducted the 
editorial department as well as the entire management of the paper 
until his death. 

In the same month that he entered the partnership, Danielson 
started the Evening Bulletin. His selection for membership in the firm 
was due to his practical experience, gained in the composing rooms of 
several newspapers and as partner in the publication of the Evening 
Press. His management of the Journal covered the period of develop- 
ment from a double cylinder press to the web perfecting press, with 
stereotyping machinery, and from the four-page to the eight-page size. 
The day that it was decided to increase the size of the Journal to eight 
pages, Mr. Danielson informed Foreman Rose that that would be the 
limit in their time, yet "Doc" has seen a forty-eight-page Sunday 
Journal. 

From the birth of the Journal in 1820 until Danielson's death in 
1884, except the two years when George W. Jackson owned the paper, 
there had always been a practical printer in the firm of publishers. 
Danielson was the last of these journeymen owners. 



34 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

What wages the journeymen printers received for their labor before 
1820 is not now known. Deacon Pearse, in his reminiscences, says that 
$8 per week was paid at that time. The hours of labor were from 
sunrise to sunset in summer, and from daylight until 9 p. m. in winter. 
Albert N. Angell says that 20 cents per 1000 ems was paid in 1839, when 
he started to serve his apprenticeship. The pay roll in the composing 
room of the Journal for one week in July, 1845, totalled $43.57. This 
sum was paid to a foreman, who received $10, five compositors and an 
apprentice. The largest sum paid to a compositor was $9.48. The 
apprentice received $2.25. Four years later the Journal pay roll had 
nearly doubled, amounting to $81.30. The largest "bill" that week was 
$13.76. Evidently there was no apprentice at work there then nor for 
many years after, as the smallest sum paid was $8.82. In 1851 the cost 
of the room for one week had risen to $103.86, the extremes paid to the 
compositors being $15.15 and $8.99. The journeyman receiving the 
larger sum had to average 12,625 ems per day for the six days, pretty 
fast work. A week in June, 1856, showed a still larger payroll ($110.55) 
and a larger sum for the fastest compositor $16.17; but the price per 
1000 ems had risen to 28 cents for night work. 

After the organization of Providence Typographical Union in 1857, 
an unsuccessful attempt was made to advance the scale to 30 cents for 
night work and 28 cents for day work. The payroll in the Journal 
composing room continued to increase, reaching $131.02 for a week in 
June, 1858, the largest "bill" amounting to $18.94 and the smallest 
to $9.37. 

The issuing of morning and evening editions from one plant caused 
important changes in the Journal composing room. Before the Bulletin 
was started the compositors distributed their cases in the afternoon, 
consuming about two hours in that work, and set type for two hours, 
when there was copy. The principal part of the composition was done 
between 7 P. M. and 4 A. M. At first the evening edition required but 
a small amount of new matter ; but later, when the paper became more 
important, it required the best efforts of every workman in the room to 
prepare its three daily editions. There was small limit then to the hours 
that a compositor might work. He could begin as early as 10 A. M. and 
keep busy until 4 o'clock the next morning. A small day force was 
maintained, but the great bulk of the work was done by the regular 
night force, who were supposed to be ready to " lift " copy not later 
than 1 P. M. and continue composition until 4 P. M., when the Bulletin 
went to press. Distribution then went on until 6 o'clock, when an hour 
was taken for dinner, after which, at 7 P. M., composition was begun 
again and continued until about 4 A. M., with an half hour out about 



THE PROVIDENCE JOURNAL 35 

11 P. M. for lunch. The average pay for this long day was about $4.50, 
but double that amount was often earned when a lucky compositor got 
a " jumbo," the name for a large advertisement. All the composition 
was paid for by the piece, and the " fat " went to each journeyman in 
rotation. 

Edgar Yates, a proofreader on the Boston Post, describes his entry 
into Providence and the Journal corriposing room in a letter to the 
Souvenir Committee, dated May 10, 1904. His experience was dupli- 
cated by many others who stopped in this town for a few days or a few 
years in the "hand-set " days. The letter follows : 

" I appeared in Providence in the latter part of the winter of 1881-2. I got in a couple 
of weeks in the Rhode Island Printing Company's office on Weybosset street, and then 
went across the street to E. A. Johnson's, where I stayed until Memorial Day of that year. 
Newspaper subs were scarce and I was asked to work one night on the Journal. I lived 
through it, and Ira Tew asked me why I didn't leave Johnson's and stick to the Journal. 
So, seeing that Doc Rose had written my name on the sub list, I concluded to stay, and 
with a slight intermission, when I went down East to teach school, I worked on the Journal 
until the spring of 1884. Of course, I got cases after a while, and was slug 9, in the 
centre alley to the left of the head of the old stairway. On my right was Leavitt, now of 
Washington, and on my left was Jim Williams, who I understand has since died. Other 
celebrated printers in the same alley were Ira Tew, John Dolan (now of the Boston 
American), Withee (slightly lame in one foot), 'Am' (whose name wasAmsden) and 
Press Willard, who both chewed tobacco, set type and swore with remarkable ease, skill 
and fluency. I won't try to give you a roster of the office, but it was certainly made up 
of the greatest gang of 'characters' that ever gathered under one low and stifling roof, 
from Bobby Brannan to Frank Eddy and Jim Muspratt. One of the Journal old-timers, 
Jack Rodgers, has been here with me on the Post until two or three weeks ago, when he 
left to go on the Globe, and he and I frequently used to swap reminiscences of the days on 
the 'D. 0. J.' and wish that we could put in a few nights there again on solid agate 
'just for fun." 

The introduction of linotype machines in 1889 revolutionized con- 
idtions in the composing room. Regular employes were encouraged to 
learn to operate them and the day scale was paid until the men became 
proficient. Twenty cents per 1000 ems was then paid. There was 
much difficulty in keeping the machines going, owing to the unfamil- 
iarity of the operators with the care of machinery. In most cases it 
was the journeyman's first acquaintance with machines of any kind. 
The average product of the machines was not more than 3500 per hour. 
It was believed by many that if the linotype could not do better work 
and more of it than those in the Journal composing room were turning 
out, nothing was to be feared from them. And as there was plenty of 
work in Boston, New York and other cities, many of the compositors 
left the city in preference to learning the linotype. While their judg- 
ment was correct and agreed with that of Mr. Mergenthaler, he had 
already almost completed another linotype which has finally overcome 
all criticism. 

The possibility to err in correcting was enormously increased by the 
introduction of the linotype. Not only could other and worse errors 



36 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

creep into the line that had to be reset for an error in the original one, 
but the new line could be misplaced in many exasperating ways. Old 
customs had to be forgotten in correcting and revising proofs. Italics 
and small caps went out of use until the double matrix was introduced. 

Soon after the introduction of the machines, it became apparent 
that a shorter work day was necessary for the operators. The force 
was arranged in two divisions, the day squad to begin at 9 A. M. and 
continue to 4 P. M., with half an hour intermission at 11.30 A. M. for 
lunch ; the night squad to begin at 7 P. M. and continue to "good night," 
with half an hour at 11 P. M. for lunch. This day has been still further 
shortened by taking one-half hour off the day side and one hour off the 
night side. A slight change has been made in the length of the day 
for the proofreaders, to bring their total time within 48 hours per week. 
The ad men are required to work eight hours per day or night. 

When the latest type of machine was introduced, the price of com- 
position was reduced to 13 cents per 1000 ems for night operators and 
11 cents for day operators. The increased speed of the new linotypes 
and their greater perfection made these prices more generous than 20 
cents had been on the old machines. 

To show the effect in the composing room caused by the machines, 
two weeks are selected, one in 1887, about 18 months before, and one 
in 1892, about 30 months after their introduction. At the latter date 
all work except displayed advertisements was done on the linotype. 

WEEK OF DEC. 24, 1887. 

1 James Muspratt 8 W. M. Leavitt 16 J. P. Farwell 

2 J. P. Bowes 9 A. L. Randall 17 E. S. Flanagin 

3 Alvah Withee 10 Ira N. Tew 18 A. E. Morrill 

4 C. P. Willard 11 M. S. Bouret 19 James E. McClintock 

5 A. P. Brown 12 F. W. Haven 20 J. C. Kuril 

6 Joseph Newton 13 John A. Kopp 21 E. T. Spencer 

7 J. P. Dolan 14 George H. Huston 22. F. F. Sorbie 
15 Charles E. Andrews 

The above were night regulars. The figures give the slug numbers. 
The average earnings of each journeyman was $21.93. Morning news- 
paper compositors rarely worked more than five days per week at that 
time, and, therefore, five is a better divisor than seven to get the 
average per day. 

27 J. J. Locklin 33 F. B. Amsden 42 M. E. Hughes 

28 A. M. Robertson 34 Gordon E. Shepard 43 W. Lewis 

29 James Williams 35 W. A. Newell 45 H. McCutchen 

311. C. Hargraves 36 E. T. Angell 46 H. W. Burns 

32 H. C. Barnes 40 Roscoe N. Lawton 48 R. E. Newton 

41-^J. L. Bicknell 

The above constituted the day force. Their average earnings 
were $16.76. 



Homes of the Providence Journal 




'WHIPPLE BUILDING 

College Street 
Journal, 1833-1844 




"WASHINGTON BUILDING" 

Journal, 1844-1871 
And Numerous Other Printing Firms 




"BARTON BLOCK" 

Journal and Bulletin, 1871-1889 

Evening Telegram, 1892-1899 




"FLETCHER BUILDING 

Journal and Bulletin 
1889-1905 



THE PROVIDENCE JOURNAL 37 



H. H. Boardman 
C. E. Burtwell 
L. W. Brow 
William Carroll 
P. J. Coogan 


J. F. Courtney 
John E. Hurley 
James J. Hay 
W. J. Jolley 
J. H. McCann 
John O'Meara 


John E. O'Connor 
C. H. Partridge 
William Palmer 
Edwin W. Smith 
Robert Grieve 



The above were the substitutes. Their average earnings were 
$14.30. A rotary sub list was in operation, causing a fairly equitable 
division of the subbing. 

Make-up and Bank Force E. B. Rose, night foreman ; John Robinson, Jr., Robert 
Qumn. John Milne, day foreman ; Charles W. Oberton, Charles H. Murray. 

Proofreaders and Copyholders A. J. Reach, Rudolph DeLeeuw, W. A. Potter, F. E 
Jones, T. F. O'Rourke, William A. Pratt. 

WEEK OF DEC. 24, 1892. 

Ad Men W. A. Newell, William J. Meegan, Gordon E. Shepard, John J. Locklin. 

Machine Operators Thomas W. Dalling, M. S. Bouret, William Warner, George H. 
Huston, John H. Sullivan, John J. Murphy, James Rafferty, H. F. Davis, I. C. Hargraves, 
L. W. Brow, A. P. Brown, J. P. Choquet, William Lewis, William Palmer, F. B. Amsden, 
J. H. Dwyer, Charles H. Hopkins, A. H. Choquet, F. J. Capron, S. J. Riley, M. J. McHugh, 
Joseph Dove, E. P. Walters, J. H. McCarthy, Joseph A. O'Brien, H. N. Burrett. 

Copy Cutters, Bank Men, etc. R. E. Newton, Roscoe N. Lawton, E. W. Smith 
Clarence E. Burtwell, E. T. Angell. 

Thirty-four journeymen average earnings $23.43. The average 
for all the journeymen in 1889 was $17.66. 

Apprentices William Curran, John O'Hara, William McManus, James Scanlon, 
P. E. McElroy, W. J. Lanigan, James A. Fitzgerald. 

The foreman was William Carroll, with John H. Milne, E. B. Rose 
and Charles H. Murray as day assistants, and Frank Havens and A. E. 
Morrill, night assistants. 

A week just before Christmas, twelve years later, shows an increased 
number of journeymen employed and better wages earned, although 
the latter is accounted for to some extent by overtime that was neces- 
sary because of the limited space in the composing room, which prevented 
the employment of a greater number of journeymen. 

WEEK OF DEC. 24, 1904. 

Ad Men John P. Keenan, Francis L. Reeney, Carl C. Robb, Daniel E. Mooney, 
Daniel O'Connor, William Donovan, William D. McKenzie, Eli Alford, Frank C. Howard, 
John J. Horton, William H. Doran, James P. Bowditch, John W. Mahoney, Thomas F. 
Bowen, I. A. Beals, H. C. Barnes, Edward A. Emery, D. Otis Evans, William J. Meegan, 
John J. Locklin, Charles E. McAndrews. 

Earnings for eight hours $21 for day and $24 for night. Overtime 
brought the average for each man to $30.54 for day and $28.05 for night. 

Machine Operators. Day Harry F. Davis, Alfred J. Rose, Joseph A. O'Brien, 
William Lewis, John H. Dwyer, Harry G. Glasby, Martin J. Crofwell, George H. Huston. 

Night Michael J. McHugh, John J. Dwyer, John H. Sullivan, Frederick J. Tully, 
John F. O'Hara, Joseph Crowley, E. A. Murphy, S.J. Riley, Charles Carroll, Hugh F.Dolan, 
Edward G. Warner. 

Composition on machines 11 cents for day, and 13 cents for night. 
Day operators averaged $29.63 ; night operators (including Warner and 
Dolan, substitutes,) $27.93. 



38 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Proofreaders and Copyholders Ira Tew, Rudolph De Leeuw, Thomas F. O'Rourke, 
Gordon E. Shepard, Edward C. Hoopes, I. C. Hargraves, William Scott, George Burroughs, 
John J. Murphy, John P. Lenahan. 

Wages for proofreaders, $21 for day, $24 for night ; copyholders 
$15 day or night. Their overtime was insignificant. 

William Carroll, foreman, with Robert E. Newton, A. E. Morrill and John P. Carroll, 
day assistants; Willis Tobie, copy cutter; Andrew F. Moran, night foreman, with Fred 
C. Hall, assistant ; Clarence E. Burtwell, copy cutter, and E. W. Smith, bank man. 

The machinists were John Burger, day, and Ernest Klausch, night. 

Apprentices F. G. Sullivan, John A. Powers, John J.Laffy, John F.Russell, Walter 
B. Davis, Cornelius C. Cusick, Joseph Harvey, Joseph Gerhard. 

Less than one year after the death of Senator Anthony, the Provi- 
dence Journal Company was incorporated. Richard S. Rowland was 
elected Manager and Treasurer and A. L. Williams, Editor. Under Mr. 
Rowland's direction the business acquired great development. The 
Journal expanded from eight pages to sixteen pages ; the Bulletin, from 
six pages to as high as thirty-six. The Sunday Journal was started in 
July, 1885, with the opposition of many of the regular readers of the 
Daily Journal on religious grounds. Its first size was ten pages. It has 
reached forty-eight pages. The Providence Journal Almanac has been 
issued annually since 1887. In the summer of 1903 the Block Island 
Wireless was issued daily on Block Island. Since 1902 the employes 
have enjoyed an outing annually on some summer day at the Warwick 
Club Grounds, and on that occasion in 1905, 1906 and 1907 the Providence 
Journal, Jr., has been issued. 

In June, 1905, a portion of the new building, corner Eddy and 
Westminster streets was occupied. Two new sextuple Hoe presses dis- 
placed the old ones. The pages of the newspapers were shortened 
and narrowed by taking off one column, and since Nov. 1, 1905, adver- 
tisements have been excluded from the first pages of all the papers 
issued by the Journal Company. In June, 1906, the entire new building 
was occupied. The composing room is one of the finest in the country. 

Mr. Rowland succeeded Mr. Williams as Editor in 1891. Since that 
date the following changes have occured in that position : October 1898, 
Frederick Roy Martin, Associate Editor ; July, 1904, David S. Barry, 
Editor-in-Chief ; February, 1905, Frederick H. Rowland, Manager ; Feb- 
ruary, 1906, Frederick Roy Martin, Editor and Treasurer. 



DORRITE- KNOWNOTHING 

The Dorrite movement was deficient in newspaper representation 
until the Rhode Island Suffrage Association started the New Age and 
Constitutional Advocate, a weekly paper. J. A. Brown managed it from 
the first issue [Nov. 20, 1840,] until the Providence Daily Express was 
added, just before the State election in the spring of 1842. Millard, 
Low & Miller then became the publishers of both papers. Owing to a 
" boycott " by the merchants, it was said, the Express suspended pub- 
lication during the summer. It had been issued as a morning paper, 
but when it was revived [Sept. 13, 1842,] it was as an evening paper. 
After the State election of 1843 both papers were stopped. The owners 
did not possess a printing plant, but hired the typesetting and press 
work, four printing offices at different times being concerned in the work. 

The Daily Evening Chronicle, began March 30, 1842, by J. M. 
Church, without any particular hobby, lived until Sept. 29, 1843. Israel 
Amsbury was a partner with Church for about nine months of the 
paper's existence. The Narragansett Chief was issued as a weekly. 

In January, 1844, Amsbury published the Daily Transcript and 
Chronicle and also the Weekly Transcript. Evidently he thought Church 
had made a mistake in the width of the columns, for he crowded six 
columns in the same sized page in which Church had found room for 
only four. The following October, Joseph S. Pitman became editor and 
partner, and eight months later proprietor. Green & Shaw acquired the 
papers in July, 1847, and changed the name to The Daily Evening 
Transcript. The next July A. Crawford Greene became sole proprietor, 
and in September, at the opening of the presidential campaign, the 
words "and Free Soil Advocate" were added to the name, and carried 
until May, 1849, when they were dropped. For the year 1857, John F. 
Greene was a partner with A. C. Greene, his brother. March 8, 1858, 
the Transcript was absorbed by the Tribune. 

The Providence Daily Tribune was started June 13, 1853, by Greene, 
Amsbury & Co., with Clement Webster and Benj. Colby as editors. The 
following editorial announcement, printed Jan. 1, 1856, indicates that it 
was the organ of the Know Knothing party : 

"Still do we believe intemperance a great social and moral evil, to be uprooted by the 
combined power of moral suasion and legal prohibition. And still can we see no reason 
why we should lay aside our armor and remit our opposition to popery, that other curse, 
though assuming the hallowed name of religion ; and against it, therefore, shall we war 
with all the weapons committed to us, to battle its errors and resist its encroachments." 

Benj. Colby & Co. were its publishers at this time. Oct. 10, 1857, 
J. Flagg Carr & Co. acquired control of the paper and when the Tran- 
script was absorbed the name was changed to the Providence Daily 
Tribune and Transcript. It probably suspended in December, 1858. 



THE MORNING MIRROR 

In the spring of 1849 Messrs. Rowe & Co. who kept the only news- 
paper store in Providence at that time, and were also dealers in teas and 
coffees at No. 24 Market square, commenced the publication of The 
Morning Mirror, and continued to publish the paper until the fall of 
1854. The first location of the office was in the upper story of the 
Granite Building, corner of Market square and North Main street. The 
press work was done in the office of A. Crawford Greene, who ran a job 
office in the same building. The Mirror office was afterwards moved to 
a new brick building, corner Exchange place and McNeil lane. Several 
months later fire destroyed the entire establishment. When new mate- 
rial was obtained, the office was located in the basement of the Franklin 
House on College street. The store and office were connected in the rear. 
All the printers "ran" with the Water Witch Engine Company, No. 6, 
then located on Benefit street, where the Court House now is ; and when 
an alarm of fire was announced by the bell of the Second Baptist Church, 
then located on the present site of the Masonic Temple, the entire force 
on the paper, foreman, compositors, pressman and the man who turned 
the wheel, went out through the doors and windows, "bent" on the 
"tail-rope" of the engine, as she came down College Hill, and away to 
the fire. The business of the office was suspended until the fire was 
out, when the printers returned to their duties at the office. 

Philip A. Marks was the first and only foreman employed on the 
Mirror. He was an Englishman, very short in stature, and always 
wore a silk high-crowned hat. Among the compositors were George 
Cranston, AmosB. Cranston (Mouse), Nelson Boyle, Franklin A. Chase 
(Crumles), Billy Barbour and Scott Pond. In 1853 there turned up in 
the office, Ben C. Truman, who had run away from a Shaker village in 
New Hampshire. He entered as an apprentice and remained 20 months. 
He received the name of "Shaker." His subsequent career was a most 
distinguished one and will be found in another portion of this book. 

Capt. George H. Pettis says: 

" I joined the force in August, 1849, and remained on the paper until I went to 
California, in May, 1854, excepting when I would be laid off for a day or two every month 
for scrapping with the foreman, when I would be sent for and would resume work again. 
As I came here from Cohoes Falls, New York State, I received the cognomen of "Cohoesey," 
which name has remained with me to this day. When the office removed to Exchange 
place a second-hand Hoe large cylinder press was installed in the office and Ned Angell 
was employed as pressman. John Neafi, an Irishman, whose office name was "John Mickey," 
was employed to turn the wheel. This was the first Hoe press used in this State. Among 
the Editors of the Mirror I can recall the names of Clement C. Webster, "John of York" 
Colby and a lawyer by the name of Dave Parmenter." 




PRESS AND STAR 

After several failures in attempting to publish a daily newspaper in 
this city George W. Danielson succeeded with the Evening Press. He 
was foreman of the composing room of the Daily Post in 1858, and 
witnessed the end of the Daily Tribune in December of that year, 
leaving Providence without an evening paper. Probably Danielson 
then began to prepare for his next newspaper venture, as in the follow- 
ing spring [March 14, 1859,] the Evening Press was launched, in time 
for the closing events of the State election. Albert R. Cooke was his 
partner. The Press was immediately successful. When it was one year 
old it was enlarged and became "the largest newspaper in the State." 
It was the first evening paper to issue more than one edition regularly; 
and on April 13, 1861, when Fort Sumter had been fired on, it issued a 
"postscript," the first in the city. 

At the beginning of 1861 it announced the following improvement : 

"Wilcox's Double Cylinder Air Engine, a Rhode Island contrivance, which, within its 
sphere, eclipses anything known to us. By its means we are enabled to print one sheet 
on our Hoe cylinder press at the rate of upwards of 1800 impressions per hour, at the same 
time it also runs in our job printing department three other presses, an Adams, a Gordon 
and a Ruggles." 

Stephen Wilcox, Jr., of Westerly, R. I., was the inventor. A double 
cylinder Hoe printing press was added in October of 1861, the first used 
in the city. Danielson retired in October, 1862. The circulation was 
claimed to be above 9000 per day at that time. The Civil War was in 
progress and there was a large demand for newspapers. But it must 
have taken the double cylinder at least three hours to print one side of 
the paper. In the presidential campaingn of 1864, from August until 
the end of the year, the Press was issued both as a morning and evening 
paper. Cooke, Jackson & Co. were its publishers after the retirement 
of Danielson until March 28, 1864, when Hiram H. Thomas & Co. 
acquired control. At the end of October, 1865, " The Providence Press 
Co." was organized to conduct the paper, and Rev. Sidney Dean became 
its editor. In October, 1869, Dean was forced out to try George 
Seilheimer, who retired at the end of three months, after improving the 
paper very much but probably increasing the cost in a corresponding 
ratio. During this management the Morning Star was started [Dec. 6, 
1869]. Dean again assumed control and there was no further change 
in management for about ten years. When the hard times of 1873 
came, the price of the Press was reduced to three cents and that of the 
Star was raised to two cents. Between this time and 1880 Dean had a 
hard struggle to maintain the papers, but by good management and 
strict economy succeeded. In October of 1880 a number of rich men in 
the State acquired the controlling interest in the company and brought 
Z. L. White, Washington correspondent of the New York Tribune, to 



42 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

this city to become editor-in-chief. New type was purchased, a large 
amount of money was expended for news, etc., and in 1882 a Scott 
perfecting press was installed, together with a stereotyping plant. The 
political policy of the paper was also changed in a manner to repel some 
large advertising patrons. The morning after the assassination of 
President Garfield, a Sunday edition of the Star was begun. This was 
for a time a financial success. But the continual loss of money by the 
other papers caused the moneyed men to drop off, and in September, 
1884, the newspapers came into possession of White, the Press Co. 
retaining the book and job departments. This portion was finally 
acquired by Snow & Farnham, who have successfully conducted the 
business and are now located in the Hanley building on Washington 
street. 

White discontinued the Press immediately and started the Evening 
News the next day, Oct. 1, 1884. The latter paper lived until the 
following March. 

The Evening Item was started in the summer of 1886 and continued 
until Nov. 22 of the same year, when the ownership passed to Edmund 
S. Hopkins, who had been interested in the business for some time. 
The Star and Item were " consolidated " under the title of The Provi- 
dence Star, which was issued as an evening paper. The pages of the Item 
were arranged to open like those of a law brief. The entire business was 
discontinued March 6, 1887. The political odor of the Star had become 
so bad that it was not considered safe to continue the paper through the 
State election, which was only a month off. A campaign paper called 
the Republican was printed for a few weeks and then the establishment 
was broken up and dispersed. That year the Democrats won the 
governorship, their first State victory since 1860. 

Isaac Whiting, Robert P. Boss, Henry A. Barnes and George E. 
Cooley were among the foremen of the Evening Press; Edward A. 
Carter, Charles E. Burchfield, A. P. Brown, William Carroll and Herbert 
A. Darling were foremen of the Morning Star. 

Table of wages and cost of Morning Star composing room for week 
ending Dec. 25, 1886 : 

No. of men Highest Lowest Average 

Dec. 19 Saturday 9 $3.89 $2.34 $3.13 

Dec. 20 Sunday 14 6.52 3.24 4.10 

Dec. 21 Monday 8 3.16 2.34 2.66 

Dec. 22 Tuesday .... 9 4.57 2.05 2.88 

Dec. 23 Wednesday . . 8 3.42 2.41 3.00 

Dec. 24 Thursday .... 8 3.27 2.41 2.86 

Dec. 25 Friday 8 3.89 2.73 3.25 

For the week 4.10 2.50 3.12 

For seven days each man averaged. $21.84. Cost of labor in room 
$341.10. Price of composition 36 cents per 1000 ems. 



. THE PROVIDENCE NEWS 

In 1888 the Journal ceased to be the organ of the Republican party 
of Rhode Island by formal announcement in a convention of that party. 
The elections in the five years following were hard fought and the need 
of a newspaper organ was felt. John L. Heaton, who had acquired 
newspaper experience in New York city, assisted by his wife, Mrs. Eliza 
P. Heaton, attempted in September, 1891, to fill the want by establishing 
the Providence News. The publication office was at 10 Pine street and 
the business office at 7 Weybosset street. A. J. McConnell was foreman 
of the composing room, which was strictly union. The paper was 
enlarged in February, and the Republican State convention [March 15, 
1892] endorsed it as the "official organ of the Republican party of Rhode 
Island." The Weekly News [12 pages, $1 per year] was started June 
24, 1892. In October the plant was removed to 24 and 25 South Water 
street and about this time the paper passed out of the hands of Mr. 
Heaton. D. Russell Brown became interested in its publication. In a 
few months the union force in the composing room was discharged and 
a non-union force substituted. July 15, 1897, the News by announcement 
became a " newspaper, not a party organ," after Messrs. R. W. Bryant, 
Charles W. Bacon and Stephen A. Hopkins had purchased the controlling 
interest, and the trio became publisher, editor and business manager 
respectively. This arrangement lasted until Sept. 22, 1897. On the 
latter date J. W. Watson became publisher and manager and Charles H. 
Rowland editor. M. C. Day, G. F. Mackinnon and C. H. Rowland had 
left the Journal and attempted to make the News successful. Their 
efforts failed and at the end of their contract Torrey E. Wardener came 
from Boston [Sept. 28, 1900] and made a sensational splurge which 
ended in a libel suit. On the 1st of July, 1902, the plant was moved to 
corner Washington and Mathewson streets. Here the first newspaper 
color press used in the State was installed. Mr. Brown continued owner 
until May 10, 1906, when he sold to Messrs. Trumpler and Dillenback, 
who changed the name to the News-Democrat and also changed the 
paper's politics to the support of the Democratic party. The News- 
Democrat is the only newspaper in Providence that uses the label of 
the Allied Printing Trades Council, and it also prints a daily depart- 
ment devoted to the doings of the local labor organizations. A. J. 
McConnell, C. M. Clark, Fred A. Manson, I. A. Beals, Albert Ridge, 
George B. Sullivan and William Simmons have been foremen of the 
composing room. 



THE EVENING RECORD 

The date of the first issue of The Evening Record is unknown to 
even those now living of the small coterie who were its sponsors. It is 
certain that it existed for more than a year as a daily paper, during 
which time its place of publication was changed three times, not in- 
cluding the location of its first office, 54 North Main street. Each change 
of base was made not for the better but of necessity. From North Main 
street the plant was moved to the loft of a low brick building then 
standing at the corner of Exchange street and Exchange place, now 
covered by the Industrial Trust Co. building. Only because of the 
demolition of this building did the Record seek new quarters. Of the 
tenants of this old block, the Record was the last to move. The removal 
of the roof, sides and front of the building did not hasten the Record to 
vacate, and not until only a shelving of floor remained, the stairway to 
which had been removed, did the proprietors of the publication seek 
another location. Its third home was the street floor of a dilapidated 
building on Friendship street. While at this place the Record secured, 
by award of the committee on city printing, that part of the city 
advertising which had formerly been given to the Telegram. This 
seemingly good fortune on the part of the Record might have been of 
material assistance to its publishers had not an attachment been placed 
in the hands of the City Treasurer covering the amount of money due 
from that source. This incident did not interfere with the regular 
publication of the paper, however. 

Perhaps the Record would not so soon have left the Friendship 
street quarters for others on Eddy street but for the reason that two 
brawny men, armed with monkey-wrenches, walked into the office one 
afternoon and proceeded to disjoint the press, an undertaking in which 
they were eminently successful in a very short space of time. The press 
itself was a unique specimen of that class of machinery single-cylinder, 
two-revolution, equipped with folder and jogger or something like that. 
The "make" is unknown; pictures of it cannot now be found even in 
catalogues. 

For a while a few days the forms were carried by express to a 
printer on Eddy street and there the edition was run off. There was 
lots of room in this Eddy street office and the Record soon occupied 
space therein. Moving was easy on this, the last shift, an electric 
motor, lost in the Exchange place building, and the press, removed from 
the Friendship street headquarters, constituting the heaviest items in 
the Record's original plant. 



THE EVENING RECORD 45 



Everything in connection with the Record's publication was now 
being done on a cash basis. The man who furnished the paper had to 
have his money before he left his bundle; the expressman with the 
"plate matter" presented a c. o. d., and even the printer, with whom 
the publishers had practically cast their lot, demanded his hire before 
beginning to print Notwithstanding these and many other drawbacks, 
the Record lived on and would have undoubtedly lingered longer but 
for this exacting printer meeting with the same hard luck as the Record 
in having his press taken away one day by two brawny, but different men. 

That event and the demise of the Record occurred the same day, 
no effort being made to find another home. 

The Evening Record's title was changed several times, perhaps as 
often as the location of its business. Starting as the Record-Herald, 
change was made because of objection by parties claiming right to the 
title of Herald. World-Record was chosen as a fitting substitute, only 
to be met with a like grievance by another party who claimed the World 
as personal property. The Evening Record, whether or not its third 
distinguishing title, served as the name under which the paper was 
printed for a year or more. 

During the mayoralty campaign of 1891, the Telegram, the demo- 
cratic party organ, betrayed its faith, and it was for the purpose of 
rebuking its owner, its editor and those democrats who had compassed 
the defeat of the regular nominee of the democratic convention that the 
Evening Record was started. That purpose was never lost sight of and 
all who were regarded as responsible for the party's defeat of that year 
were mercilessly scored by the Record up to its dying day Aug. 4, 1892. 



THE TRIBUNE 

The first number of The Evening Tribune was issued on Monday, 
March 12, 1906. A month before this, the plant, franchises and good 
will of the Providence Telegram Publishing Company had been pur- 
chased by a company of active newspaper men of the city, consisting 
of Matthew S. Dwyer, Frederick H. Rowland, Frederic N. Luther, 
Timothy F. Dwyer, DanielJ. Dwyer, Albert C. Rider, John J. Rosenfeld, 
Edmund E. Eastman, Charles R. Thurston, Frank E. Jones, Horace G. 
Belcher and Thatcher T. Thurston, all of whom had been connected 
with the Providence Journal for periods of from twelve to thirty-four 
years. 

Associating with them a large number of others who had worked 
with them in their former positions reporters, foremen of mechanical 
departments, compositors, stereotypers, pressmen and clerks they under- 
took to test their belief that there was room in the field for a penny paper 
differing in appearance and in quality from any previously offered in 
the city, at the same time furnishing what in the present has come to 
be the rare example of a newspaper owned and controlled by those who 
make it. 

The paper they put out was an entirely new one in every respect, 
in no way like that which it superseded, but it at once found popular 
favor in substantial degree with both readers and advertisers. The 
circulation of the superseded paper at the time of its purchase was 
17,000. With the eighth issue of The Evening Tribune the management 
announced that there had been obtained a permanent minimum circu- 
lation of 27,500, and the advertising patronage required the use of 
sixteen eight-column pages. From that time on growth has been steady 
until now the average circulation is over 32,000 and on the heaviest 
advertising days it has been necessary to issue twenty-two pages, which 
make, it is claimed, the largest newspaper sold anywhere for one cent. 

The Sunday Tribune was issued in connection with The Evening 
Tribune from the first, its more distinctive feature, perhaps, being the 
supplementing of its main sections, for the first time by any Providence 
paper, with a large and handsomely illustrated magazine section in the 
modern tabloid form. 

Satisfied with the experiment and encouraged by the degree of 
material success attained, the management issued on July 4, 1906, the 
first number of The. Morning Tribune, also a penny paper, giving 
Providence, for the first time in many years, a second morning paper. 



THE TRIBUNE 47 



This experiment also proved justified. Starting with nothing, the 
morning issue obtained a circulation that since the first day has not 
fallen below 9,000 and is at present over 11,000. 

For the first two months and a half, The Morning Tribune's tel- 
egraphic news was obtained from the Publishers' Press Association, 
supplemented by the special service of the New York Herald. But at 
the quarterly meeting of the Board of Directors of the Associated Press, 
Sept. 20, 1906, it was unanimously elected to full membership in that 
Association. The management then announced that with a full com- 
plement of regular issues Morning, Evening and Sunday with a 
complete equipment of news service for each, it would thenceforth devote 
itself to making its publication a recognized and firmly established 
Rhode Island institution. 

Immediately after the purchase of the Telegram plant, the mechan- 
ical equipment was improved by the addition of considerable new 
machinery, a modern photo-engraving department was established, ad- 
ditional space was taken in the building for the accommodation of the 
editorial and reportorial staffs and the general facilities for getting out 
the paper were liberally increased. Later, at the beginning of 1907, 
the business office was doubled in extent, entirely refurnished, and pro- 
vided with special conveniences for patrons and the general public. 

At the conclusion of its first year, March 12, 1907, The Tribune 
editorially said of itself: "Its material success has surpassed the highest 
expectations of its management and makes, it is believed, a new record 
in New England journalism." 



THE LABOR PRESS 

An attempt to establish a labor paper in Providence was made by 
the Rhode Island Co-operative Printing and Publishing Co., of which 
E. C. Pierce was President and Robert Grieve Secretary-Treasurer. 
Shares were sold at $5 each and a large number were disposed of in 
small lots. The weekly paper that was issued by the company was 
named The People. The first number appeared Saturday, Dec. 5, 1885. 
Robert Grieve was editor, George Farnell reporter, Joseph C. Barker 
foreman and Henry Burrett apprentice. It almost immediately secured 
a wide circulation and was enlarged twice, in February and again in 
April, 1886. The financial results were not satisfactory, however, and 
in June, 1887, a reduction in size was made and Holmes W. Merton 
became publisher and John Francis Smith editor. Aug. 27, 1887, one 
column was added to each page. From Oct. 15, 1887, to May 19, 1888, 
Harry C. Vrooman edited The People. The paper suspended May 26, 1888. 

The Providence Labor Tribune was issued from No. 5 Washington 
Row from Sept. 3, 1886, to Aug. 27, 1887, by F. E. Corbett, but was made 
up almost entirely of plate matter and had little influence. 

Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, began the publication of 
a daily, The Evening Call, Tuesday, April 20, 1889, at 64 North Main 
street. The Call was "set up and produced by the printers who until 
last Saturday [April 27] were in the employ of * * * the Telegram, and 
were then locked out * * * because they would not forfeit their honor 
and continue to work with non-union men headed by a person who was 
a member of the Typographical Union and betrayed his comrades in 
that body by organizing a gang of non-unionists to fill the places of the 
Union men." Frank E. Jones was editor for a time. 

The trouble in the Telegram composing room was caused by a new 
scale of prices which went into effect the previous February [25th]. 
It had been agreed to and signed by the Telegram's manager, but in a 
few weeks he was dissatisfied at the increased expense. After an inter- 
view with the Executive Committee of the Union the scale was modified 
to suit his views at a meeting of the Union. The revised scale went 
into effect April 1 and was signed by the Telegram's manager and the 
President of the Union. Notwithstanding this apparent settlement 
preparations were made by the Telegram management to fight the 
Union, with the result that the entire force of 37 men refused to work 
with the non-unionists that had been gathered and quit the office 
April 27. 



THE LABOR PRESS 49 



The Call was issued to take advertising business away from the 
Telegram and to rally the working people of the State to the support of 
the printers. Pawtucket Cigarmakers, No. 94; Iron Moulders, No. 41 
and No. 9; Tailors, Masons and Carpenters Unions of Providence almost 
immediately passed resolutions condemning the Telegram. When the 
matter came before the Central Labor Union the Telegram manager 
asked for a hearing and was present at the meeting of May 26, but 
declined to make a statement on the ground that a number of printers 
present were not regular delegates. He asked for a committee of con- 
ference, but expressed a wish that no printers be placed upon it. The 
labor sentiment was against the Telegram, but it was not as potent a 
factor as in the days of Knights of Labor supremacy. 

The Call continued to prosper and was enlarged on May 27 and the 
publication office was changed to the third floor of Billings Block, No. 21 
Eddy street. 

The non-unionists in the Telegram office formed a branch of the 
P. P. F.'s, known as Rhode Island Printer's Protective Fraternity, No. 29. 
At the meeting on May 5, Charles W. Oberton was elected President. 
At that time there were about 400 members of that organization in the 
United States, and they had attempted to "rat" Kansas City, Mo., 
Milwaukee, Wis., Jacksonville, Fla., Indianapolis, Ind., Louisville, Ky., 
and the New York Tribune. The Telegram management attempted to 
convince the labor people of the State that the P. P. F.'s were a rival 
labor organization to the International Union, and advertised as follows : 

"Wanted, a few good compositors. Union men preferred." 

It was well known that members of the International Union could 
not work in the office with the P. P. F.'s. 

The Central Labor Union adopted resolutions against the Telegram 
June 24, and on the same date its manager notified the officers of the 
Union, manager of the Call, and members of the Executive Committee 
of the Union, of his intention to prosecute. President Randall was 
arrested June 26 for libel ; damages placed at $5000. 

Francis F. Sorbie, Joseph D. Hall, Jr., and Financial Secretary George 
E. Boomer were arrested June 27 ; John W. Clarkson, James P. Bowes, 
P. J. Coogan and J. J. Nolan on June 29, damages fixed at $1000 in each 
case. A warrant was out against James Moore, but was not served 
until July 19. All were promptly bailed. 

Announcement was made on July 14 that the Call was being printed 
on its new Scott press. 

At a meeting between a delegation from Iron Moulders Union, 
No. 41, and the Telegram manager, the latter agreed to put his former 



50 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

foreman, James H. Russell, in full charge of the Telegram composing 
room on July 17, but backed out later. 

George W. Wilson was arrested July 19; damages $5000. Textile 
Workers Union, No. 16, of Olneyville, denounced the Telegram on 
July 22; Pa wtucket Typographical Union, No. 212, folio wed July 30; and 
Woonsocket Typographical Union took action Aug. 2. A large number 
of full sheet posters, giving the resolutions adopted by the R. I. Central 
Trades Union, were put up throughout the State by unknown persons. 
The day before the annual convention of the Knights of Labor, the 
Telegram manager held a conference with Russell, officers of No. 33 and 
leaders of the Knights of Labor, at which it was again agreed that 
Russell should become foreman of the Telegram on the following Mon- 
day. The Knights of Labor took no action at their convention on 
Saturday in consequence, but the alleged agreement was not carried 
out. The obstacle in the way of a settlement was believed to be a 
$3000 forfeit, that had been put up in New York before the lockout by 
the Telegram manager, to guarantee his contract with the National 
Protective Fraternity of New York, in order to secure non-union help 
for his composing room. 

President Plank of the I. T. U. came to Providence Aug. 13, to 
endeavor to aid Providence Union, but nothing tangible resulted. The 
Telegram was sold to Joseph Banigan and others, Sept. 29, and the 
contract with the non-unionists was inherited. Many of the Telegram 
compositors had left town, linotypes had been introduced into the Journal 
composing room, causing many changes in that office, and plate matter 
began to appear in increasing quantities in the Call, indicating that the 
fight was practically over as far as the Union was concerned, although 
nominally the paper continued to appear in its name for some time 
afterwards. It had made a very creditable record. The International 
Union had furnished financial assistance. 

Justice was started Sept. 2, 1893, "by the Central Labor Union, for 
and in the Interests of the Toilers." At first it was directed by "The 
Committee." Publication ceased from Dec. 23, 1893, to April 7, 1894. 
George E. Boomer revived it on the latter date and continued it until 
Nov. 30, 1895, when final suspension took place. 






LIST OF DAILY NEWSPAPERS 

The list of daily newspapers that have had an existence in Provi- 
dence is a long one; the survivors number but five. The Daily Adver- 
tiser heads the list. It preceded the issue of the Daily Journal one day. 
In fact, its appearance forced the publishers of the Journal to start 
before they considered a daily necessary. Following is the list: 

Daily Advertiser ( 1829 ). Evening Telegraph ( 1858 ). 

Daily Journal ( 1829 ). Evening Press ( 1859 ). 

Free Press ( 1830 ). Evening Bulletin ( 1863 ). 

Daily American ( 1831). Morning Herald ( 1868). 

Public Ledger ( 1831 ). Morning Star ( 1869 ). 

Daily City Gazette (1833). Evening Chronicle (1874). 

Commercial Advertiser (1834). Daily Sun (1876). 

Evening Star ( 1834 ). Evening Times ( 1877 ). 

Daily News ( 1834 ). Evening Telegram ( 1880 ). 

Morning Courier ( 1836). The Mail ( 1884). 

Daily Express ( 1842). Evening News ( 1884). 

Evening Chronicle ( 1842 ). Evening Item ( 1886). 

Daily Gazette (1844). Providence Star (1886). 

Transcript and Chronicle ( 1844 ). Evening Dispatch ( 1886 ). 

Daily Sentinel (1846). Daily Republican (1887). 

Daily Star ( 1849). Daily Dispatch ( 1887). 

Morning Mirror (1849). Evening Call (1889). 

Daily Post ( 1850 ). The Providence News ( 1891 ). 

Daily Tribune ( 1853 ). Evening Record ( 1891 ). 

The Plaindealer ( 1855). The News-Democrat ( 1906). 

American Citizen (1855). Evening Tribune (1906). 
Morning Tribune (1906). 

Of the journeymen printers who have been concerned in the 
management of these daily newspapers, Joseph Knowles, William Jones 
Miller, Clement Webster, George W. Danielson, George 0. Willard and 
Peter J. Trumpler have met with the greatest success. Knowles was 
identified with many printing partnerships, and must have been a keen 
business man ; Miller was an ardent Dorrite and acquired journalistic 
experience while publishing the Daily Express and Daily Gazette. 
Afterwards he was influential in establishing the Daily Post. Webster 
was a clever writer, and Danielson, after some failures, began the pub- 
lication of the Evening Press and later the Evening Bulletin, two most 
successful newspapers. Willard, after many years' successful work on 
the Evening Press, went to Pawtucket, and in partnership with George 
E. Cooley, started the Evening Times in that city. Trumpler's ability 
was displayed in securing advertising business for the Evening Tel- 
egram, and later in the same line for the Pawtucket Times, and as 
business manager of The News-Democrat. 



SUNDAY NEWSPAPERS 

The first Sunday newspaper published in Providence was started in 
1874. Its name was The Sunday Dispatch. Edwin D. White was its 
manager and the printing office was located at 57 Weybosset street. 
The size was four pages, and there were few special features. Saturday 
night's news was covered practically as the daily papers covered the 
news of the other six days of the week. Preston D. Jones bought the 
Dispatch in 1875, and the printing was done by the firm of Reynolds, 
Mackinnon & Trumpler, at 5 Washington row, where the Providence 
Journal office had been. In 1879 P. D. & E. D. Jones were the owners 
of the Dispatch and the office was located at 18 Custom House street. 
In 1880 P. D. Jones became sole owner and the location was at 81 Dyer 
street. P. D. Jones died Oct. 31, 1884, and soon after Trumpler & Abell 
acquired the property and printed the paper at 30 Eddy street. In 1886 
W. B. W. Hallett was owner and the publication office was at No. 7 
Union street. In September of that year The Evening Dispatch was 
issued as a two cent daily, by Orville Remington and C. C. Corbett. It 
was stopped Feb. 5, 1887. Corbett was then the publisher. Three days 
afterwards the Providence Daily Dispatch was issued as a morning 
paper from the same plant. Later the business office was moved to 54 
Westminster street and the composing and press rooms to their former 
location on Washington row. An Evening Dispatch was soon substituted 
for the morning paper. While at this location in 1889, there was a strike 
of the compositors, and the union force was replaced by non-unionists 
under the foremanship of Cohick, who had acquired notoriety a few 
years before in the lockout on the Boston Post. 

Lewis Burtnett, now editor of the Greensboro (N. C.) Labor News, 
was among the strikers. He relates the following incident that came 
under his notice when employed on the Despatch : 

"While the Dispatch was living, under the management of 'Charlie' Corbett, and 
after he had made a stock company of it, one of the stockholders, a woolen mill man from 
the Pawtuxet Valley, made a kick because the payroll was so large, and asked Corbett 
why it was that the ads. could not be set on time instead of by the piece. Corbett, who 
had been raising a rumpus for a long time about this very same thing, told the wool man 
that he had been trying to have the ads. set on time, 'but' he added, 'the damn church 
or chapel, as they call it out there in the composing room, won't allow it.' That was 
before ' Charlie ' turned evangelist." 

The life of the evening paper went out May 13, 1889. E. A. Corbett 
was issuing a Sunday Dispatch in 1894 at 174 Weybosset street. 

Other Sunday papers not connected with dailies were: Sunday 
Gazette (1878), Sunday Morning Transcript (1879-85), Sunday World 
(1886-92), Sunday Courier (1887-90), Sunday News (1889), Sunday 
Republican (1889-91), Sunday Times (1890). 




FIFTY-YEAR HISTORY OF 
PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 

1857-1907 

When it was first decided to attempt a history of printing in Provi- 
dence it was thought that, so far as the "Union" was identified with the 
story, all would be plain sailing. Several years previous to the beginning 
of this work the Union had, through the efforts of one of its officers, 
fortunately recovered two lost volumes containing the records of the 
first seventeen years of its existence. 

It was then thought that the date of the formation of the first 
association of Providence printers was identical with that of Typo- 
graphical Union No. 33, but the committee, in its quest for material 
other than that pertaining to the Union, discovered evidence of the 
existence of an earlier society. 

In the Providence directory for 1854 is printed a list of officers of 
the Providence Printers' Union, as follows: George W. Danielson, 
President; Nathan Hall, Vice-President ; Israel Amsbury, Secretary; 
Albert N. Angell, Treasurer. This Union met every Saturday evening 
at 24 Westminster street. 

The object of this Union, when it was formed and when it ceased 
to exist, cannot be determined by available data, but it is believed its 
purposes were of a social nature and unlike those actuating the organ- 
ization of trades unions. 

Evidence that Providence Typographical Union was formed in 1856 
is offered by the records of Boston Union for that year in the following 
resolution adopted by No. 13 at its August meeting: 

"WHEREAS, This society has learned that 'Little Rhody' is awake and that a 'Union ' 
has been established at Providence, 

"RESOLVED, That this Union tenders the right hand of fellowship to the printers of 
Providence, and promises them our hearty co-operation in carrying on the good work of 
forming and establishing a society which may prove honorable to themselves and of 
permanent importance to the craft. 

"RESOLVED, That experience having proved that organization is necessary not only to 
ensure a fair remuneration for labor, but to establish a regular system in offices, and 
elevate the character of the profession, which has too long suffered from the incursions 
of 'rat-dom,' this society 'trusts in Providence' that printers in other cities and towns 
will speedily organize, confident that the benefits arising therefrom would be speedily 
felt and appreciated." 

The resolutions were presented by Mr. McCoubray and were 
adopted unanimously. 



54 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

This is substantiated by the first volume of Providence records, 
referred to above, the title of which reads: 

RECORD 

of the 

PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, No. 33 
Instituted June, 1856 

But it is also evident that the Union was not formally organized 
until 1857. Permanent officers were not elected under the adopted con- 
stitution and by-laws until April, 1857, and application for charter from 
the National Union was not made until August of that year. 

That the charter was not received during 1857 appears to have been 
no fault of Providence Union. Repeated inquiries brought no response 
from National headquarters until March, 1858, when information was 
received that the " charter would be forwarded as soon as practicable." 

It is plain, then, that Providence Union could not have obtained its 
number from the National Union previous to making application for 
the charter, although the Union might have been assigned the number 
previous to the forwarding of the parchment itself. 

Therefore, as " Providence Typographical Union, No. 33," and as a 
recognized subordinate body to the now International Typographical 
Union, 1857 must be regarded as the birthyear of our organization. 
Facts do not justify the selection of an earlier date, notwithstanding 
they do certify an earlier association. 

Still, whatever may have been the status of the Union during the 
year 1856, it is only justice to admit that the enrolled membership of 
that organization was the rock upon which the present Union built. 
The following is, we believe, a complete list of the members previous 
to April, 1857: 

Stephen B. Potter George Whelden. Jeremiah N. Thomas. 

Amos B. Cranston. George H. Cranston. Charles J. Hicks. 

Nelson Boyle. E. A. Willcox. Alexander P. Niger. 

Francis E. Kelly. Robert A. Pierce. Albert A. Scott. 

Henry R. Sawyer. Ashton H. Gardiner. Martin S. Budlong. 

Jabez Lord. William H. Barbour. Peter H. Massie. 
George T. Arnold. 

In the book of records labeled Vol. I, the first recorded meeting is 
under date of April 11, 1857. At this meeting a committee previously 
appointed reported that " they had interviewed almost all the journey- 
men in the city and but three had refused to sign the scale." The 
report was received and the committee continued. 

Officers were then elected to serve until June, thereafter to be 
elected semi-annually, according to the Constitution. 

The committee On "Scale " submitted the following circular, which 
was adopted and ordered presented to all employers on Monday, April 13 : 






HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 55 



CIRCULAR. 

At a meeting of the Providence Typographical Union, held on Saturday evening, 
April 11, 1857, the following Resolution was unanimously adopted : 

RESOLVED, That on and after Monday, April 20, 1857, we will demand the remuner- 
ation for our labor specified in our Scale of Prices, adopted on the 4th inst., and that we 
hereby pledge our names and our professional honor to prove true to the stand we 
have taken. 

SCALE OF PRICES. 

DAILY (MORNING) PAPERS. Compensation per week, 10 hours to 

Composition per 1000 ems ... $ 0.30 constitute a day's work .... $10.00 

Compensation per week, 10 hours to BOOK AND JOB. 

constitute a day's work . 12.00 ^ 

Composition per 1000 ems .... 0.28 

EVENING PAPERS. Compensation per week, 10 hours to 

Composition per 1000 ems .... 0.28 constitute a day's work .... 10.00 
Compensation per week, 10 hours to PRESSMEN. 

constitute a day's work . 10.00 ^ 

Compensation per week, 10 hours to 

WEEKLY AND SEMI-WEEKY. constitute a day's work .... 10.00 

Composition per 1000 ems .... 0.28 

Several " sticksf ul " of argument why the advance should be granted 
follow the " scale," and attention is called to the unenviable situation of 
the morning newspaper hand in these words: "One evening in the 
week is all that is allowed him to spend in the company of his wife and 
children ; the ' sound of the church-going bell ' calls him not to the sanc- 
tuary, but to the ' case,' to commence one more week of enervating toil." 

At the meeting held one week later April 18 reports were received 
from the several offices. Mr. A. B. Cranston, from the office of the Daily 
Tribune, reported that the publishers would pay the advance ; J. A. 
Ward, from the Tribune job office, reported that the proprietors would 
pay the prices demanded ; Wm. H. Barbour, from Mr. Young's office, 
reported favorably ; Mr. Whelden, from the Journal office, said that the 
proprietors desired to compromise the matter, agreeing to pay 28 cents 
instead of 30 cents per 1000 ems ; Mr. Gordon, from the Post, reported 
that the Post management suggested a willingness to pay 28 cents 
instead of 30 cents ; E. B. Hall, from Mr. Tillinghast's job office, re- 
ported favorably. 

After considerable discussion the "scale" was amended so as to read 
"28 cents" instead of "30 cents." 

The inquiry committee returned a favorable report upon the names 
of ten applicants, and the gentlemen were duly elected to membership. 

No other meetings of the Union were held during April, but on 
May 2, a special meeting was called, presumably for the purpose of 
taking action on a letter received from Boston Union, but before that 
document was presented an anxious individual was on his feet with a 
question for information. Mr. Whelden, in reply to the question, stated 
that everything was satisfactory at the Journal office. 



56 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



"BOSTON, APRIL 2, 1857. 
"To THE PRESIDENT OF THE PROVIDENCE PRINTERS UNION: 

DEAR SIR I take the liberty to inform you, and through you the journeymen 
Printers of Providence, that the Printers of Boston deeply sympathize with you in your 
determination for an advance of wages; and I believe I express the wishes of the whole 
society of which I have the honor to be President when I say we are with you heart and 
soul. We have already issued handbills and will do all in our power to sustain you in the 
glorious cause. 

"Hoping to hear from you soon, and that you have succeeded in gaining the advance 
asked for, 

"I remain, 

"Yours respectfully, 

"H. W. HARRINGTON." 

The President and Secretary were appointed a committee to answer 
the above, which they did by offering the following resolutions : 

"RESOLVED, That we tender our heartfelt thanks to the Boston Printers' Union for 
the generous sympathy transmitted to us through their President, and trust that by 
proving true to ourselves we may in a measure cancel the obligations we feel towards 
them, and at the same time give assurance to our brother Printers throughout our common 
country that while we labor for our personal advantage we are not unmindful that all 
honest means employed for an increased compensation, and a strict adherence to those 
principles laid down for good and intelligent workmen, will prove a blessing to the craft, 
and give tone and dignity to the trade, which its merits deserve. 

"RESOLVED, That we shall always remember with pride the interest felt in our 
behalf by those gentlemen, members of the Boston Union, who so generously visited us, 
and by their counsel and advice made us understand what we before believed, that we 
had friends abroad upon whom we could rely in time of need. 

" RESOLVED, That the above resolutions be signed by the President and Secretary, 
and transmitted to the Boston Printers' Union." 

Adopted. 

Mr. Ormsbee moved that a committee be appointed, one from each 
office, to report the state of trade in their respective offices. The motion 
was carried and the President appointed the following: 

Alexander P. Niger A. C. Greene's Job Office. 

Stephen B. Potter Post Job Office. 

John B. Ingraham H. Brown's Office. 

Edward Hall Tillinghast's Job Office. 

George Whelden Journal Office. 

Henry R. Sawyer Transcript Office. 

James A. Ward Tribune Job Office. 

Nathan Hall Mr. Young's Job Office. 

Amos B. Cranston Daily Tribune Office. 

W. A. Leonard The Schoolmaster Office. 

At the next meeting the above gentlemen reported that all things 
were lovely in their respective offices, with these exceptions: At the 
Journal office the pressmen were not receiving the advanced wage, and 
in the office of Mr. Young one employe was working under price. 

Mr. Ormsbee inquired what action was to be taken with members 
who were known to be working for less than the Union scale.. The 
query developed an animated discussion during which the pressmen 
were hustled about and finally dropped overboard by the adoption of 
the following resolution : 






HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 57 



"RESOLVED, That our Scale of Prices be so altered and amended as to expunge the 
remuneration of pressmen from it, and that one month's time be given them and any 
others who may have objections to bring the same forward." 

At the meeting held June 20, 1857, officers were again elected, and 
from this time on elections were held semi-annually, in December and 
June, until 1864, when the tenure of office was changed to one year, 
and elections held annually in December. 

July 10, 1857, Mr. Sawyer was directed to call upon the late secre- 
tary and obtain the books in his possession belonging to the Union. 
(This must refer to the secretary serving previous to April, 1857, as the 
same secretary elected at the April meeting was re-elected in June.) 

At the August meeting, the secretary was instructed to take im- 
mediate measures to procure a charter from the National Typographical 
Union, and he was also authorized to draw upon the treasury to pay for 
the same. 

The first charges of unfair conduct to be preferred against a mem- 
ber were offered at a special meeting held August 15, 1857. The secre- 
tary was directed to notify the member that further action would be 
taken at the next meeting, and to invite him to be present and defend 
himself as provided by the constitution. 

William Madigan, of Boston, then addressed the Union at length 
upon the duties and responsibilities of the members and the prospects 
before them, and was followed by William Graham of the same city in 
a neat and forcible speech. 

The following resolutions were then presented and adopted: 

"RESOLVED, That the thanks of this Union be, and they are hereby tendered to 
Messrs. William Madigan and William Graham of the Boston Printers' Union for the 
interest manifested in our behalf, in visiting us on the present occasion and the encour- 
agement offered in their words of counsel and advice. 

"RESOLVED, That the thanks of this Union be, and hereby are, further extended to 
the members of the Boston Printers' Union for the many acts of kindness and sympathy 
heretofore transmitted to us, and we assure them we shall always remember them with 
gratitude, and refer to their organization with feelings of the greatest pride, and hope to 
conduct ourselves so as always to merit their approval." 

The resignation of the secretary, William A. Leonard, was accepted 
at the September meeting, and resolutions were passed thanking him 
for his services and wishing him success in his travels. 



NOTE. William Madigan was a vigorous type of the Union man and one of whom 
any profession or craft might be proud. Among the first to lend his services in the 
formation of Boston Union, he never tired in his efforts to maintain and upbuild that 
organization. So, too, at the call to arms, he was among the first to enlist in defence of 
the Union his country. May, 1861, Boston Union presented him with a sword, suitably 
inscribed, he having, been appointed Captain of Company C, Ninth Regiment, M. V. M. 
Word was received July 12, 1862,, by Boston Union, that Capt. Madigan had been killed 
while leading his Company in a battle before Richmond. June, 1863, Col. Guiney of 
the Ninth Massachusetts notified Boston Union of the finding of Capt. Madigan's "Union 
sword," and at the July meeting of the Union the sword was presented to Capt. Madigan's 
father. 

William Graham was also one of the Boston Union pioneers. He deposited a Boston 
card with Providence Union and worked for a while in this city. 



58 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



September 18, 1857, the following resolution was passed: 

"RESOLVED, That our organization, not yet being a subordinate division of the 
National Typographical Union, finds it utterly impossible to enforce and maintain the 
principles for which it was formed. 

"RESOLVED, That we consider it one of our first duties to use every means in our 
power to procure a charter from that body, and to the furtherance of that object it is 
therefore further 

"RESOLVED, That the corresponding secretary of this Union be, and hereby is 
ordered to open a correspondence with the corresponding secretary of the National Union 
in regard to obtaining a charter and travelling cards. 

"RESOLVED, That the correspondence be commenced without delay. 

"RESOLVED, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to the secretary of the 
National Union." 

At the October meeting the secretary stated that, in relation to the 
charter, no answer had been received from the secretary of the National 
Union. At the November meeting, however, a letter from Baton Rouge, 
dated Oct. 2, 1857, was received and read. 

A communication from Dubuque Union, designating as a "rat" an 
ex-member of that Union, was read at the October meeting, and the 
name and title is heavily underlined in the records. The "gentleman" 
is distinguished as being the first recorded " rodent " on our books. 

Immediately following appears the name of one of our own towns- 
men, with a similar appellation, the title being conferred at the same 
meeting. 

A special meeting was called November 28, 1857, to consider matters 
in relation to "Subs " and "Subbing," and it was voted that a committee 
be appointed, one from each office, to attend to the wants of the "Subs." 

The standing committee reported that a certain member was 
working for $6 per week. The accused, being present, and unable 
to give satisfactory reasons for his conduct, was dishonorably dis- 
charged. 

January 9, 1858, a committee was appointed to take into consider- 
ation the subject of "State Printing" and take such action as they 
deemed advisable. At the February meeting the committee reported 
that it was inexpedient to take any action at present. Committee 
discharged. 

The necessity and propriety of a charter was again discussed at the 
February meeting, and the corresponding secretary was instructed tc 
forward to the National Union the amount necessary to pay for same. 

The travelling card of F. A. Kelly, issued by Boston Union, No. 13, 
was received at this meeting. This is the first travelling card recorded 
as deposited, but it is believed to have been that of F. E. Kelly, a charter 
member of Providence Union. 

March, 1858, a communication was received from L. Graham, secre- 
tary of the National Union, acknowledging the receipt of $10 forwarded 






HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 59 



by the corresponding secretary and stating that the charter would be sent 
as soon as practicable. One hundred blank travelling cards were also 
received. 

. At the meeting held April 10, 1858, a communication was received 
from a member stating that he had been out of work for several months 
and now proposed to go to work at a price lower than that fixed by the 
Union, and requesting that he be permitted to withdraw from the 
Union. The request was not granted. On the other hand, the man 
having admitted that he intended to violate the scale, and it being 
stated that he was actually at work contrary to Union regulations, it 
was voted that he be expelled. At the May meeting another letter was 
received from the same gentleman, stating that he sincerely regretted 
the step he had taken; hoped that the Union would overlook and 
forgive the offence and again receive him as a member, assuring his 
former associates that he would not again transgress, and that he would 
always stand ready to honor their commands and respect their laws. 
Admitted upon the payment of a fine of $1. 

The dues of a member who had been sick for some time were 
remitted at this meeting. 

A committee was appointed to correspond with Boston Union 
relative to representation of this Union at the annual meeting of the 
National Union to be held at Chicago, May, 1858, and a special meeting 
was held April 24 for the purpose of acting upon the committee's report. 
In accordance with the suggestion of Boston Union, in its reply, Mr. H. 
W. Harrington, who had already been appointed a delegate from that 
body, was authorized to act in a like capacity for Providence Union. 
It was voted that $5 be sent to Boston Union to pay a portion of the 
expenses of the delegate, the secretary of Boston Union, in his letter, 
having suggested that amount as amply sufficient. It was also " voted 
that $2 be sent to the National Union as the dues of this Union, although 
the regular percentage would not amount to that sum." 

Upon reaching Chicago Mr. Harrington evidently selected J. S. 
Thompson of that city to represent Providence ; that gentleman's report 
as delegate being read and ordered placed on file at the semi-annual 
meeting, June 12, 1858, and the following resolution adopted: 

"RESOLVED, That the thanks of this Union are due, and are hereby presented to 
Mr. J. S. Thompson of Chicago for the very able manner in which he represented 
this Union as its delegate in the late convention of the National Typographical Union, 
and that the corresponding secretary be instructed to transmit the same with this 
resolution." 

A letter from Mr. Harrington was also read and ordered filed. 
New Orleans Union was having its share of trouble at this time, as 
a list of 15 expelled members was read at this meeting. 



60 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

The meeting of the National Union evidently aroused the master 
printers of Chicago to an effort to stem the tide of unionism and reduce 
prices, as a communication setting forth these facts and requesting the 
usual courtesies in such cases was received from Chicago Union. 

July 10, 1858, a committee was appointed to ascertain if a suitable 
room could be procured for the use of the Union, and the probable cost 
of furnishing and maintaining the same. At the September meeting 
the committee reported that a cheap and convenient room in the Granite 
building could be had for $65 per annum, and recommended that the 
same be immediately secured. The committee was directed to engage 
the room forthwith. At the next meeting the committee made a 
lengthy report, which showed that a bonus of $15 had to be paid to 
secure the room because of an offer of other parties of that amount. 
The expense for fittings amounted to $52.07. It was recommended that 
a committee be appointed, whose duty it would be to keep up all neces- 
sary supplies and see that every article was kept in a clean and neat 
manner. It was also recommended that a vote of thanks be tendered 
N. Bangs Williams for the gift of a table and picture, and resolutions 
to that effect were adopted. The committee on the care of the room 
was known as the Room Committee, and its reports during the Union's 
occupancy of the same are interesting reading. Rules governing the use 
of the room were adopted and rigidly enforced, and all expenses care- 
fully itemized. The Union was notified previous to the expiration of 
the lease that the rent of the room would be increased to $125 per 
annum, and the committee was instructed to look about for a suitable 
room for less money. September 10 the committee reported that a 
room in Waterman block could be had for $75 per annum. 

This room was not rented, however, as the October meeting was 
held in Unity Hall, the committee stating that the hall had been engaged 
for that meeting only. Further the committee says : " In accordance 
with the decision of the Union not to retain the room lately occupied by 
them, we have caused the effects of the Society to be removed and 
stored in a place of safety and under the immediate supervision of the 
President. The bracket upon which stood the bust of Franklin, and 
the remainder of the coal in the box were disposed of and the money 
received transferred to the treasurer." It was also stated that the 
ante-room to Brown's Hall, sufficiently large for the use of the Union, 
could be obtained, opened, warmed and lighted for $2 per night. The 
committee was instructed to procure the ante-room for as long a time 
as it deemed proper. The November meeting was held in that room, 
and the committee reported that it had disposed of the stove for $6.00 
and a spittoon for 33 cents. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 61 

The resolutions of thanks above referred to was couched as follows : 

"RESOLVED, That the thanks of the Providence Typographical Union be hereby 
tendered to N. Bangs Williams, Esq., for favors conferred upon it in furnishing its room." 

To fully record the doings of the room committee would fill a book 
Itself, so return will be made to the general story, 

July 10, 1858, it was voted that delinquents be notified that unless 
their indebtedness be cancelled forthwith they would be expelled. The 
threat was made good at the August meeting by the expulsion of five 
members for non-payment of dues. 

An attempt was made at the July meeting to raise the dues from 
25 cents to 50 cents, but the motion was negatived. 

The matter was again considered at the September meeting. A 
motion to lay on the table was lost; the main question was then put 
and lost It was agreed that the subject should be considered an open 
one that might be taken up at any future meeting. At the October 
meeting the motion was lost, and at the November meeting the dues 
were raised to 35 cents. 

At the meeting held September 11, 1858, a communication was 
received from a member notifying the Union that he no longer wished 
to be considered a member. This proved to be a " celebrated case " long 
drawn out. Opinion was divided as to the propriety of allowing a 
member to withdraw while still employed at the business, although a 
majority opposed the establishment of such a precedent. The argu- 
ments advanced by the opponents of such a course were clearly 
convincing, but the Union acted cautiously in the matter. A committee 
was appointed to ascertain the reason for such action, and obtain, if 
possible, a withdrawal of the communication. The gentleman, however, 
refused to enlighten the committee, but later sent another communica- 
tion to the Union setting forth as a reason that he could not obtain the 
Union scale, and emphasizing his right to withdraw. The committee 
having the matter in hand was instructed to reply, and the matter was 
debated month after month, when the President of the National Union 
was appealed to for a decision. That official referred the matter back 
to the local Union for " adjudication," and after notifying the gentleman 
of the Union's intended action and receiving a reply threatening legal 
proceedings, he was expelled June 11, 1859. A motion to reconsider the 
matter at the July, 1859, meeting was indefinitely postponed. 

The secretary was instructed to notify the President of the National 
Union and all sister Unions of the circumstances of the case and the 
stand taken by Providence Union. 

There seems to be no doubt that Providence Union was first to 
establish the principle giving birth to the axiom : "Once a union man, 



62 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



always a union man." And time has proved the wisdom of the action. 
At that time, Boston Union allowed members to withdraw for the sole 
purpose of working under the "scale," and the reply of the President of 
the National Union warrants the belief that like action had not been 
previously taken by any Union. 

The discussion of the application for withdrawal overshadowed all 
other business at the meetings of November, December, January and 
February, but a vote passed at the March meeting to proceed to the 
election of delegates to the National Union Convention seems to have 
stemmed for a time the flow of oratory on that subject. It was voted 
that the number of delegates be two, with the privilege of electing a 
third at the next meeting. 

For first delegate, the vote was a tie on the first, second and third 
ballot, between Mr. Massie and Mr. Whelden. The President, not having 
voted on the first two ballots, cast his vote for Mr. Whelden on the third 
and that gentleman was declared elected. 

For second delegate, William Foster, Jr., was elected on the third 
ballot by a majority of two. At the April meeting Mr. Foster declined 
serving as delegate and to fill the vacancy several ballots were taken 
without a choice. A special meeting was held April 16 for the purpose 
of electing a successor to Mr. Foster and to provide means to defray the 
expenses of the delegates. Jabez Lord was elected as second delegate 
and the membership assessed $1 each, payable on or before the 25th inst. 

A communication from Robert C. Smith, President of the National 
Union, was read at the October meeting, announcing the appointment 
of Thomas J. Walsh as secretary and treasurer, vice George W. Smith, 
resigned. 

At the regular meeting held April 9, 1859, the standing committee 
reported adversely upon the application for membership of an employing 
printer. The report of the committee, in part, says: 

"Notwithstanding the theory that every new member adds strength to the organ- 
ization,* * * your committee is of the opinion that when this Union was established it was 
the intention of its founders that it should consist solely of journeymen, for whose benefit 
it was created. They are aware that this rule has not been carried out ; partly from 
necessity, partly from choice: two members having been journeymen members at the 
time they became employers and one employer having been elected by the requisite vote. 
Your committee also believe that the presence of any considerable number of employing 
printers at the deliberations of the Society would have a tendency to place a check upon 
the true sentiments of its members, and it is more than probable that they might, at some 
future time, on any important question, by the influence they would have with those in 
their employ, hold the balance of power. Your committee see no good reason why any 
more employers should be admitted as members." 

A motion that the gentleman be admitted, notwithstanding the 
adverse report, was lost, the vote being a tie. 

May 14, the standing committee submitted another unfavorable 
report upon the application of a printer giving Boston as last place of 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 63 

employment The action of the committee in this case was determined 
lay a letter received from A. W, Tebbitt, corresponding secretary of 
Boston Union, The application was rejected. 

It was at this meeting that resolutions were passed establishing the 
principle that application for honorable withdrawal of journeymen mem- 
bers could only be entertained from those having retired from the 
business. 

The resolutions were the preliminary steps taken to settle a matter 
that had consumed much time and involved a great amount of corre- 
spondence. At the meeting following, June 11, 1859, the incident was 
closed by the expulsion of the member making the application, for non- 
payment of dues. 

The corresponding secretary was instructed to open correspondence 
with the "Stick and Rule Club," an organization of printers in New 
Haven. Mr. Whelden introduced the matter and appears to have been 
anxious that it should be so recorded. 

At the semi-annual meeting, Saturday, June 11, 1859, the recording 
secretary, in his report, congratulates the Union upon a recent triumph 
of union principles. W. N. Sherman, publisher of the Pendulum, the 
report states, found it impossible to carry on business by " rat " power. 
Every specie of the rodent had been tried, and he had personally 
declared them worthless and unreliable, A union men was now em- 
ployed by Mr. Sherman, who had stated that business had never before 
progressed so satisfactorily. The secretary concluded his report as 
follows : 

" Let prudent and wise counsel rule our deliberations and each one act with an eye 
sole and single to the interests of our organization and ere long the banner of victory 
shall float on our battlements." 

Jabez Lord was re-elected President at this meeting, but declined, 
and Mr. George T. Arnold was elected. 

" Mr. Lord, on retiring from the chair, made a neat speech," say 
the records, " which was listened to with interest." 

" Mr. Arnold also made a very good off-hand speech on taking the 
chair, which was applauded throughout." 

Mr. Lord, in behalf of the delegates who represented the Union at 
the session of the National Union held in Boston, offered about " steen 
sticks " of resolutions overflowing with appreciation of the treatment 
accorded the delegates by Boston Union. 

The three employing printers who were members of the Union 
tendered their resignations at the July meeting, assigning as reasons 
the report of the standing committee in re employing printers and the 
Union's attitude toward that class as evidenced by the action taken at 



64 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

the April meeting. The resignations were accepted and resolutions 
were passed explanatory of this action. 

The President appointed as chairmen of the different offices the 
following : 

Nelson Boyle Daily Tribune. 

Albert A. Scott Daily Post. 

Jabez Lord Evening Press. 

P. H. Massie Daily Journal. 

James A. Ward Tribune Job Office. 

Stephen B. Potter Post Job Office. 

Lewis L. M. Arnold Tillinghast's Job Office. 

Fears, imagined or real, for the safety of the charter prompted the 
presentation of the following : 

"WHEREAS, Circumstances has led us to believe that we have enemies around us, and 
that it becomes us to use all means to thwart their purposes, therefore 

" RESOLVED, That the charter of this Union shall be given to the safe keeping of its 
presiding officer, and by him, at the expiration of his term of office, shall be handed over 
to his successor." 

Amended by adding : "And he shall be answerable to the Union 
for its safe keeping." Passed as amended. 

While the precaution here taken served the purpose of preventing 
the actual theft of the charter, still in 1867, eight years later, when in- 
quiries were made as to its guardian it was traced to the possession of an 
expelled member. It was returned to the Union, however, upon demand. 

Before placing the charter in the hands of the President for safe 
keeping the recording secretary was instructed to have the names of the 
present (June, 1859) active members of the Union inscribed on the charter. 

An item of expense in the treasurer's report attests that the secre- 
tary attended to this order. 

At the semi-annual meeting, Dec. 10, 1859, the treasurer, after 
submitting an itemized account of receipts and expenditures, remarked : 
"The treasurer is happy to be able to say that the Union, from a 
financial point of view, is in a prosperous condition. One year ago to- 
night, at the commencement of my duties, the sum total in the treasury 
was $2.05. That sum has gradually increased to $41.60, the sum now 
in my hands. I would suggest the propriety of depositing such part of 
this money as the Union may think proper, (I would recommend $25,) 
in some Savings Bank, as a foundation for a fund in case of need." 

Officers were elected and President Cooley appointed as chairmen 
of the different offices the following : 



George T. Arnold 
Albert A. Scott . 
George H. Cranston 
J. N. Thomas . . 
J. A. Ward . . . 
L. L. M. Arnold 



Daily Journal. 
Daily Post. 
Evening Press. 
Journal Job Office. 
Post Job Office. 
Tillinghast's Job Office. 



M. W. Collins A. C. Greene's Job Office. 




HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 65 

It was voted that the treasurer be instructed to deposit in his own 
name, as treasurer of Providence Typographical Union, the sum of $30 
(thirty dollars) in some suitable banking institution. 

At the meeting January 14, 1860, there was a general weeding out 
of delinquent members, ample notice and sufficient time having been 
given to all to square up. 

The secretary was instructed at the February meeting to look over 
the records and find a resolution in relation to "subbing;" that it be 
read at the next meeting, and that the Union now abide by the same. 
The secretary stated at the March meeting that he had searched the 
records and was unable to find any resolution relating to "subs" or 
"subbing." 

The fact is that while no resolution appears in the minutes the 
matter of "subs" and "subbing" was discussed at the November (1857) 
meeting, as previously noted in these pages. 

A special meeting was called February 25, 1860, " to take into con- 
sideration the propriety of allowing a ' rat ' to work on the Providence 
Daily Post." 

Upon the subject the Union went into committee of the whole, and 
upon arising, resolutions were adopted criticising those members who 
had remained at work after one of their number had resigned his 
situation rather than work with a " rat," and hoping that their actions 
in a like case in the future would be such as to merit confidence and 
dispel suspicion. 

March 10, 1860, the inquiry committee reported, without recom- 
mendation, the application for membership of a journeyman pressman, 
and upon motion the question of admitting the applicant was indefinitely 
postponed. 

Action was based upon the resolution previously adopted in regard 
to pressmen. 

It was voted that hereafter the secretary be required to only notify 
the chairmen of the different offices of the time of holding regular 
meetings, instead of sending printed notices to individual members, and 
to act according to his own discretion in regard to special meetings. 

A special committee appointed at this meeting, to ascertain whether 
the means could be obtained to send a delegate to Nashville, made a 
lengthy report at the April meeting, which showed that $59 had been 
raised by subscription. It further stated that from reliable information 
it was believed that the expenses of a delegate would amount to $100. 
The amount subscribed not being in itself sufficient, three ways were 
suggested to meet the emergency: 



66 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



" 1st. To assess each member an amount sufficient to pay the whole expense and 
return the money already subscribed. 

"2d. To draw from the treasury an amount which, added to that subscribed, would 
equal the amount desired. 

"3d. To elect some member as delegate who stands fair before the Union, who will 
accept the amount subscribed as an equivalent for the expense of his journey, loss of 
time, etc., if such member can be found." 

The committee did not, however, approve of drawing upon the 
treasury. 

After a thorough discussion of the matter the committee was ordered 
to refund to the subscribers the money collected, and the question of 
electing a delegate was indefinitely postponed. 

A resolution reducing the monthly dues to 25 cents was laid on the 
table, and the following resolution was laid over until the next meeting 
and at that meeting indefinitely postponed. 

"RESOLVED, That on and after .... the Providence Typographical Union claims 
no jurisdiction over book and job printers." 

The semi-annual report of the treasurer, June 9, 1860, showed a 
balance in the treasury of $73.55. 

July 14 the corresponding secretary read a prospectus for reprinting 
the records of the National Typographical Union from its formation to 
that time. It was voted "that the Union approve of the undertaking 
and recommend the work to the members of the craft." 

An honorary list was established at this meeting by the adoption 
of the following : 

" WHEREAS, Members of Providence Typographical Union having ceased active con- 
nection with the business, but still desiring to maintain their connection with the society, 
and as it is for the interest of this Union to retain the good wishes and sympathy of all 
members of the craft, therefore, 

"RESOLVED, That such members desiring to continue their connection with the 
Union be, and they are hereby constituted honorary members." 

It was evidently a hard proposition to maintain the " scale " in the 
book and job offices during these times. Time and again reports were 
made by chairmen that different members were suspected of working 
under price, but investigation usually failed to prove the charges because 
the members' own word was about the only evidence available, and but 
two members so charged pleaded guilty. This condition of affairs prob- 
ably prompted the submission of the resolution relinquishing control of 
book and job printers at a former meeting, and may have been responsible 
also for the following, offered at the September meeting : 

" RESOLVED, That Union men be allowed to work in job offices, provided they shall 
not work for a less sum than eight dollars per week." 

The resolution was indefinitely postponed. 

At this same meeting (September 8, I860,) the chairman of the Daily 
Post in his report, revealed a condition in that office inimical to estab- 
lished Union principles. He stated that the " ads " were being set in the 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 67 



Post job office, and wished to know what action the chapel should take 
in the matter. 

A lively discussion was precipitated by the announcement, and a 
motion that the Union go into committee of the whole was carried. 

After arising the following resolution was adopted : 

"RESOLVED, That the hands in the Post newspaper office refuse to work any longer 
unless the advertisements be restored to that office, and that Mr. be ordered to discon- 
tinue work on the same ; and if their request is not acceded to, they shall all strike." 

It is believed the strike was inaugurated Monday, September 10, 1860, 
for the reason that a special meeting was called Tuesday, September 11, 
to consider the matter. It was voted at this meeting to go into committee 
of the whole and to allow Mr. Webster, editor of the Post, to take part 
in the proceedings. After a lengthy discussion, participated in by Mr. 
Webster and several of the members, the committee arose. Previous 
to withdrawing, Mr. Webster stated that Mr. Simons was perfectly 
willing to pay 28 cents per 1000 ems for the ads, provided the regular 
hands were able to set the matter. 

This statement resulted in the appointment of a committee to confer 
with the publishers of the Post, and they reported at a special meeting 
held September 16, that the only hitch in a settlement of the difficulty was 
the refusal of the publishers to re-employ two of the members who had 
participated in the strike. 

The Union then refused to consider a settlement under any condition 
except the return of every man involved, and another meeting was 
called for September 17. Little can be gleaned from the minutes of that 
date as to the status of the strike. Charges which had been preferred at 
the previous meeting against the foreman of the Post job office were 
at this meeting sustained, although the accused submitted the opinion 
of Mr. Madigan, a vice-president of the National Union, that such action 
could not be taken by a local Union for the reasons assigned. 

The vice-president tendered his resignation at this meeting and 
travelling cards were granted to Messrs. Lord, Barbour and Kelly. 

Evidence that the strike had been adjusted is found in the minutes 
of October 13, by the appointment of Mr. Willcox as chairman of the 
Post for the remainder of the term. 

That proved to be the last echo of the first strike authorized by 
Providence Typographical Union and, as far as can be determined 
from the books, the Union was the victor. 

February 9, 1861, it was 'moved that the recording secretary be 
authorized to purchase a new record book, the expense not to exceed 
one dollar and a half. 

The records state that there was some debate on the subject, in 
which Messrs. Whelden, G. T. Arnold, Massie, G. H. Cranston and 
Willcox participated. The motion was finally adopted. 



68 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

At the meeting held March 9, 1861, a proposition to send two dele- 
gates to the National Union convention was carried, and it was voted 
that the election be held at the next regular meeting. At the April 
meeting the President read the circular of the National Union President 
in regard to the convention, and the election of the delegates was taken 
up. For first delegate there were six candidates. Israel Amsbury 
received a majority of the votes on the first ballot and he was declared 
elected. After the first ballot, with no choice for second delegate, it was 
voted that, providing there was no choice after three ballots had been 
taken, all candidates but the two standing the highest on that ballot be 
withdrawn. There were six candidates on the first ballot and seven 
candidates on the second ballot. Peter A. McDonald received a majority 
on the third ballot and, on motion, was declared the unanimous choice. 
May 11 the President announced that the session of the National Union 
had been postponed without day. It was voted to reimburse the Pres- 
ident for the expense of telegraphing in regard to the meeting. 

Nothing of importance transpired for several months, in fact nothing 
but matters of a routine nature is recorded for a full year, when in 
April, 1862, the corresponding secretary read a letter from the President 
of the National Union in relation to the session of that body, which he 
had called to assemble in New York on the first Monday in May. There 
was also read at the same meeting a letter from the New York Union 
(the "Famous Circular") discouraging a meeting of the National Union 
at that time and citing reasons for its opposition. 

It was voted that in event of the session being held, the delegates 
elected to represent Providence at the session which had been postponed 
be authorized to act at the coming session. 

A special meeting was held April 26, to take further action in regard 
to representation at the convention. The delegates were "instructed to 
urge that the per capita tax of 25 cents per member is due for one year 
only," and to inquire into the expediency of biennial sessions of that body. 

At the May meeting a committee was appointed to receive and 
entertain the Boston delegates returning to their homes from the con- 
vention, providing stop was made at this city. 

The delegates to the National Convention made report at the June 
meeting as follows: 
"To THE OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION: 

"GENTLEMEN Your delegates appointed to represent this Union in the National 
Typographical Union at its Tenth Session holden in New York, in May, 1862, beg leave 
respectfully to submit the following as their report: 

"The National Convention met in the Council Chamber of the City Hall on Monday, 
May 5th, at 10 o'clock. The delegates were called to order at about 11 o'clock by Pres- 
ident Farquhar, who made a brief address congratulating the convention on so large a 
representation in these troublesome times, and expressed the hope that at the next annual 



MICHAEL B.MARTIN. JOSEPH D. HAL.U .JR. EDGAR 0. BEACH AM 




HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 69 



meeting he would see all the Unions North and South represented. He regretted in 
strong terms the occurrence pf events which have interrupted its harmony and deliber- 
ations the past year. 

" Sam Slawson of St. Louis, Corote of New York, and John Gorman of Boston, were 
appointed a committee on credentials, who subsequently reported thirty-three delegates 
from nineteen Unions in attendance, 

"Sam Slawson rose to a question of privilege. He wished the President to decide 
whether any delegate could vote, if objections were taken, if the Union he represented 
had not paid but one year's per capita tax. The President declined to decide this question 
and referred it to the convention for action. This elicited a sharp discussion. It was, 
however, finally decided, by a vote of 22 to 6, that the per capita tax for 1862 must be 
paid and that for 1861 remitted. 

"On Tuesday the election of officers for the year ensuing took place with the 
following result: 

"President John M. Farquhar of Chicago; First Vice-President William A. Mont- 
gomery of Boston; Second Vice-President J. H. Walker of Chicago; Secretary and 
Treasurer Thomas J. Walsh of New York; Corresponding Secretary Theodore Nagle 
of St. Louis. 

" The report of the Secretary and Treasurer was submitted and read by Mr. Walsh. 
It states the receipts of the National Union to have been for the past two years, (the 
session of 1861 having been omitted,) $662.87; the expenditures, $598.33; the balance on 
hand May 30, 1862, $74.54. It further states that the Troy (N. Y.) Union disbanded 
on the eighth of February, 1862, finding that the pressure of the times made the purpose 
of their organization impracticable. A large amount of correspondence had passed between 
the National Union and the subordinates, chiefly growing out of the national difficulties, 
of an unhappy but now uninteresting character. Letters to similar organizations in the 
British Provinces, proposing co-operation with this National Union, had been sent but no 
answers as yet had been received. On the Canadian frontier our subordinate Unions had 
exchanged fraternal intercourse with those of Canada, where their principles were nearly 
the same, but no general arrangement of exchange had been made. 

"At the commencement of the afternoon session, a long and protracted discussion 
ensued on a proposition of Mr. Slawson of St. Louis, to have the name of George McKay 
Luken placed on the roll of permanent membership of the National Union. It appeared 
that he belongs in Memphis, Tenn., and that he was the last authorized delegate from 
the subordinate Union there in 1861, and was prevented from taking his seat by the post- 
ponement of the National session of that year. Mr. Slawson said he intended it merely 
as a compliment to the gentleman named without claiming it as a right. Mr. Walker of 
Detroit wished to ascertain whether Mr. Luken was loyal to the government of the United 
States before he was compelled to vote on the proposition. On this point an animated 
discussion ensued. The prevailing sentiment, however, was that they had better avoid 
all description of sectional difficulties. The name was ordered on the roll by a vote of 
19 for and 8 against. 

"On Wednesday morning, President Farquhar presented his annual report. It was 
a very able document, reviewing the growth and prosperity of the National organ- 
ization from the commencement to the present time, and embracing all the points of 
interest that had come under his observation respecting the subordinate Unions. He had 
granted charters for several new Unions, and represented most of the Unions in the loyal 
States in a healthy condition. He animadverted in severe terms on the course taken by 
the officers of this body on the postponement of the National session last year, and 
censured the course taken by the New York Union in issuing its famous circular and 
endeavoring to postpone the present session. These points he handled with boldness, 
and expressed his opinions with characteristic independence. 

" This report was referred to a special committee. 

"The President announced the standing committees. Providence Union was rep- 
resented one on the 'committee on appeals,' and one on the ' committee on unfinished 
business.' 

"The special committee on the 'President's Annual Report' reported a resolution 
censuring the officers of the National Union of 1861 for postponing the session of that 
year, stating that their action was 'unnecessary and ill-advised.' 

"This resolution met with violent opposition, and occupied most of the day in its 
discussion. The New York delegates showed most conclusively that it was not only 
necessary but eminently proper to postpone, as the city was in an uproar on account of 



70 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



the rebellion that the streets were full of soldiers recruiting and departing for the 
war that business of all kinds was suspended and that the convention would, most 
probably, have been mobbed had a Southern delegate with Southern sentiments been 
present, such was the excited state of the public mind. The objectionable features of the 
resolution were stricken out and the resolution adopted by a large vote. 

"The committee on unfinished business reported a resolution which was laid over 
from 1860, recommending the per capita tax of 25 cents be reduced to 10 cents on 
every member without regard to his standing. This resolution drew forth a lengthy 
discussion. It was contended that a small tax on every member, instead of a larger one 
on those only who were in good standing, would be more equal and practical in its results. 
An effort was made to go back to the old system of per cent, on the receipts. This propo- 
sition met with opposition on the ground of inequality, as St. Louis and other Western 
Unions paid 50 cents per month, while Philadelphia and some other Unions paid only 
10 cents per month, 

"The resolution was finally laid over until the next session of the National Union, 
owing to the low state of its finances. 

" On Thursday we held but one session, as the City Council met in the afternoon 
in the chamber where we held our meeting. 

"Several resolutions were offered and adopted, in reference to the practical workings 
of the craft. 

"One, offered by Mr. Adams, abolishing, as far as practicable, departments in offices. 

"Another, offered by Mr. Nagle, recommending that the Union located nearest to a 
town having no Union, but employing ten journeymen printers, to enter into a corre- 
spondence with said journeymen in reference to the establishment of a Union with them. 

"Another, recommending that apprentices be admitted to Unions on the fifth or last 
year of their apprenticeship without being taxed, or the privilege of voting. This last 
met with opposition as some offices discarded apprentices altogether. 

"Friday's proceedings were mostly of a general character. 

"Daniel W. Flynn offered a resolution giving the President discretionary power in 
assembling the National Union. Laid over to the next session. 

"Your delegate offered a resolution, which was laid over, altering the Constitution so 
that there shall be a biennial session instead of a yearly one. 

"Ex-President Smith offered a resolution, which was adopted, condemning the practice 
of giving banquets and other entertainments to the National Union as detrimental to 
the best interests of the organization. It was stated that when the National Union met 
at New Orleans, the Union there spent $1,500 in entertaining the National body, con- 
sisting of thirteen delegates; and the New York Union had raised and appropriated 
$7,000 for the same purpose last year had the convention been held. 

"Only one case was referred to the committee on appeals. This was presented by 
Mr. Nagle of St. Louis. A member from the Nashville Union presented a card from that 
Union to the St. Louis Union, headed 'Confederate States of America,' and without the 
official signatures of the President or Secretary of the National Typographical Union. 
The President of the St. Louis Union Mr. S. Slawson refused to receive it. On this 
decision the member from Nashville appealed, stating that this was the only card he could 
procure, and claiming that it was sufficient evidence that he was a Union member in good 
standing where he last worked. 

"The committee on appeals recommended that the decision of the President of the 
St. Louis Union be sustained, which recommendation was unanimously adopted after 
a debate. 

"Cleveland, Ohio, was selected as the place for holding the next session. The vote 
on the second ballot was nearly divided between that place and Detroit. St. Louis was 
preferred by many, but her delegates thought it too soon to hold a session there. They 
preferred to wait until the Southern Unions were in a position to return to the National 

"The name of J. S. Thompson was added to the roll of 'Permanent Members' as a 
representative from Providence Union, No. 33. 

"A vote was passed authorizing the secretary to print 1500 copies of the proceedings 
.of this convention and circulate them among the various Unions. 

"A committee was appointed who subsequently reported resolutions appreciative of 
the sentiments of the convention toward the New York Union and citizens for the 
numerous courtesies extended to them. 

"In presenting the above, your delegates have only touched upon some of the most 
important points that were brought before the convention for consideration. They would 






HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 71 



refer you to the official minutes, when published, for a more detailed account of its 
deliberations. 

"There were many gratifying incidents connected with our visit to the Island City, 
and our social intercourse with the members of the New York Union. The ride to Central 
Park and High Bridge, on Sunday the visit to the Brooklyn Navy Yard and the receiving 
ship North Carolina the moral and instructive lessons we learned in examining the 
different corrective institutions and hospitals on BlackwelPs Island the intellectual and 
musical treat at the rooms of the Franklin Typographical Society the patriotic and 
cheering address of Hon. Horace Greeley and others on that occasion the ride out to, 
and the feast and social festivities at Bay View on Long Island the dramatic entertain- 
ments at Niblo's Winter Gardens, and other theatres. These, and numerous other civilities, 
we can appreciate, but words entirely fail to express the feelings of our grateful hearts 
toward our New York brethren for so many distinguished attentions shown us, and their 
unceasing efforts to make our leisure hours pleasant. A complete overflow of all the 
elements of kindness were showered upon us. Their magnanimity of soul and generosity 
of feeling were unbounded. 

" Your delegates would also here take occasion to express their heartfelt thanks to 
their brother members of Providence Union for the honor conferred upon them in being 
privileged to represent their cause in so honorable and intelligent a body. The generous 
confidence you thus reposed in us we shall cherish as long as we have an existence. To 
each individual member of this Union we extend the salutation of fraternal peace, pros- 
perity and happiness; and, in conclusion, we say, in the language of another 'Surely, 
your God is our God your faith our faith your joy our joy your prosperity our satis- 
faction.' Then let us unitedly work together for the preservation and perpetuity of a 
common inheritance. It may be, thereby we can maintain the position which other and 
older Unions hold in helping forward the great objects for which we are organized. 

"Respectfully yours, 
" I. AMSBURY, 
"P. A. MCDONALD." 

Several members of the Union who had enlisted without taking the 
steps necessary to obviate the accumulation of dues and consequent 
expulsion were protected by the passage of the following resolution at 
the meeting of October 11, 1862: 

"RESOLVED, That the dues of all members who are in the service of the United States 
be remitted until their safe return." 

February 14, 1863, Mr. Massie offered the following: 

"WHEREAS, Mr. Charles W. Felt, now of this city, has manifested a desire to come 
before this Union and give a lecture upon his system of 'combination type,' therefore, 

"RESOLVED, That this Union cordially invite Mr. Felt, et als., to come before this 
Union and deliver a lecture on the subject of 'combination type' and the benefits to be 
derived therefrom, on Saturday, February 28." 

Had Mr. Massie been more discreet in the phrasing of his resolution 
chances are that favorable action would have been taken. One super- 
fluous word in the resolved paragraph offended the fine feelings of 
Mr. Lord, giving as he thought, a patronizing aspect to the affair, and 
to that he objected. He moved to amend by striking out the word 
"cordially." The discussion thereby started consumed time and ended 
in the indefinite postponement of the resolution. 

Just what combination type was cannot be stated, but is supposed 
to have been "logotypes" of words most frequently used. 

March 14 the secretary was instructed to notify members that an 
election for delegate would be held at the next meeting. 



72 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

A committee was appointed to revise the " Scale of Prices," and 
instructed to draw up a schedule similar to that of the Boston Union, a 
copy of which was submitted. In its report the committee explained 
the changes from the existing rates as follows : 

"On morning papers the advance is from 28 cents to 30 cents, two cents behind our 
sister Union of Boston ; evening papers in the same ratio, 25 cents to 27 cents, which is 
three cents less than Boston rates ; weekly work on morning papers has been increased 
two dollars per week, but the ratio has been preserved by making the hours of labor 
twelve hours per day ; evening newspaper work, done by the week or hour, to be governed 
by the hours and prices of job work. In the book and job scale the price of labor per week 
has been put up one dollar, making it read $11, instead of $10 per week, hour work from 
17 and 20 cents to 20 and 25 cents for day and over work. Book work by the piece 
27 cents." 

To the foregoing the committee added : 

"Your committee hopes the Union will give this matter, which interests vitally, not 
only the members now, but all who may come on the stage hereafter, grave and careful 
consideration. Attention is called to the fact that all classes of the laboring or producing 
population are demanding and receiving an increase of wages.* * * They would also impress 
on the Union the necessity of united action as the only means of securing this very desir- 
able object. It is the only course. Therefore, we urge upon the members to express 
themselves; express their ideas freely, calmly, and to the point, so that there will be no 
uncertainty as to the means and as to the result." 

Upon motion a committee of nine (six appointed by the chair and 
three elected from the floor) was instructed to draft a memorial for 
presentation to employers. Messrs. Massie, Whelden, McDonald, Lord, 
Potter, Amsbury, G. T. Arnold, Thompson and Barbour comprised the 
committee. 

May 9, 1863, the committee submitted the following as the result 
of their labors and the same was accepted : 

"GENTLEMEN Under existing circumstances, produced by this rebellion, which has 
so reduced the value of the currency of this country, enhanced the price of every article 
of necessity in life, and which has caused a proportionate advance in the rates of all other 
kinds of labor, your employes, in justice to themselves, respectfully ask an advance in the 
price of their labor. They would ask you to compare the wages of the printer with those 
of any other mechanic even the laborer upon the wharf receiving 25 cents per hour 
feeling confident you will find none requiring the same amount of brain who is so inad- 
equately compensated. 

" In thus calling your attention to this subject they profess to be actuated only by 
motives of necessity, past and present experience being their prompter. They consider it 
unnecessary here to enter into a detailed account of the many obstacles which they are called 
upon, from time to time, to surmount with the present inadequate return for their labor, 
feeling confident that their employers, after having their attention called to the subject, 
will readily and cheerfully admit the fairness and justice of it. 

"If any argument were necessary, they deem it sufficient simply to point to the fact 
that in Boston and New York, and elsewhere, where the prices of labor among their craft 
have always been over ten per cent, more than in Providence, and where, within a few 
months, they have again been advanced in a like ratio, and that, too, in cities where the 
necessaries of life are at least ten per cent, less than they are in this city. And this 
increase is not confined to printers alone. Nearly every, if not all branches of business 
have found it necessary to advance the reward of labor. In some instances it has been 
given without asking, and in others simply by asking. 

"With these facts staring them in the face, and experience convincing them that 
their compensation must be increased or their troubles aggravated, they feel that they 
are doing no more than they should expect were they in your position under like circum- 
stances. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 73 



"As members of the Providence Typographical Union, an institution that has labored 
for the past six years to bring the trade to perfection in this city, they are aware that it 
may become necessary for you, in granting their request, to make a proportionate advance 
in your own rates of subscription, advertising and jobbing. Under these circumstances, 
knowing that the interests of the employer and employe are indentical, they are ready 
and most willing to co-operate with you in any manner which you may deem best to 
secure this end. 

" Trusting that the above suggestions will meet with your approval, which you will 
please make known at the end of this financial week, they remain, 

" Most respectfully, 

(Employes' signatures.) 

"For the committee 
"P. A. MCDONALD, Secretary." "P. H. MASSIE, Chairman." 

It was voted to head the memorial "To our Employers," the same 
to be presented to the proprietors of the different offices by the chair- 
men thereof, together with those portions of the "Scale" applicable to 
each. The date and hour for presentation was fixed for Monday, May 11, 
between the hours of 12 and 1 o'clock. The meeting then adjourned to 
meet again May 16, at 5:30 P. M. 

This meeting was called to order at the appointed time, and the 
following communications in reply to the memorial were read : 

" OFFICE OF THE EVENING PRESS, 
"No. 16 WEYBOSSET STREET, 

"PROVIDENCE, MAY 11, 1863. 

"GENTLEMEN Your communication of this date asking an increase of the rates of 
compensation has been received and considered. The subject to which it relates has had 
our consideration previously, as we are not unmindful of the just claims of our employes, 
and are not insensible to the reasons why they should receive higher prices for their labor 
than have been paid heretofore. 

" Situated as we have been since the very serious rise in the price of paper, accom- 
panied by heavier expenses of publication in other respects, we cannot really afford to add 
anything to the rates now paid you. 

"But we do not think of refusing your very reasonable request. We may have to 
retrench in the amount of work done, but shall cheerfully agree to give the new prices 
for whatever work is still to be done. 

"We are not without hope, however, that business affairs will take such a turn that 
we may be able to meet the increased expense without diminishing the amount of labor 
performed in our establishment. 

" With continued wishes for the prosperity and happiness of each and all of you, we 
are, gentlemen, 

"Yours very truly, 

"CooKE, JACKSON & Co." 

The above letter was addressed to the members of the Press chapel 
and submitted to the Union by the chairman of that office. The docu- 
ment was ordered to be placed on file. 

Mr. Scott, chairman of the office of the Post, made report as follows, 
which was accepted and ordered filed : 
"To PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION: 

"GENTLEMEN I have the pleasure of reporting, on behalf of the office of the Provi- 
dence Daily Post, that the proprietor thereof has freely acknowledged the justice of and 
acceeded to the request of the employes in said office for the proposed advance of wages. 

"A. A. SCOTT, 

"Chairman P. D. P." 



74 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Mr. Barbour, chairman of Journal office, presented the following 
reply to the memorial : 

"To MESSRS. GEORGE T. ARNOLD, GEORGE WHELDEN AND OTHERS, COMPOSITORS ON THE 
JOURNAL: 

"GENTLEMEN The publishers of the Journal are in receipt of a communication, 
evidently not originating with you, but bearing your names, asking an advance in the 
price of your labor, and presenting a 'Scale of Prices as reported by the committee on 
revision.' The enhanced price of living, and the advance in the rates of other prices of 
labor, are urged as reasons why the wages of our employes should be increased. 

"The publishers of the Journal desire to maintain the most amicable relations and 
complete understanding with the men in their employ. They desire to treat them not 
merely with justice, but with liberality. They desire that the workmen shall take pride 
in the office, and the office be proud of the workmen. They would not withhold from the 
laborer his hire, nor interpose an obstacle in the way of his advancement. 

" But it is proper, before acting definitely upon this memorial, that clearly is the 
result of a view of the question from one standpoint alone, that the other side should be 
presented to your consideration, with the not improbable consequences of impulsive action 
in the premises, at such an unprecedented time as the present. 

"In the first place are you not in error in speaking of the 'reduced currency of the 
country ? ' The fact that the precious metals temporarily command a fluctuating premium 
hardly warrant the assumption that we have a depreciated currency; and the man who 
pays his three years' note maturing at this time finds his dollar of no less value now than 
when he received the loan. By comparing our price current of family marketing with 
that published three years ago, you will doubtless be struck with the remarkable similarity 
of prices, affording evidence alike that the rebellion has not reduced the currency, and has 
not ' enhanced the price of every article of necessity in life.' House rent, moreover, is no 
higher now than then, and so with various other items that enter into the family expense 
account. The grocer and the clothier, from causes which we all hope cannot be of long 
continuance, are enabled to demand increased prices, thereby bringing home to each of 
us the realities of the war, and prompting us te labor and hope for a swift succession of 
victories that shall restore to our country the blessings of peace. 

"You allude to the advance in the wages of other kinds of labor. That to a very 
considerable extent is so. The draft of men for the army has so reduced the general 
labor supply that wages have increased. When the army is disbanded, the increased 
supply of labor will, by the same law, have a tendency to reduce the price perhaps even 
below the former standard. These fluctuations ought not to govern to any extent the 
compensation of newspaper printers. Their labor is interrupted by no changes in business 
prosperity. Whether times are good or bad, whether the publisher reaps any reward for 
his labor, experience and invested capital or not, the employes of the established news- 
paper have continuous employment and an unabated stipend. A significant illustration 
of this is found in our own experience. In a single item of our expenditures the present 
increase, as compared with last September, amounts to about $9000 per annum. Yet this 
enormous addition to our expenses, which it is entirely impracticable to meet by any 
advance in our rates of business, has not affected you, notwithstanding the fact that the 
labor bills presented almost the only salient points for the application of increased 
economy. The manufacturer pays treble price for his new material and receives treble 
price for his goods. The employing carpenter, if need be, can advance the wages of his 
men when there is increased demand for labor, for he charges it in his bill of work. But 
newspaper rates of subscription and advertising are a fixed part of its good will, and 
cannot be advanced and reduced to suit the exigencies of the times. The few papers that 
have survived the attempt in this crisis are returning to their former rates, thus con- 
firming the view that must commend itself to the sound judgment of every reflecting 
man in the business. 

"Under these circumstances would it not be well to consider whether there is not a 
possibility to quote from a familiar fable of killing the goose that lays the golden egg. 
Assuming that the income of subscription newspapers is fixed and cannot be suddenly 
increased at will, and that the unprecedented expenditures now imposed upon such estab- 
lishments has rendered them unprofitable, and in many cases burdensome to their pub- 
lishers, is it wise for the journeymen to enter into a combination that will have the effect 
to close entirely some fields of labor, and to impose additional burdens upon others, 
resulting in the end in throwing many workmen out of employment and reducing the 
prices to a figure much below that now ungrudgingly paid. There is no other kind of 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 75 



business as precarious at the present time as the publishing of newspapers, and another 
year of war will doubtless reduce their number so much that men will be careful to retain 
any situations that will afford them a weekly compensation of $16.37, the average of your 
pay roll for the last week. Aside from the increased expense at a time when an increase 
of expenses is most to be avoided, some inconvenience would result to both parties from 
a compliance with your request. We are informed, not unfortunately by your memorial, 
that the ' committee on revision ' fixed the price for evening papers at 27 cents per 
thousand ems, one cent less than the price we are now paying. Should we be compelled 
to submit our business temporarily to outside government, the composition on the Evening 
Bulletin would be done by a different set of hands employed for the purpose and paid by 
the evening schedule, or by the week. We should also be compelled to introduce appren- 
tices into the office a course that we have set our face against heretofore, very much to 
our pecuniary disadvantage. We are not desirous of commencing the practice, and shall 
be driven to it only by necessity. The proposed arrangements relative to the Bulletin 
and apprentices, would enable us to pay to such men as we retain the price asked without 
materially increasing the burdens of the office. But it is questionable if the plan would 
offer many advantages. The publishers of the Journal ask for these statements your 
careful consideration. They are submitted to you, and not to parties with whom we have 
no business relations. 

"We cannot avoid the impression that the proper 'committee on revision' of the 
prices paid at the Journal office, include only yourselves and ourselves. We should be 
loth to make that a condition of giving employment, but we may be compelled to do so. 
If, in view of all the circumstances, you feel inclined to demand the increased compen- 
sation, we must say that until other expenses are abated we cannot increase the com- 
position bills. If the rate is higher a reduction must be made elsewhere. 

" Trusting that you will see how untimely is your present movement, and that in this 
business the burdens of the war cannot be borne by the employers alone, we subscribe 
ourselves, "Yours very respectfully, 

" KNOWLES, ANTHONY & DANIELSON." 

After the reading of the above, Mr. Barbour stated that the proprie- 
tors of the Journal wished one week more in which to consider the 
matter, when, if they concluded to pay the advanced rates, it would be 
paid for the week ending May 23. It was then voted to give Messrs. 
Knowles, Anthony & Danielson one week in which to act. 

A resolution expressing the thanks of the Union to the publishers 
of the Press and Post for their expressed willingness to pay the revised 
scale, the same to be published in the city papers Monday, May 25, was 
adopted. 

Mr. Lord then offered the following which was adopted : 

"RESOLVED, That the Providence Typographical Union guarantee to such members 
as may be thrown out of employment by the insistance upon the present scale all the 
support, by means and money, it is in their power to give." 

Receipts $1. Adjourned to May 23. 

At the adjourned meeting held May 23, Mr. Barbour presented the 
following which was accepted and placed on file : 

"PROVIDENCE, May 23. 
" To THE MEMBERS OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION : 

"GENTLEMEN In behalf of the employes on the Journal, I am happy to report that 
the advanced price for composition was paid this morning for the work done this current 
week; and would thank the Union for their very generous action in allowing them one 
week extra time before taking final action in the matter. 

"Respectfully submitted, 
"WILLIAM H. BARBOUR, 

"Chairman Journal Office." 



76 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

The resolution relating to the publication of a card passed at the 
previous meeting was reconsidered, and a motion that no card be pub- 
lished was adopted. 

A committee appointed at the June meeting to endeavor to induce 
those journeymen employed in job offices, who were not then members 
of the Union, to join, reported at the July meeting that nothing could 
be accomplished in the premises. 

The report focused the limelight very strongly upon the handful of 
members from that branch of the business, and the virtue of their 
membership was greatly magnified thereby. One admirer of these true 
exponents of the " Union spirit " proposed the thanks of the Union " to 
the gallant few of the job branch ; " also providing for exemption of 
dues and a place on the honorary list. 

Probably because of precedent established in re withdrawal of 
members, when still employed at the printing business, the matter was 
laid on the table. 

A resolution of welcome to our typographical friends of the llth 
R. I. Regiment who had returned safely, was passed. 

A communication from P. H. Massie, chairman of the Journal office, 
resigning that office, was read, as was also a communication from the 
same gentleman resigning his membership in the society because of 
having left the business. 

On motion of Mr. Barbour, Mr. Massie's name was transferred to 
the honorary list. 

The same action was taken in regard to P. H. McDonald at the 
December meeting, that gentleman having left the printing business. 

At the meeting held October 10, 1863, the recording secretary 
tendered his resignation, for the reason that his duties required him to 
visit each office the week previous to a meeting, and that on his last 
visit to the Journal office he had been met by G. W. Danielson and 
told never to enter the office again. The resignation was laid over one 
month, and then laid on the table, Mr. Lord, the secretary, completing 
his term of office. 

November 14 a communication was read in which a member charged 
that the Union was controlled by a certain few for certain purposes, and 
expressed the desire to be no longer considered a member. The com- 
munication was laid on the table. One month later the same member 
was elected door-keeper. 

An informal ballot was usually taken, previous to an election, for 
all important offices, and at the semi-annual meeting, December 12, 1863, 
the gentleman having a majority for President on the informal ballot 
did not receive one vote on the formal ballot. The candidate may have 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 77 

been satisfied with the expression of confidence accorded by the informal 
vote and declined an election, but it's funny reading without an ex- 
planation. 

About this time there seems to have been an awakening among the 
book and job printers of the city. Their activities were directed towards 
forming an organization of their own class. Members of the Union 
regarded the movement as an attempt to break up their organization, 
and resolutions were adopted denouncing the promoters and calling upon 
all good Union men to thwart and arrest such "malicious mischief," and 
to perpetuate and strengthen the bonds of unity. To attain results in 
harmony with the tenor of the resolution, a committee of five was 
appointed to visit personally every journeyman printer and pressman 
(pressmen were previously rejected) now working in the city, or to meet 
a committee from them, or to meet them in a body, as the said com- 
mittee might think proper, and urge upon them the importance of 
joining the older organization. 

This committee reported January 9, 1864, that they had called a 
meeting January 5, to which all interested had been invited, and that 
four men from the Journal job office and a boy from Greene's had 
attended. No definite action had been taken because of the slim at- 
tendance. It was recommended that the matter be further agitated. 

Meanwhile the "branch" had been busy; had actually organized, 
and January 16, 1864, a special meeting of the Union was called for the 
purpose of taking action upon a communication from " The Providence 
Book and Job Printers' Association." The communication explained 
that the "Association" was about to demand $1 more per week than that 
set forth in the Union scale, and desired that the Union guarantee that 
its members would not interfere in their attempt to obtain a higher rate. 

After the reading of the communication, Mr. Willcox waxed indig- 
nant and moved that the Union have nothing whatever to do with the 
matter. That motion was negatived. 

The biting sarcasm of the communication was apparent and the 
indignation of Mr. Willcox justified, but his motion was too peremptory. 
Contemptuous silence on this subject might be misconstrued. 

Mr. Lord, the records of the Union show, was always ready to 
inject "whereases" whenever needed, and on this occasion he sustained 
his reputation by contributing several, followed by a series of " resolveds." 
Separately or collectively, they form a complete answer to the com- 
munication. We quote one " resolved " in full : 

"RESOLVED, That the character, history and associations of the Providence Typo- 
graphical Union are, and ought to be, a sufficient guarantee to the said printers or 
association of printers that no member thereof would interfere with them in their laudable 
efforts for an adequate compensation for their labor." 



78 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Whatever success the "Association " may have had, of course, is 
not recorded in the Union's books. 

At the meeting on January 9 reference was made to a strike in 
New Haven, and the formation of a Union at Portland, Me., was an- 
nounced. 

That the "Association " might not have anything on the Union, a 
proposition for an advance in the scale was offered at the February 
meeting, and was referred to a committee, one from each office, for 
consideration. It was proposed to not only raise the job scale, but to 
considerably advance the newspaper prices. Under the new schedule 
35 cents per 1000 ems was to be demanded. The committee to whom 
the matter was referred made no report at the March meeting, but the 
proposition was taken up, discussed and adopted. The chairmen of the 
different offices were then instructed to present the same to their 
employers, and the meeting adjourned till March 19. On that date a 
communication from the publishers of the Evening Press agreeing to 
pay the new scale was read. Mr. Lord replied verbally for the pro- 
prietors of the Daily Post, stating that they were unable to pay 35 cents, 
but would willingly pay 33 1-3 cents. The vote adopting the new scale 
was reconsidered, and amendment offered and adopted making the price 
33 1-3 cents. 

A letter from Jethro T. Briggs was read and disposed of in a 
manner unlike that of any previously or subsequently recorded. After 
a motion to return the letter to its sender was negatived, Volney Austin 
moved that the document be consigned to the flames ; carried. 

At the adjourned meeting of March 19, 1864, Mr. Austin stated that 
he had taken the responsibility of having an engraving of a " rat " made 
for the use of the society, believing that there was some probability of 
its being called into use in the near future. 

Mr. Haven moved, and it was voted " that the action of Mr. Austin, 
relative to the aforesaid quadruped, be sanctioned by the society and 
that the bill of Mr. Hoyt be paid." Mr. Hoyt is believed to have been 
the engraver. 

" Rat " is a synonym for " scab," in the language of the printer, 
and was attached to those of the craft who deserted the Union in times 
of trouble. Until about 20 years ago it was the custom to issue circulars 
bearing the picture of a big rat, underneath which was printed the 
name of the victim of the Union's scorn. Following the name was 
matter descriptive of the " rat's " character, replete in derogatory detail. 
These circulars were scattered broadcast. 

March 26, 1864, at an adjourned meeting, the Journal office was 
declared a " rat " office. Three members were expelled for " ratting," 






HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 79 

one for " ratting and obtaining a card under false pretenses," and one 
suspended " until he could make his mysterious conduct clear to the 
Union." 

The Labor Temple of to-day is the dream fulfilled of the printer of 
old. As early as April, 1864, a committee was appointed to confer with 
the other unions in the city relative to the establishment of a Trades 
Union Hall. If there were no co-operation among the unions of other 
cities along this same line at that time the item is important, and that 
the unions of other cities may have progressed more quickly or achieved 
the object sooner, detracts not from the originators of the idea. 

May 2, 1864, Mr. Whelden reported for Mr. Barbour and himself, 
that Nashville Union, in which jurisdiction they had been working, had 
refused to grant them cards when leaving. These two members of 
Providence Union had been employed on a paper issued by Ben C. 
Truman, a former Providence printer, but then Provost Marshal at 
Nashville, and had deposited their Providence cards with Nashville 
Union. There is no record how the matter was settled. 

The chairmen appointed June, 1864, were as follows: 

Jabez Lord Daily Post. 

William H. Barbour Evening Press. 

L. M. Phinney Morning Press. 

Charles Haven Press Job Office. 

William Macpherson Greene's Job Office. 

J. P. Helme Journal Job Office. 

At the July meeting another increase in the scale was proposed, to 
go into effect with the financial week ending August 20. For compo- 
sition on morning papers 40 cents per 1000 ems and $20 per week was 
asked, and on evening papers the rate was to be 35 cents per 1000 ems, 
and $15 per week. Strenuous opposition to its adoption was offered at 
the August meeting, all agreeing that the scale should be raised, but it 
was argued that it was a certainty that but one paper in the city The 
Press would pay the advance. The matter was laid over until the 
October meeting, and at that meeting there was no quorum present. 
Later, an increase of 1 1-3 and 2 cents per 1000 ems, night and day, 
respectively, was obtained without trouble. 

August 13, a committee was appointed to inquire into the matter 
of apprentices to the printing business the length of time which ought 
to elapse before they were to be considered journeymen, etc. The 
committee submitted a lengthy report at the September meeting, in 
which it stated that the hiring of persons above the age of 21 years as 
apprentices was detrimental to the interests of journeymen, in that it 
left "loop holes," through which a person might crawl if disposed to 
" rat." Situations for " two-thirders " were plentiful where it was impos- 
sible to obtain work as a journeyman, and for the sake of steady 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



employment it was believed that some would die of old age before they 
would declare themselves competent journeymen. The committee, 
therefore, offered the following resolution which was adopted : 

"RESOLVED, That no person who has arrived at the age of 21 years be allowed to 
work as an apprentice to the printing business in any Union office, unless he is personally 
known to members of the craft in this city, and unless there is good evidence that he was 
deprived of the privileges while in the employ of his former master, and that said appren- 
tice shall engage himself to work as an apprentice for a certain length of time, not ex- 
ceeding three years, and at the expiration of that time he shall be declared a journeyman." 

The Combination Type Company, it may be safely asserted, was first 
to establish an eight-hour printing plant in Providence. The innovation 
was not fully appreciated by the Union, however, as the standing com- 
mittee was instructed at the September meeting to inquire into the 
condition of affairs in that office, then in charge of Robert Manning. 

November 12, the committee reported that Mr. Foss, a Union man, 
was working at the Combination Type Company's office, eight hours a 
day for $10 per week. The general opinion expressed during the dis- 
cussion of this subject was that Mr. Foss was establishing a bad precedent, 
by accepting a proportional rate of compensation for less than ten hours' 
labor, if not, in fact, violating the spirit of the constitution. The speakers 
believed it an innovation upon the original design of the Union, and 
seemed to think that a workman should receive the stipulated price laid 
down for hour work (30 cents), if he worked less than ten hours per 
day. Mr. Foss defended himself at length. He did not believe the 
constitution prohibited, either in letter or spirit, such a course. Propor- 
tionately, he was receiving more than the scale (job, $12), and to require 
the individual to ask more for eight hours' work than the Union scale 
demanded for ten was unfair alike to the employe and employer. 

A motion that Mr. Foss be requested to leave his present situation 
was carried. 

At the meeting held December 10, 1864, after an amendment to the 
constitution had been adopted, providing for the annual election of 
officers, Mr. George Whelden was elected President. On taking the 
chair, the minutes say, Mr. Whelden made a few remarks appropriate 
to the occasion, and hoped to see an increased interest taken in the 
affairs of the Union and a full attendance at its meetings in the future. 

Alas, for the hope ! The January (1865) meeting was not held as 
there was no quorum present. 

The subject of holding a ball was discussed at the February meeting 
but no definite action taken. No mention is made of the matter at the 
March or April meetings, but at the May meeting a resolution was 
passed providing that the treasury be drawn upon for a sufficient 
amount to secure Mr. George H. Cranston against any loss in advancing 
money to defray the expenses of the ball given by the Union. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 81 

It was voted at the May meeting, to send a delegate to the N. T. U. 
convention, and William H. Barbour was chosen. 

Nothing of importance transpired at the June meeting, and as there 
was no proper place provided for holding the July meeting, adjournment 
was taken to July 15, at which time no quorum appeared. 

August 12, 1865, Mr. McDonald spoke of The Voice, a newspaper 
printed in Boston by Union men, and urged the Union to lend assistance 
by the purchase of stock. No action is recorded. 

At this meeting two delegates were appointed to represent the 
Union at a Trades Assembly to be held August 23. Messrs. McDonald 
and Sherman were the delegates, and at the September meeting Mr. 
McDonald reported that he had attended the convention or assembly 
but no meeting had been held, adjournment being taken to August 30. 
Nothing was accomplished at that meeting, however, and another was 
scheduled for that evening (September 9) . He said that if the Union so 
desired he would attend. The committee was instructed to attend. 
Mr. Sherman reported at the October meeting, that the delegates had 
attended several meetings of the assembly and that an Eight-Hour 
League, instead of a Trades Assembly, had been organized. Mr. Sherman 
also stated that he had been elected secretary; that meetings were being 
held regularly and the League was in a prosperous condition. 

How long the Eight-Hour League flourished cannot be told, as 
mention was never made of it again in the minutes. 

A committee of three was appointed at the September meeting to 
inquire into the expediency of imposing a fine upon members for non- 
attendance. The matter was tabled at the November meeting. 

January 13, 1866, Messrs. Whelden and Barbour, ex-delegates to the 
National Typographical Union, were appointed a committee to circulate 
a memorial in behalf of the family of the late Thomas J. Walsh, financial 
secretary of the New York Union, and for a long time secretary-treas- 
urer of the N. T. U. March 10, Mr. Whelden read a letter from Gilbert 
Vail, Esq., acknowledging receipt of $39, that being the amount sub- 
scribed by the members of Providence Union. 

February 10, 1866, a committee was appointed for the purpose of 
holding an entertainment under the auspices of the Union, providing 
the same be deemed expedient. 

At this meeting was also passed a resolution providing for the 
appointment of a committee to inquire into the practicability of de- 
manding an increase of pay. This committee reported at a special 
meeting held February 24, recommending that the scale be increased 
and immediate action taken. The report was approved and a committee 
appointed to prepare a scale. Recess was taken for fifteen minutes. 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Committee reported. Report was not accepted and committee retired to 
amend report, a recess being taken for five minutes. The committee 
reported its inability to agree. Committee was discharged. Meeting 
adjourned. 

During the excitement at the special meeting the entertainment 
committee reported that it would be inadvisable to hold an entertainment 
at that time. 

An amendment to the scale of prices, offered April 14, and adopted 
at the May meeting, provided that compositors, when summoned to the 
office after having finished a day's work, should be allowed $1 and 
double price paid for all work performed. 

May 12, 1866, a proposition to send a delegate to the N. T. U. con- 
vention to be held at Chicago, was laid on the table. At a special meeting 
held May 19, Mr. Barbour read a letter from Mr. Menamin of Philadel- 
phia, volunteering to represent Providence Union at the convention, 
and upon motion Mr. Menamin was elected delegate. A letter was 
received from Mr. Menamin and read at the June meeting, thanking 
the Union for the honor conferred and assuring the Union that he would 
discharge the duties involved to the best of his ability. 

No quorum was present at the meeting held July 14, and adjourn- 
ment was taken to August 11, when ten or twelve members assembled 
at the hall; but, owing to the negligence of somebody, were unable to 
obtain admittance. 

Another attempt was made to raise the scale at the September 
meeting. The prices suggested were : For morning newspapers, 40 cents ; 
for evening newspapers, 37 1-2 cents; for book work, $15 per week. 
Laid on table for one month. The matter was made the special order 
for November 17, and on that date was indefinitely postponed, 9 to 7 
25 members being absent and not voting. 

Announcement of the death of Peter A. McDonald, President of the 
Union, and for many years one of its most active members, was made 
at a special meeting held November 24, 1866. Arrangements were made 
to attend the funeral. A marshal was selected to officiate and bearers 
were chosen. Resolutions testifying to the upright character of Presi- 
dent McDonald were adopted, and the Union adjourned to assemble at the 
hall the following morning. Mr. McDonald's term of office as President 
was brief. He was elected October 13, 1866, to fill the vacancy caused 
by the resignation of Dennis J. Scannel. The secretary's account of the 

funeral is as follows: 

" SUNDAY MORNING, Nov. 25, 1866. 

" The members and friends assembled at the hall at 11 o'clock. At 11:15 the meeting 
was called to order by the Vice-President, and it was voted that the marshal now take 
charge of the body assembled. That official at once formed the line, the bearers being 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 83 



on the right, and marched to the car waiting for them, arriving in Pawtucket at 12:20. 
The procession then marched to the residence of the deceased, and after listening to 
appropriate services, marched to the street; every member on passing out taking a last 
look at our departed brother. As the bearers brought the body from the house the 
members were formed on each side of the walk with uncovered heads. After placing the 
corpse in the hearse the society marched in procession behind and the bearers on each 
side, to the Mineral Spring Cemetery, where the remains were deposited. The line was 
formed on each side of the grave, the members standing with uncovered heads while the 
bearers lowered the corpse to its last resting place, after which the resolutions were 
presented to the relatives of the deceased by Mr. Edward A. Willcox. The society then 
marched to the car, and taking seats, arrived in Providence at 2:30 o'clock, where they 
were dismissed by the marshal." 

A committee appointed November 10, 1866, to purchase a testimonial 
to be presented to Mr. Menamin in recognition of his services to the 
Union, reported at the December meeting that it would be unable to 
decide just what to purchase until some certain sum had been appro- 
priated. Twenty-five dollars was thereupon voted, and the committee 
fulfilled its mission by the purchase of a ring, which was suitably 
inscribed and forwarded to Mr. Menamin. The committee in its report 
submitted a copy of the letter accompanying the ring and Mr. Menamin's 
reply to the same. E. A. Willcox, Thomas Allen and S. G. Smith con- 
stituted the committee. It was voted to place Mr. Menamin's name 
upon the honorary list. 

April 13, 1867, the bill of the Providence Press Co. for $16.75 was 
ordered paid. The secretary stated that there was an error in the bill 
amounting to $2 in favor of the Union. It was ordered that the error 
be corrected and the $2 paid to the Press Co. 

An amendment to the scale of prices fixing the rate of composition 
at 37 1-2 cents per 1000 ems for morning, and 35 cents per 1000 ems for 
evening papers was adopted at this meeting. The amendment also 
provided for double price on morning papers and price-and-a-half on 
evening papers, when call was made for composition after "Good Day" 
was in. 

The chairmen were instructed to notify publishers of the action of 
the Union. 

Resolutions were passed denouncing the proscription by employers of 
men taking active part in the affairs of the Union, and providing that 
should such action be taken, every man should leave his work. 

A special meeting was provided for in case the scale should not be 
agreed to. This meeting was not called and as no further mention is 
made of the matter it is presumed the advance was obtained. 

At the May meeting it was voted that Mr. George H. Cranston's 
name be forwarded to the President of the N. T. U. as a candidate for 
membership on the executive committee. 

No quorum at the June meeting. 



84 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

July 13, 1867, the resignation of Mr. Whelden as corresponding 
secretary was received and accepted and his successor elected. The new 
secretary was instructed to ask for an explanation of the following 
sentence in Mr. Whelden's letter of resignation : " Without dwelling to 
discuss the question whether some members of the Union have acted in 
good faith towards me." Mr. Whelden's explanation was read at the 
August meeting and ordered filed with the rest of the Union's documents. 

The secretary was instructed at the August meeting to call at the 
home of an ex-member and ask for the charter of the Union. At the 
September meeting the secretary announced that he had secured the 
charter, and the same was ordered hung up in the hall. 

The name of S. K. Head was proposed for membership, the secre- 
tary stating that Mr. Head was a bona-fide member of Boston Union, 
but that a clause in the constitution of that Union prevented a person 
from drawing a card unless he had been six months a member. The 
matter was laid over until the September meeting, Boston Union in the 
meantime forwarding Mr. Head's card, which was duly received at that 
meeting. 

Tha card of Charles H. Witherup, Pittsburg, No. 7, was presented 
at the September meeting, accompanied by $3.45, which, Mr. Witherup 
stated, had been advanced by Indianapolis Union on his card. The 
secretary was .instructed to forward the money to Indianapolis Union. 

The secretary read a circular from the N. T. U. in regard to sub- 
ordinate Unions establishing a national fund. Tabled. 

October 12, 1867, $40 was appropriated for the benefit of a member 
who had been sick for some time. 

A committee appointed at this meeting to consider the constitution 
framed by the National Union reported at a special meeting held October 
19, as follows: 

" PROVIDENCE, R. I., October 17, 1867. 
" To THE PRESIDENT AND MEMBERS OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, No. 33 : 

" GENTLEMEN Your committee to whom was referred the ' Constitution for Subor- 
dinate Unions,' and the act creating a 'National Fund,' passed by the National Typo- 
graphical Union at its last session, held in Memphis, Tenn., in June last, beg leave to 
make the following report: 

"After a close examination of the above named documents, we believe it unwise to 
place the power in the National Union to frame a constitution for subordinate Unions, as 
it would be continually subject to, and undergoing amendments to suit different localities, 
no matter how carefully drawn, and would be more detrimental than beneficial to the 
local organizations. We would therefore recommend its rejection. 

"We are also opposed to the establishment of a 'National Fund,' for, in our opinion, 
it would be of no benefit whatever, but would be dangerous and injurious to our local 
organizations. 

" We believe that the adoption of a national constitution, without due notice and 
time, as provided in our national constitution under which we have successfully labored 
for many years to be illegal, null and void, and of no binding force; and that we should 
elect our delegates to the next session of the National Union, to be held at Washington 
in June next, without regard to this so-called new constitution. 



O'Conner. 

Vic.e- 

PresiderxT, 



Carr-oll, 

TinctnciaL 

Secrefary 




T" r ecus ix r^ e- 1~ . 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 85 



"We herewith present the following resolutions, and recommend their adoption: 
"RESOLVED, That the manner of adoption of the so-called new national constitution, 
by the National Union, which met at Memphis, Tenn., in June, 1867, was an act of nulli- 
fication, and as such is not binding on subordinate Unions. 

"RESOLVED, That the act known as 'The Constitution for Subordinate Unions,' and 
'An act creating a National Fund,' having been passed by virtue of the powers assumed 
by this new constitution, are null and void, and of no binding force. 

" RESOLVED, That we will not comply with the demand for sixty cents per capita tax 
until the same shall have been adopted in a constitutional manner. 

"RESOLVED, That we elect our delegates to a session of the National Typographical 
Union, to be holden in Washington, D. C., in June next, the same convention being ruled 
by the constitution in force at the Fourteenth Annual Session, held in Philadelphia. 

"RESOLVED, That we call upon all sister Unions to elect their delegates in the same 
manner, and join with us in rebuking this disregard of the national constitution, and the 
rights of subordinate Unions. 

'D. A. SHERMAN, 

'M. C. HARRIS, 

' VOLNEY AUSTIN, 

' JOHN F. LONSDALE, 

'WILLIAM H. BARBOUR, Committee." 

On motion of Mr. Foss, the resolutions were adopted. Ayes, 15 ; 
nays, 5. 

This appeal to sister Unions throughout the country met with such 
hearty co-operation that at the Washington convention, the following 
June, the action taken by the Memphis convention was annulled, a 
decided triumph for Providence Union. It is said that the Memphis 
convention was controlled by an element whose loyalty to the Union 
was subordinate to that of a secret organization foreign to the craft at 
large, but the prompt action of Providence Union, with the generous 
support of sister Unions prevented the consummation of their plans to 
rule the Typographical Union. 

While Providence Union may be held responsible for defeating the 
establishment of a "Strike Fund" in 1868, it claims the distinction of 
reviving the agitation for its enactment. The delegate from Providence 
to the New York convention of 1885, was instructed to bring before the 
convention a proposition incorporating an " International Strike Fund," 
and a number of appeals for financial assistance from sister Unions were 
given the delegate to be used as an argument for the adoption of some 
such legislation. The present fund and the laws governing strikes are 
the direct result of the proposition adopted at that convention. 

The following is all that is recorded under date of November 9, 1867 : 

"Regular monthly meeting. Meeting met at 8 o'clock ; President in the chair. The 
secretary being absent, it was voted to adjourn." 

A special meeting was called by the President Sunday morning, 
December 8, 1867, for the purpose of attending the funeral of George H. 
Cranston. The minutes read: 

"At 10:30 o'clock the meeting was called to order by the Vice-President, who appointed 
as marshal to take charge of the body assembled, Charles C. Gray, and as bearers, 
Messrs. Lonsdale, Simpson, Reid, Barry, Boss and Chenery. The marshal then took charge, 
formed the line and marched to the residence of the deceased, where after appropriate 



86 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



services were listened to, marched to the North End Burying Ground, where the remains 
were deposited in the tomb, after which the members and the friends of the deceased 
marched back to the hall, where they were dismissed by the marshal." 

Appropriate resolutions on Mr. Cranston's death were passed at the 
regular meeting held December 15. 

Notice was received at the January, 1868, meeting, that the Union 
could no longer have the use of the hall then being occupied. It was 
said that a hall on Weybosset street could be had for $2 per meeting, 
and Mr. Chenery was appointed to arrange for the same. 

A resolution providing for the payment of .... sum to the relatives 
of a member in case of death was offered by Mr. Lonsdale at the 
meeting held February 8, 1868, but what action, if any, was taken is 
not recorded. 

Resolutions were passed thanking the American Protestant Asso- 
ciation, No. 2, for their kindness in leasing Friendship hall for the 
February meeting and for past favors. 

It was voted that every member of the Union contribute the equiv- 
alent of 1000 ems towards the erection of a monument to the memory 
of Charles Brown ( Artemus Ward) , printer and philosopher, " said con- 
tribution to be collected on the 6th day of March next." 

The chairmen of the different offices were, by vote, instructed to 
assist the financial secretary by collecting the dues in the respective 
chapels over which they presided. 

At the April meeting it was debated whether a delegate would be 
sent to represent Providence in the convention to be holden at Wash- 
ington on the first Monday in June next. The secretary was instructed 
to write Mr. Menamin and learn if he would act. It was voted at the 
May meeting to elect a delegate to act with Mr. Menamin, and Mr. E. A. 
Willcox was chosen. A committee was appointed to solicit subscriptions 
for defraying the expenses of the delegate. 

An influx of New York printers was responsible for a motion 
August 8, 1868, instructing the secretary to write New York Union and 
ask that printers leaving that city be advised to seek other fields than 
Providence. 

At the meeting held November 14, 1868, the secretary read an 
amnesty proclamation from the President of the National Union, and at 
the December meeting it is recorded that the life of the amnesty had 
been extended to February 1, 1869. An examination of the admissions 
during that period show that a number of delinquents took advantage 
of the act. 

Because of a strike in New York city, it was voted at the meeting 
held March 13, 1869, that $50 be loaned to the New York Union. There 
is no record of the loan having been cancelled. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 87 

April 10, 1869, the investigation committee reported unfavorably 
upon an application for membership, "because," it said, "this man 
meekly performs work for which the proprietors pay but 28 cents per 
1000 ems." 

To revise the book and job scale a committee was appointed May 8, 
1869. The committee was given power to call a special meeting for 
immediate action, if necessary. No special meeting was called, however, 
and at the June meeting it was stated that the committee had attended 
to its duties but was unable to make a full report at that time. The 
committee was continued with the same powers. There was no meeting 
during July because of lack of quorum, and at the August meeting 
the committee was discharged and the whole matter laid on the table. 

At the May meeting it was voted to send a delegate to the N. T. U. 
convention, and Stephen Booth was elected, the expenses of the delegate 
to be raised by subscription. 

June 12, 1869, Mr. Whelden made some remarks in regard to 
"departments" in newspaper offices, and recommended that the men 
holding such positions pay a premium in order that wages be equalized. 
Others spoke on the same subject, but no action was taken. 

This is the first and last reference to "blood," so called, in the 
minutes of Providence Union. The "department" system flourished in 
many cities before the introduction of machines. 

The "ad" department was the best paying, many holders of that 
"sit" paying more than 50 per cent, of their earnings for the privilege, 
the bonus being distributed equally among the holders of regular situ- 
ations. For instance, if the holder of a "department" set 30,000 ems in 
a day and the percentage demanded was one-half, 15,CCO ems was taken 
from his "string" and cut into fifteen 1000-em "takes" and distributed 
to the men in numerical order. In the big offices of large cities 
"departments" were numerous, and it was not an unusual occurrence 
for a man to receive two " takes " of "blood," or 2000 ems bonus in one 
night and that notwithstanding fully 100 men were employed. Depart- 
ments were scarce in Providence, however, and their "fatness" never 
warranted the payment of a very large percentage by the holders for 
the privilege. 

At the meeting held August 14, 1869, a resolution was presented 
providing for the election of chairmen of chapels by the members 
employed in the different offices. The resolution was adopted at the 
September meeting. Previous to that time the chairmen of chapels had 
been appointed by the President of the Union, and those then serving 
in that capacity were requested to resign, which they did at the October 
meeting and their resignations were accepted. 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



September 11 chairmen were instructed to prevent strangers going 
to work in their respective offices before depositing a travelling card, 
and it was voted that 500 working cards be printed. December 11 the 
secretary was ordered to issue the cards to the chairmen of the different 
offices, to be by them distributed to the members of their respective 
chapels. 

Embodied in the order or motion was the principle, still adhered to, 
that no card be issued to extend for a period longer than one month. 

October 11 a special meeting was called to make arrangements for 
attending the funeral of Thomas E. Jennings. Bearers were appointed 
and the members proceeded in a body to the home of the deceased. 

November 13, 1869, a circular was ordered printed inviting non- 
union printers to become members. 

At this meeting, the gentleman who was the cause of all the corre- 
spondence and debate in connection with his application to withdraw 
from the Union, and whose ejection from the society was effected in the 
face of threatened legal entanglements, made application to renew his 
membership in the Union. The report of the committee on the appli- 
cation was made December 11, and was, in part, as follows: 

"This gentleman is known to most of the members of this Union, but to those who 
are not familiar with his case, perhaps a few words of explanation will be acceptable. 
Mr. ... is nearly 70 years of age and entered the printing business about 52 years ago, 
so that now he is the oldest printer in the State. He was a charter member of this society, 
but gained its displeasure by working below the scale, and was excluded. He is now at 
work in a Union office on piece work and in order that he may continue to do so, he asks 
to be reinstated. We recommend that he be admitted on the same conditions that apply 
to a new applicant. 

"A. M. ROBERTSON, 

"NAT. L. REEVES, Standing Committee." 

February 12, 1870, ballot was taken on the application which re- 
sulted in the gentleman's reinstatement, and at the meeting held March 
12 he again took the obligation of membership. 

It was the common practice of the time for travellers to "strike" 
town without a card, although entitled to one from the jurisdiction in 
which they were last employed. This negligence on the part of the 
tourist caused not a little trouble for corresponding secretaries in writing 
for the cards of strangers. To reimburse the secretary for this extra 
work that official was authorized to charge five cents for each letter 
written for such a purpose, the applicant to pay the same. This action 
was taken at the meeting held December 11, 1869. 

A resolution offered by Edward Quinn at the meeting held April 9, 
1870, was referred to a committee of three for report at the next 
meeting. The resolution read: 

" WHEREAS, The good standing and influence of this Union have for some time past 
been greatly injured by a certain class of men belonging to the craft who indulge in the 
use of intoxicating liquor when they should be attending to their business, therefore, 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 89 



"RESOLVED, That any person, a member of this Union, who shall vacate a frame 
which he may hold, or on which he may be subbing, through the influence of liquor, the 
same shall be posted in every union city under the jurisdiction of the National Union." 

The committee appointed to handle this matter was Messrs. Booth, 
Robertson and Gray, and at the May meeting the report of the commitee 
was adopted. What were the recommendations of the committee is 
not given. 

May 14, 1870, it was voted that R. S. Menamin represent Providence 
Union at the convention of the National Union to be held at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, June 6. A committee was appointed to mail instructions as to his 
actions on certain matters to come before the convention. 

July 9, 1870, an amendment to the constitution was offered, fixing 
the number required to constitute a quorum, by the following addition : 
"And all members failing to attend said meetings to be fined 25 cents." 
Laid over to August meeting. At that meeting, although receiving a 
majority vote, the amendment did not receive the two-thirds necessary 
to carry. 

January 14, 1871, an amendment increasing the salary of the 
recording and financial secretary from $20 to $40 was laid over, and a 
committee appointed to consider the matter. The committee's report 
favored an increase and the amendment was adopted February 11, 1871. 

An amendment to the scale of prices was also offered at the January 
meeting and rejected at the February meeting. The amendment called 
for 45 cents per 1000 for morning, and 42 cents for evening papers ; 
hour work 40 cents, and book work $18 per week, ten hours. 

An attempt was made at the March meeting to increase the dues 
to 50 cents per month. Laid over until the April meeting, when it was 
defeated. The amendment was again offered at the July meeting and 
defeated August 12, 1871. 

At the meeting April 8, 1871, it was voted to elect a delegate to 
the Baltimore convention. Two informal ballots were taken without 
developing a favorite. On a formal ballot Henry A. Brown received 
41 votes out of a total of 69 cast. A motion to make the vote unanimous 
was lost. At the next meeting it was voted to amend the minutes by 
erasing the word "lost" and inserting the word "carried," thereby 
making the election unanimous or did it? 

July 8, 1871, a committee of five was appointed to confer with the 
pressmen of the city and try and persuade them to join the Union. 

A letter from Hartford was read at this meeting, acknowledging 
receipt of $35 from this Union, and the secretary was instructed to 
purchase a Black Book in which to register the names of "rats" 
appearing in the circulars from sister Unions. This book cannot be 
found. 



90 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

February 10, 1872, the jurisdiction of the Union was limited to the 
city of Providence. 

The second strike in which Providence Union became involved 
occurred during April, 1872. Pursuant to a call signed by Eben Gordon, 
Frank E. Burroughs, John Walsh, Charles W. 1 Burroughs, J. H. Wilson, 
R. A. Pierce, A. W. Forsythe, Samuel K. Head and N. B. Bowers, a 
special meeting was held April 5, 1872, to consider matters relating to 
affairs in the Herald office. Mr. Gordon stated that first a request and 
then a demand had been made for a raise from 40 to 45 cents per 1000 
ems, by the men employed on the Herald, and moved that the Union 
endorse the action. After a spirited discussion the motion was carried. 

Amos B. Cranston, the foreman, then inquired if he would be 
justified in filling vacancies with Union men. A motion that he be 
allowed to do so was lost. The meeting then adjourned. 

The minutes of this special meeting were corrected at the regular 
meeting held April 13, so as to read that the foreman of the Herald 
should not employ printers at less than 45 cents per 1000 ems. 

At the regular April meeting the Union went into committee of the 
whole, and Herald office affairs were debated at length. During the 
discussion Mr. Cranston stated that he misunderstood the vote at the 
special meeting, being under the impression that he was allowed to 
employ Union men at 40 cents until such time as the scale should be 
amended. He denied having ^employed any but Union men, having 
engaged but one man, a member of Ottawa Union ; Noah D. Payne put 
the other men to work. 

The corresponding secretary was instructed to write Ottawa Union 
in regard to this man, and the recording secretary was directed to wait 
upon the gentleman and find out his standing as a Union man. 

An amendment to the scale was presented and laid over until the 
May meeting. The proposed scale called for 45 cents per 1000 ems 
for morning, and 40 cents for evening papers. This was amended at 
the May meeting to read 42 and 38 cents, respectively. 

In all probability the adoption of the 42 and 38-cent rates served to 
settle the matter, as no mention is again made of that particular diffi- 
culty. Later on, however, Thursday, January 2, 1873, a special meeting 
was called to consider grievances directly traceable to the former trouble. 
The call reads: 

"To THE PRESIDENT OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, No. 33: 

"DEAR SIR We, the undersigned, members of Providence Typographical Union, 
No. 33, held a chapel meeting this afternoon, at which time it was decided to strike the 
office for infringing a rule of the International Typographical Union, and hereby request 
you to call a special meeting of this Union at six o'clock at most convenient place. 
"E. A. CARTER, "THOMAS HYNES, 

"C.E.LYONS, "WILLIAM CARROLL, 

" A W. FORSYTHE, "JOHN POWERS, 

" T. C. GAWLEY, "ROBERT O'CONNOR." 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 91 

The meeting was called to order in the composing room of the 
Evening Press, and after an explanation of the grievances it was voted 
to sustain the action of the chapel. 

At the time of the strike of April, 1872, as was the custom, some of 
the men most responsible for the Union's embroilment gathered their 
belongings and left the city, leaving the Union to settle the difficulty 
as best it could. Later, the management of the Herald evidently found 
that the men engaged to fill the vacancies thus caused were even 
less tractable than those who had been previously employed, and it was 
because of an attempt on the part of the management of that paper to 
re-engage one or more of those men that gave occasion for the more 
recent trouble. The difficulty was promptly adjusted. 

Experience has taught Union printers that strikes initiated under 
circumstances similar to either of the above instances are not conducive 
to progress, and stringent laws now prevent occurrences of that kind. 

It was voted at the April meeting not to send a delegate to the 
I. T. U. convention. 

A special meeting was called December 20, 1872, in the composing 
room of the Evening Press, for the purpose of initiating Charles A. 
Peabody and John H. Campbell, who were unable to attend a regular 
meeting. 

January 11, 1873, the chairmen of the different offices were in- 
structed to notify all non-union men working in the chapels over which 
they presided to send in their applications for membership forthwith. 

The sergeant-at-arms was instructed at the February meeting to 
confer with the trustees of Mechanics' Temple of Honor in regard to 
leasing hall. That official reported at the March meeting that he had 
engaged a hall from the trustees of the American Protestant Association. 

A committee was appointed March 8, 1873, to nominate candidates 
for delegate to convention of the I. T. U. The committee presented 
the names of two candidates as contestants for the honor at the April 
meeting, and on ballot Volney Austin received all but one vote. Pro- 
viding the losing candidate cast that one vote himself, others who may 
have pledged support surely had a job on hand to demonstrate to the 
candidate's satisfaction their fealty on that occasion. The delegate 
reported at the July meeting as follows : 
"To THE PRESIDENT AND MEMBERS OF TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, No. 33: 

" GENTLEMEN Your delegate to the 21st session of the International Typographical 
Union of North America, held in Montreal in June last, respectfully submits the following 
for your information and consideration : It would be useless for me to detail the pro- 
ceedings of the convention, as the official copy of its actions will soon be received from 
its secretary, but I may give you some information that cannot from its nature be 
embodied in his report, and call your attention to some of the more important doings of 
the session. 



92 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



"A caucus, comprising delegates from the Northern, Middle and Western States, was 
held at the Ottawa House on Sunday evening, May 31, 1873, for the purpose of co- 
operation, and with a view solely to make all coming proceedings in the convention 
harmonious. William J. Quinn of Boston was chosen chairman, and he announced the 
caucus ready for business. Your delegate nominated William R. McLane of Washington 
as candidate for President ; the nomination was seconded, but the nomination was with- 
drawn for the purpose of appointing a committee to formulate a general ticket. One 
delegate from each subordinate Union represented comprised the committee, whose duty, 
in addition to the selection of candidates for the various offices, was the selection of a 
site for the next annual session of the International Union. 

"After selecting Mr. McLane as the Presidential nominee, Mr. Quinn of Boston was 
nominated for Vice-President. Mr. Quinn, however, did not wish to compromise in any 
manner the claims of Boston as the place of meeting of the 22nd convention, and his 
name was withdrawn as a candidate. Your delegate was then nominated for the position 
which, for the honor of Providence Union as well as for myself, would gladly have been 
accepted, but believing that a generous declination by all New England delegates of any 
offices in the convention would secure the point so much desired, I declined the nom- 
ination. 

"Business was then proceeded with and a full ticket named. 

"A long discussion then ensued on the respective claims of Boston and St. Louis as 
the next place of meeting, the committee finally deciding to make no recommendation to 
the caucus. 

"The proceedings of the convention, as I have before remarked, will soon be had in 
printed form, but I will call attention to a few points requiring immediate consideration. 

"The constitution of No. 33 requires the payment of 25 cents for each travelling card. 
The International Union at this session has declared that no subordinate Union has a 
right to make any charge whatever for a travelling card. Although seeming somewhat 
arbitrary at first glance, I am of the opinion that the ground taken by the International 
Union is substantial and just. 

"A resolution recommending the abolition of all sub-lists was almost unanimously 
adopted. 

" The new International Union charter is now ready and I recommend that the 
corresponding secretary be requested to send for it. 

" If the members of this Union could have heard the loud and prolonged applause 
called forth by the corresponding secretary's report, denouncing a class of parasites that 
now infest almost every printing office in America, a species of that vermin that has 
brought the great art of all Christian intelligence and learning into contempt, they would 
seriously think of a matter that has become of almost vital interest to all good craftsmen. 

" The unanimous sentiment of the International Union calls upon you not only to 
refuse to aid in any manner this horde of tramps, boarding-house jumpers, dead beats, 
and all others who cannot give a clean card, but to denounce and drive them out on 
every occasion. By firm and unflinching action only can this be done. Gentlemen, as 
you regard your own welfare and self-respect, I ask you to seriously consider this matter. 

"Probably the most important subject brought before the International convention, 
and to consider which the only special committee of the session was appointed, was what 
is known as the 'Rouse's Point matter.' The President appointed the following as the 
committee : Messrs. Livesey, Freehan, McNamara, Quinn, Craft, Griffard, Austin, Curtiss 
and Allbe. At a meeting of the committee your delegate was elected secretary, and after 
a thorough discussion of the subject a conclusion was reached which was reported to the 
convention. 

" When I receive the proper papers to carry out suggestions, I will inform you more 
fully in the matter, which is of great interest to all parties concerned in the material and 
mechanical production of books, and more especially those interests of the Middle States, 
New England States and New York State. 

"The members of the Montreal and Jacques Carder Unions entertained us very 
hospitably and I should be pleased to think that the presence and harmony of the Inter- 
national convention has softened the bitter feeling existing between the generous mem- 
bers of 97 and 145. 

" There were 92 delegates present and is, I believe, the largest number ever gathered 
at any session. 

"And now, gentlemen, for your generous appropriation accept my sincere thanks ; 
for the unanimity of your votes in selecting me to represent you, words cannot express 
my gratitude. 




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HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 93 



"I endeavored, during the session, to do whatever should ennure to the benefit of 
journeymen throughout North America. If I have accomplished anything creditable to 
the Providence Typographical Union I am satisfied. 

"Yours truly, 

"Providence, July 12, 1873." "VoLNEY AUSTIN." 

One hundred and ten dollars was the amount appropriated for the 
delegate's expenses, and an entry in the books shows that the delegate 
attempted to return a part of the appropriation as an unexpended bal- 
ance, but was prevented from accomplishing the rash act by the Union's 
voting that he retain the money. The exact amount is not given, the 
sum being indicated as ... dollars. 

This in itself would seem to distinguish Mr. Austin as a marvel 
among delegates. None of his fellow-fortunates before or since that 
time ever attempted such a thing, and that he failed of his purpose at 
that time can hardly be offered as an excuse for no effort to emulate his 
example by those who have followed. 

A motion to elect a chairman for the Journal office was defeated 
at the December meeting. At the meeting held February 14, 1874, 
Myron W. Dibble was appointed chairman of that office. 

April 14, 1874, resolutions on the death of George T. Arnold were 
adopted. 

There was no quorum present at either the June or July meetings. 

At the November meeting, a member was removed from the room 
for being intoxicated and the case referred to a committee. The com- 
mittee recommended that the offending member be fined $2 for violation 
of Article XIII., Sec. 2. of the constitution. The recommendation was 
adopted, but later the fine was remitted. 

The minutes for the greater part of the four years following are 
missing, and those that are preserved show a decided lack of interest on 
the part of the membership for a proper record of the Union's doings, 
and gross carelessness or incompetency on the part of the secretary. 

The following is taken from a journal of Alexander M. Robertson, 
one of the first members of the Union: 

"The last meeting of the Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, was held in 
Haggai Hall, Weybosset street, on Saturday evening, May 11, 1878. There were present: 
Asahel P. Brown, Henry A. Barnes, Joseph B. Leavens, Frank H. Sears, Henry R. Sawyer, 
Clarence E. Burtwell, Ahira Hall, John Croil Ryan, Samuel T. B. Trimmer, William E. 
Tourtellot, William E. Cooke, Frank Capron, Alexander M. Robertson. A vote of disso- 
lution was passed, there being only three or four dissenting votes, and the charter was at 
once returned to the International Union. Cause of dissolution lack of interest and lack 
of funds to send a delegate to the coming meeting of the parent body, an imperative re- 
quirement once in two years." 



THE REORGANIZATION 

In the fall of 1882 steps were first taken in the movement toward 
the reorganization of Providence Typographical Union, No. 33. The 
charter of the old Union had been surrendered in 1878. In the summer 
of 1882 a communication was received by R. J. Faulkner from Chicago, 
signed Mark L. Crawford, then secretary-treasurer of the I. T. U., 
stating that "typographical matters were booming all over the country" 
and asking why "'Little Rhody' should be behind," and winding up 
with " I will torture you with communications till you take some action 
in the matter." After considerable investigation as to the material to 
work on, and correspondence with Mr. Crawford and George Clarke of 
St. Louis, then President of the I. T. U., Mr. Faulkner, in conjunction 
with E. Leslie Pike, thoroughly canvassed the city, and at the request 
of Mr. Clarke to "go ahead and organize and the I. T. U. will back you 
up," started in on the work. The result was a list of 32 journeymen 
who announced a willingness to join the movement. 

The first meeting recorded in the books of the reorganized Union is 
under date of April 1, 1883, and was held in the composing room of the 
Telegram office for the purpose of receiving the report of the charter 
committee, appointed at a previous meeting, and to take the necessary 
steps to re-establish No. 33. 

The meeting was called to order by C. A. Faller, chairman of the 
Telegram chapel. 

The chairman of the charter committee reported for that committee, 
the charter was presented and accepted, and the committee discharged. 

Temporary officers were then elected as follows : President George 
Westfield; Treasurer James Moores Secretary E. Leslie Pike. 

The meeting then resolved into a committee of the whole. A com- 
mittee on organization was appointed; every member holding a card was 
assessed one dollar; the committee arose and reported progress. 

The committee on organization recommended that a committee on 
constitution and by-laws be elected. The recommendation was adopted 
and a committee of five elected. 

The meeting adjourned subject to the call of the committee on 
organization. 

A meeting was held the following Sunday (April 8) in the Provi- 
dence Temperance Cadet's Hall, and was called to order by the tempo- 
rary President, George Westfield. 

The report of the committee on organization was accepted and an 
order of business adopted. 




HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 95 

The following cards were received and accepted : Rudolph DeLeeuw, 
Boston; H. T. White, New Haven ; Richard J. Faulkner, Boston ; James 
J. Jones, Washington, D. C. ; Charles T. McKinley, Boston ; E. Leslie 
Pike, Boston ; Ed. P. Rollins, Buffalo, N. Y. ; William B. McCann, New 
York ; George H. Westfield, New York ; Robert W. Carlisle, Boston. 

The following were then obligated as members : William McCann, 
George W. Flynn, George W. Turner, Joseph N. B. Meegan, William M. 
Leavitt, John P. Dolan, Edwin T. Morse, E. T. Spencer, James J. Murray, 
William Palmer, James P. Bowes, Thomas L. Koran, Joseph G. Hodg- 
kinson, Owen M. Gledhill, James H. Russell, Joseph F. Doyle, George E. 
Boomer. 

The election of permanent officers was taken up and resulted as 
follows : President Richard J. Faulkner ; Recording and Corresponding 
Secretary Thomas L. Koran; Financial Secretary E. Leslie Pike; 
Treasurer W. M. Leavitt ; Sergeant-at-Arms George W. Flynn. 

A vote of thanks was tendered the Providence Temperance Cadets 
for the kindly use of their hall free of charge. 

The next meeting was held in the same hall one week later, and the 
permanent officers elected at the previous meeting were installed, with 
the exception of W. M. Leavitt as treasurer, who asked to be excused. 
The request was granted, and J. A. McGuinness was nominated, elected 
and installed as treasurer. 

The Union voted thanks to George H. Westfield for the efficient 
manner in which he had conducted the two previous meetings. 

At this meeting the travelling cards of C. A. Faller, New York, 
and T. B. Somers, Boston, were read and accepted, and the following 
gentlemen obligated : John J. Nolan, James Moore, J. A. McGuinness, 
Thomas M. Nolan, Eugene N. Lancaster, Samuel M. Bower, Frank N. 
Shaw, William Donovan, Charles W. Randall, Alfred A. Devenish, John 
Rodgers, Gordon E. Shepard. 

For several months following no business of great import came up 
for consideration, the members keeping busy with the work of gathering 
in delinquent " card-holders " and interviewing those journeymen who 
had never belonged to the Union. Their efforts were flatteringly suc- 
cessful, and a large percentage of those employed in the newspaper 
branch of the trade were soon affiliated with the organization, notwith- 
standing the obstacles thrown in their way by Mr. Danielson of the 
Journal and Z. L. White of the Star and Press. The employes of the 
Journal were required to sign a card stating that they were not mem- 
bers of Typographical Union, etc., and those of the Star and Press were 
notified that summary discharge would be the penalty meted out to 
those identifying themselves with the movement. 



96 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

While this had a deterrent effect on some of the employes in both 
offices, quite a number signed the card in the Journal office at the 
request of the executive committee and still held their membership, 
and some of the employes of the Star and Press also joined or deposited 
their cards with the Union. 

The investigating committee at the September meeting recom- 
mended that the Union take summary action on the cases of several 
gentlemen who had been backward in fulfilling their plain obligations 
to No. 33. The report was received but no definite action was taken on 
the recommendation. 

The "strike fund" was an unknown institution in those days, and 
appeals for aid from sister Unions and from Unions of other crafts con- 
sumed much of the time of every meeting. These communications 
were usually read, received and placed on file that spindle upon whose 
piercing point so many pathetic prayers have been impaled. However, 
in cases where the circumstances warranted more substantial consider- 
ation, financial assistance was seldom withheld. 

It was at this meeting (September 30, 1883) that the first appropri- 
ation was made in behalf of a sister Union; the secretary being in- 
structed to forward the sum of $5 to Sacramento Union, whose members 
were then on strike. 

The secretary, at the same meeting, was also authorized to pay the 
bill of $3 for one-half page ad in the "Proceedings" of I. T. U. convention 
for 1883. 

The members were evidently in good humor at the November 
meeting. E. P. Rollins was tendered a vote of thanks for faithful 
efforts in behalf of the Union. It is also recorded that Mr. Rollins lost 
his situation because of those efforts. The Union's philanthropy in- 
creased 100 per cent, at this meeting, and Ottawa Union was the bene- 
ficiary to the amount of $10. The spirit of forbearance was also shown 
in further delaying action on the cases of delinquents, which was still 
further postponed at the December meeting. 

The business of greatest importance at the December meeting was 
the election of officers for the ensuing year, which resulted as follows: 
President Meyrick Waites; Vice-President J. George Hodgkinson; 
Financial Secretary John A. McGuinness; Treasurer William Don- 
ovan; Sergeant-at-Arms Willian B. McCann. 

President Faulkner administered the oath of office to President-elect 
Waites, who in turn swore in the remaining officers-elect. 

The first meeting of 1884 was called to order Wednesday, January 
30, by President Waites. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 97 

Under the head of "New Business" the President suggested that a 
committee be appointed to interview other labor organizations of the 
city and vicinity in regard to forming a Central Labor Union. The 
President was given the power to select such a committee and he named 
Joseph C. Barker and James M. Gould to act with himself in the matter. 

The President also called attention to the defectiveness of the con- 
stitution and by-laws then in use by the Union, and a committee was 
appointed to remedy the defects. 

The secretary was instructed to inscribe on the roll of honorary 
members the name of P. P. Pomeroy, a printer, who had not worked at 
the business for over a year at that time. This gentleman, therefore, 
is entitled to the distinction of being the first honorary member under 
the reorganization. 

At this meeting, also, a committee was appointed to arrange for a 
grand ball, and Meagher Guards' Armory was the scene, and April 21 
the date of the brilliant affair. From 9 P. M. until 4 A. M. the next 
morning, according to newspaper accounts, "the Knights of the stick 
and rule threw themselves into the mazes of the merry waltz with as 
free abandon as etiquette and good breeding admitted." The Alpine 
Orchestra, E. A. Young, leader, furnished the music for the occasion, 
and Caterer Davis of the Dorrance Hotel, supplied the bounteous feast. 
William Donovan was floor director and Meyrick Waites assisted Mr. 
Donovan. 

J. H. Russell, James M. Gould, William Comyn, William Donovan 
and Thomas C. Shanley acted as committee of arrangements. Mr. 
Russell, for the committee, reported at a later meeting thati socially, 
the affair was a grand success, but financially, the Union was $29 to 
the bad. 

A costly souvenir programme, given with each ticket, was held to 
be responsible for the deficiency. 

At the February meeting the chairman of the investigating com- 
mittee reported that it had ratified an agreement between the pub- 
lishers of the Morning Star and Evening Press and their employes. 

President Waites explained the advantages gained by the employes 
in general and the Union in particular, and recommended that the Union 
sanction the ratification of the investigating committee. This action 
was taken by unanimous vote, and the President was thanked for his 
services in the matter. 

The agreement referred to above is incorporated in that part of the 
history dealing with plate matter. 

President Waites reported at the meeting held March 27, that a 
convention was to be held in Temperance Cadets' hall on Thursday 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



evening, March 29, for the purpose of organizing a Central Labor Union. 
Two delegates were elected (Messrs. Waites and Pike) to represent 
No. 33, and the officers of Providence Typographical Union were ap- 
pointed by President Waites as a reception committee to receive the 
delegates to the labor convention. 

April 30, 1884, a committee was appointed to inquire into the feasi- 
bility of holding an excursion during the summer, either as a Printers' 
Day, or as a celebration in conjunction with the Central Labor Union. 
At the May meeting the date for holding the excursion was fixed for 
July 9, but was later changed to July 22, the same to be known as 
" Printers' Day." The excursion on this occasion was not exclusively a 
Union affair, the original Union committee having interested a number 
of printers who were not members at that time. Previous to taking 
boats for Rocky Point a short street parade was made. The line was 
formed on North Main street at the foot of Waterman street, at 9 o'clock, 
as follows : Platoon of police ; Chief Marshal George W. Barry ; Aids, 
T. M. Nolan, J. A. Belcher ; Herrick's Brigade Band, J. 0. Casey, leader ; 
Typographical Union, Meyrick Waites, marshal. At the Union depot 
the line was augmented by a number of guests who had been received 
by James H. Russell. The visitors included Charles Miller, Nashua, 
N. H. ; Andrew F. Moran, Charles Sanford, John Burns, Charles H. 
Bigelow, Edgar Collins, New York ; James Rice, Charles Hubbley, Fred 
Reilly, Harvey Chappell, William McGrath, Theodore B. Somers, Frank 
McNamee, Henry White, Percy B. S. Thayer, Charles Baker, Edward 
Quinn, Frank Brayton, John Whittem, William Hayes, James Pym, 
L. Gates, Martin Kelly, John Hayes, J. Noonan, W. Roebbling, C. Wixon, 
F. Falvey, T. J. Murphy, James Harvey, George Appleton, John Galvin, 
B. B. Newell and others from Boston. 

The committee representing the Union on this occasion consisted 
of James H. Russell, James Gould, William Donovan, John Clarkson, 
Thomas M. Nolan and William Carroll. The excursion was a pro- 
nounced success in every particular. 

The idea suggested at the time of the appointment of the above 
committee, of combining with the Central Labor Union in a like cele- 
bration, met with such favor that before the time of celebrating 
"Printers' Day" the Union had accepted an invitation from the Central 
Labor Union to take part in a grand parade and excursion to Rocky 
Point under the auspices of that body. This action was taken at a 
meeting held July 3. Aside from celebrations inaugurated since the 
establishment of Labor Day and held on that day, the demonstration on 
that occasion was probably the greatest ever made by the Union forces 
of Rhode Island. August 19 was the date of the event. The line was 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 99 

headed by Sergeant Murray, now deputy chief, and a squad of police, 
followed by Hedley's Band, Drum Corps, Emmett Cadets, Delegates 
Central Labor Union, Typographical Union, Guests from Woonsocket 
and Attleboro, Tailors' Protective Union, Guests from Boston, Hartford 
and Lowell, R. I. Fife and Drum Band, Enterprise Association, Olney- 
ville Labor Association, Fall River Labor Association, Pawtucket Cigar- 
makers, Representatives of Mechanics, Carpenters and Shoemakers. 
After a short parade through the downtown streets, the party embarked 
on the steamer Day Star, on which were as guests of the Central Union 
Gen. Benj. F. Butler, of Massachusetts ; Senator A. W. Blair, of New 
Hampshire; Frank K. Foster, of Haverhill; and Hon. William Sprague, 
ex-Governor of Rhode Island. Upon reaching Rocky Point the guests 
were escorted to the coliseum, where addresses were made by General 
Butler, Frank K. Foster, Louis F. Post of New York, and others. 

Seated upon the stage were Secretary Howard, of Fall River Textile 
Association; Henry Oscar Cole, ex-President International Bricklayers; 
Doctor Garvin, Thomas Robinson, of Pawtucket; Mrs. B. C. Hillsman, 
Mrs. Abbie Lawrence and Mrs. E. M. Bowles, who was delegate to the 
Indianapolis convention which nominated General Butler for the Presi- 
dency of the United States. 

Letters of regret were read from John Swinton, Henry George and 
Congressman Foran of Ohio. 

It was announced from the stage that as soon as Senator Blair 
stepped from the boat he was handed a telegram which necessitated his 
immediate return home. 

Final arrangements for the parade were made at a special meeting 
held August 15, in the composing room of the Telegram. A banner to 
cost not more than $15 was ordered at this meeting, as were also badges. 
It was voted to insert a card in the daily papers calling upon members 
to meet at 54 North Main street, Tuesday, August 19, to take part in 
the parade. 

The resignation of President Waites was presented at the May 
meeting, and laid upon the table, and it was not until the September 
meeting that the resignation was finally accepted. 

In August a delegation from the New York Bricklayers Union was 
given the privilege of presenting their appeal for financial assistance 
from the floor of the Union, and they evidently convinced those present 
of the worthiness of their errand, from the fact that a donation of $25 
is recorded. 

Resolutions of condemnation of the New York Tribune for the vio- 
lation of an agreement with its employes, were passed at the November 
(1884) meeting and a boycotting committee appointed in conformity 



100 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

with the request of No. 6, and the matter brought before the Central 
Labor Union. In March, 1887, the boycotting committee made a final 
report to the effect that the sale of the Tribune had been practically 
suppressed in this State ; that no copies of that paper were then exposed 
for sale at any newspaper stand in this city. 

The year 1885 was a most strenuous one in Union affairs. Matters, 
then of great importance to the craft, came up for consideration and 
reconsideration month after month at regular and special meetings, and 
in some cases the subject of discussion was not disposed of until the 
lapse of years. 

" Plate matter " was one of the questions which perplexed the mind 
of the printer during that year, and for a long period following, and 
occasioned a flow of oratory that seems to have been checked only by 
the degeneration of the subject as a matter of importance. Because of 
the volume of preambles and resolutions, arguments, appeals, communi- 
cations and decisions, this matter will be treated as briefly as the impor- 
tance of the subject will admit. 

The Standard Dictionary defines plate matter as follows : 

" Matter for newspapers and periodicals, cast in stereotyped plates and sold to be used 
by several papers at practically the same time." 

The invention of plate matter made possible the enlargement of 
newspapers owned by the less successful publishers, who could not 
compete with their more fortunate brothers were they compelled to pay 
the price of hand composition to increase the number of their pages. 

Plate matter came in column lengths telegraph, miscellany and 
stories. Six columns of telegraph per day, 36 columns per week, cost $15. 
The same amount of hand composition would cost about $70. Naturally, 
publishers all over the country who could not otherwise afford to en- 
large their papers adopted the " boiler-plate " method. 

The International Union, because of a diversity of opinion through- 
out its jurisdiction upon the subject, referred the matter of its regulation 
to subordinate Unions. 

It was claimed by the defenders of its use that Union men were 
employed in setting up the type for the ready-made matter ; that papers 
now being published would be enlarged ; that new papers would be 
established, and that it would eventually prove beneficial to the craft. 

The argument that Union men were employed in its manufacture 
seemed of little consequence to the opponents of its use, since the work 
of a few threw hundreds out of employment, they claimed. They be- 
lieved that the publishers, instead of enlarging their papers, would 
curtail composition ; they denied that new papers would be established 
or flourish by its use ; rather was it an imposition upon the reading 
public and a present menace to the craft. 




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HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 101 



The first daily papers of this city to make use of plate matter to 
any great extent were the Evening Press and Morning Star and for 
several months they enjoyed the benefit undisturbed. 

To the employes of the Press and Star it looked as if the abolition 
of " plates " would mean the early suspension of those papers, thereby 
depriving about 30 printers of work, hence the stubborn fight of those 
printers against Union interference. 

The question of its regulation or control first came before a special 
meeting of the Union held September 17, 1885. James M. Gould, chair- 
man of the Telegram chapel, announced that D. 0. Black, then proprie- 
tor of the Evening Telegram, wished to introduce plate matter into 
that office. After lengthy discussion the matter was referred to a com- 
mittee to confer with the proprietors of the Telegram, Press and Star. 
This committee made a verbal report at a meeting held September 21, 
and also read an agreement between the compositors and Z. L. White 
of the Star and Press, and one between the Union and Z. L. White. 

A resolution was offered that Z. L. White be notified of the 
termination of all agreements existing between Providence Typo- 
graphical Union and himself 30 days from date of said notice. 

Point of order raised that this meeting was called to consider the 
question of " plate matter," and that the agreement could not be acted 
upon. 

The chair ruled the point not well taken. 

Amendment was made that the agreement be continued. Ruled 
out of order. 

The original resolution was passed. 

Notice of appeal to I. T. U. was given. 

The following is the full text of the appeal in which is included the 
agreement previously referred to : 

"At a full meeting of the Star chapel, held Wednesday afternoon, September 23, 1885, 
for the purpose of considering the action of Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, at 
special meetings held September 17 and 21, it was voted unanimously to make an appeal 
to the President of the International Typographical Union, and a committee was appointed 
for that purpose. The following is their appeal : 

"To MARTIN R. H. WITTER, PRESIDENT, INTERNATIONAL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION: 

"The undersigned, members of Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, do hereby 
make an appeal to you, as President of the International Typographical Union, on the 
points hereafter enumerated, and for the reasons herein stated: 

"A call was issued, dated September 16, 1885, 5:30 o'clock P. M., by the executive 
committee of Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, for a special meeting, to take 
place on Thursday, September 17, 1885, at 5 P. M. The object of this meeting is: 'to 
discuss the proposition of Mr. D. 0. Black to use plate matter on the Telegram.' 

"Another call, stating the object of the meeting to be, 'to discuss the introduction of 



plate matter into Union offices in this city,' was also posted in the Star office, but 
Mr. 



Palmer, a member of said executive committee, states that said call was changed in 
s presence by the President of the Union, Mr. John P. Horan, after it ha 
by the secretary, and without authorization from the executive committee. 



102 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



" [ See Mr. William Palmer's affidavit, Exhibit I. See also Exhibit IV. We desire you 
to rule on the legality of such a call.] 

"At the special meeting of Thursday, September 17, Thomas L. Horan offered the 
following: 

"RESOLVED, That this Union insists that where plate matter is used in Union offices, 
or in offices where Union men are employed, it shall be paid for at full composition rates, 
and to that end proof slips of such matter shall be taken, cut up and placed upon the hook 
as regular copy. 
' "Seconded. 

" Mr. Carroll made a point of order that the above resolution was establishing in part 
a scale of prices, and therefore could not be legally considered at a special meeting. See 
Articles XV. and XVI., viz: 

"ARTICLE XV. 
"SCALE OF PRICES. 

"The scale of prices established by this Union shall, in all cases, be considered a part 
of this constitution; and no member shall, on any pretense whatever, work for less prices 
than are therein specified, without permission from this Union. 

"ARTICLE XVI. 

"ALTERING AND AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION. 

"An alteration or amendment of this constitution must be offered at a regular meeting 
of the Union, and, if seconded, shall be entered on the minutes. At the next stated 
meeting it may be considered, and, if agreed to by the votes of two-thirds of the members 
present, said number being not less than twenty, shall become a part of the constitution ; 
provided, that any alteration or amendment receiving a unanimous vote at any regular 
meeting shall become a part of this constitution without previous notice. 

" The point of order was overruled and the decision of the chair sustained by a 
majority vote. 

"A substitute motion, to appoint a committee of five to confer with the proprietors of 
the Morning Star and Evening Telegram, was moved and carried in place of the preceding 
motion, and the committee was directed to report at an adjourned special meeting to be 
holden on Monday, September 21, 1885, at 5 o'clock P. M. 

"[We desire you to decide on the point of order stated above.] 

"At the adjourned special meeting on Monday, September 21, the special committee 
of five reported their interviews with Mr. Z. L. White, publisher of the Star, and with Mr. 
D. 0. Black, publisher of the Telegram, but made no recommendations. Their report 
disclosed the existence of a contract between Mr. Z. L. White and the printers in his 
employ, which had been sanctioned by the Union. 

"[For copies of agreement, etc., see Exhibit II.] 

"The report of the committee also disclosed the fact that Mr. D. 0. Black did not 
intend to use plate matter, but that he only wished the Union to take action to prevent 
Mr. White from using it. The report was received. 

" Mr. Tanner offered the following : 

"RESOLVED, That the executive committee be instructed to notify Mr. Z. L. White of 
the termination of any and all agreements existing between him and Providence Typo- 
graphical Union, with the specified thirty days notice. 

" Seconded. 

"Mr. Carroll made a point of order that the above resolution was not in order, in that 
the special meeting had been called to consider the subject of plate matter only. 

"The point of order was overruled, an appeal to the Union taken, and the chair 
sustained. 

" The vote on the resolution was announced as 36 to 21 and the chair decided the 
resolution carried. 

"Mr. Carroll then called attention to Article IV, Section 1, of the constitution, viz: 

"ARTICLE IV. 

"DUTIES OF COMMITTEES. 

"SECTION 1. The executive committee shall consist of five members (including the 
recording secretary ); they shall have charge of all matters pertaining to the interests of 
the craft, or such other business as may properly be laid before them ; they shall take, 
in all cases ( except ordering strikes, ) such action as will further the good and welfare of 
the Union ; they shall decide on all matters referred to them by a vote of the Union, and 
their decision shall in all cases be binding until reversed by a two-thirds vote of the Union 
at any meeting; they shall have power in cases of special emergency to appropriate 






HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 103 



money out of the treasury by a unanimous vote of the committee; the secretary of the 
Union, as presiding officer, shall have the casting vote in all the meetings of the committee. 
"Mr. Carroll claimed that it required a two-thirds vote to reverse action taken by the 
executive committee. 

" The President ruled the point not well taken, and before a vote was reached on the 
point of order, the meeting adjourned. 

"[We desire you to rule on the two points in regard to the legality of the special 
meeting to break said agreement, and also on the required vote necessary to overturn a 
decision of the executive committee.] 

"At the regular meeting of September 27, the executive committee reported as follows : 

"PROVIDENCE, R. I., Sept. 27, 1885. 
"To THE OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, No. 33: 

" The executive committee would beg leave to report that it has acted on the matter 
referred to it; namely, the resolution passed at the last special meeting of this Union, 
and has decided, by a majority vote of the members of the committee, to give such notice 
to Mr. Z. L. White of the termination of the contract or agreement existing between 
Providence Typographical Union and the Star office management. 

" The notice has been drawn up, and would have been sent on the 26th inst., but for 
the fact that the signatures of all or a majority of the members of the committee could 
not be obtained. The notice will be sent in to-morrow. The committee have been 
directed by the President to instruct all members of the Union employed in the Star office 
who have signed the contract or agreement between the employes and management of 
the Press Company, whether members of the Union at the time of signing said contract 
or agreement, or having since joined, to notify Mr. Z. L. White of the termination of said 
contract or agreement, on the specified thirty days' notice, and the committee will so in- 
struct the employes of the Star office after notice shall have been served on Mr. Z. L. White. 
"According to a clause in the General Laws of the International Typographical Union, 
entitled Suspensions, Agreements, page 154, all such contracts or agreements are illegal, 
and the contract or agreement between this Union and the management of the Star office 
is, therefore, null and void; but as the management of the Star office may not be aware 
of that fact, it is deemed proper by the committee that they should give the thirty days' 
notice called for by the contract or agreement, as a matter of courtesy on the part of 
Providence Typographical Union. 

"All of which is respectfully submitted. 

"J. A. McGuiNNESS, Chairman, 
" 0. M. GLEDHILL, 
"CHARLES H. STILES, 

"The report was adopted. "CHARLES H. McPHERSON, Executive Committee 

"[We ask you to rule whether our agreement (Exhibit II.) with Mr. White, of the 
Star, was illegal under the laws of the International Typographical Union.] 

"The committee in making this appeal as directed by the Star chapel can say that 
they, and those they represent, are actuated solely by a desire to secure justice and 
harmony ; but they feel that if the proceedings of our Union are to be conducted in ways 
that seem to them contrary to all the provisions of our local constitution and also contrary 
to the spirit and letter of the general laws and all recognized parliamentary practice, that 
there is no security for us in the future against unwise and hasty action. 
"(Signed) "ROBERT GRIEVE, 

"WILLIAM CARROLL, 

"WILLIAM B. McCANN, Committee Star Chapel. 
'JOSEPH C. BARKER, 'WILLIAM CARROLL, 

' EDWIN W. SMITH, 'ROBERT GRIEVE, 

'A. H. NUTTING, 'WILLIAM B. McCANN, 

'S. T. TRIMMER, 'ROBERT W. CARLISLE, 

' W. J. MEEGAN, ' JOHN DUFFY, 

'H. A. DARLING, 'ELIAS S. NICKERSON, 

'J.C.RYAN, 'R.J.CLOWES, 

' WILLIAM PALMER, 'F. P. CREAMER, 

" C. E. BURTWELL, "THOMAS H. PHILLIPS, 

"A. P. BROWN, " E. L. PIKE. 

"NOTE. Mr. Charles H. McPherson was one of two extra members added by the 
President to the committee; but he was not at the time he was so appointed a member of 
the Union, as his card had not been accepted at a meeting of the Union. 



104 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



" It was voted by the Star chapel that Messrs. William Palmer and Robert Grieve, 
members of the executive committee of Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, be re- 
quested to transmit to the President of the International Typographical Union, a copy of 
the statement they had made to the Star Chapel, as to what had occurred at a meeting of 
the executive committee, Tuesday evening, September 20. The statement is as follows: 

"[Copy.] 

"A meeting of the executive committee of Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, 
was held Tuesday evening, September 20, about 6 o'clock, in the editorial room of the 
Evening Telegram. The whole committee, consisting of Messrs. McGuinness, Gledhill, 
Stiles, Palmer and Grieve were present. After the satisfactory settlement of one point of 
business, a discussion was entered into concerning the recent action of the Union, Messrs. 
Grieve and Palmer holding it to be illegal, and Messrs. Stiles and Gledhill maintaining an 
opposite view ; but still the discussion was being conducted in a very friendly and broth- 
erly spirit. Early in the discussion, Mr. John P. Koran, President of the Union, came 
in, and offered as an excuse that he was locked out of another part of the building, and 
would consequently remain with the committee and listen. Nothing was said and he re- 
mained. Mr. Stiles and Mr. Grieve in continuing the discussion, differed on the point as 
to the bearing of the general laws of the International Typographical Union, in regard to 
contracts between employers and employes, and Mr. Stiles was proceeding to show Mr. 
Grieve the sections of the International law bearing on the subject, when Mr. Horan 
objected, saying that he wished to hold that point in reserve for his own subsequent use. 
Mr. Grieve then demanded from Mr. Horan what right he had to be present and take part 
in the deliberations of the executive committee, and Mr. Horan answered that as President 
of the Union, he had a right to be present and have a voice in doings of all committees. 
Mr. Grieve refused to recognize that alleged right, and demanded from Mr. Stiles that he 
proceed as if Mr. Horan was not present and had not objected ; but Mr. Stiles did not so 
proceed. The discussion then went on in a general way for a few minutes longer, when an 
interruption was again made by Mr. Horan, who, in an angry tone of voice said substan- 
tially : ' If this discussion goes on as it is now doing, and the committee does not take the 
action which it has been directed to do by the Union, I will within one hour add five more 
members to the executive committee.' Mr. Palmer made a motion to adjourn, which was 
seconded, but not put by the chair, whereupon Messrs. Palmer and Grieve departed, 
refusing to stay longer after receiving, what seemed to them, an insult from the President 
of the Union, or at least a threat from him that if they did not pursue a certain course he 
would do certain things. 

"( Signed ) " WILLIAM PALMER, 

" ROBERT GRIEVE. 
" [EXHIBIT I.] 

"I, William Palmer, a member of Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, and also 
one of the executive committee of said organization, depose and say that on Wednesday 
evening, September 16, 1885, about 5:30 o'clock, I met John P. Horan, President of the 
Union, on Custom House street, in said city, and Mr. Horan did then and there show me a 
call, purporting to be issued by the executive committee, for a special meeting of said 
Union, to be held next day, and said Horan changed the wording of the object of the call 
in my presence, substituting the words 'Union offices,' for 'Telegram office,' and made 
such other alterations as such change rendered necessary. 

"WILLIAM PALMER. 

" State of Rhode Island, Providence Plantations. 

"Providence Sc. Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 26th day of September, 1885. 

" WILLIAM A. PHILLIPS, Notary Public. 

" [EXHIBIT II.] 

"[Copy.] 

"PROVIDENCE, R. I., Feb. 26, 1884. 

" It is mutually agreed between the Providence Press Co. and the compositors em- 
ployed in its newspaper composing room, whose names are appended to this instrument : 

" 1. That the Providence Press Co. will remove the restriction now in force in ac- 
cordance with which it refuses to employ any printer who is a member of the printer's 
Union. 

"2. That the compositors whose names are hereunto appended, agree that, as long 
as they are in the employ of the Providence Press Co., they will not engage in, counte- 
nance nor advise any attempt on the part of any person or persons, whether in the employ 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 106 



of the Providence Press Co. or not, to prevent, on account of his membership or non- 
membership in any printers' Union, the employment of any compositor by the Providence 
Press Co. in the usual manner, or the dismissal of any one upon the customary week's 
notice for just cause. And further, that they will not interfere with the right of any 
such printers to work unmolested on account of their connection or non-connection with 
any printers' Union or other organization. 

"3. It is further agreed by the compositors in the employ of the Providence Press 
Co., whose names are appended to this, that they will not, while they remain in such em- 
ploy, engage in, countenance nor advise interference by any printers' Union, or other 
organization, with any of the internal arrangements of the Providence Press Co.'s office, 
until all methods of adjustment provided in this agreement shall have failed, or with the 
rates that shall be paid for labor, but will leave all such matters to be adjusted by mutual 
agreement between employers and employes. And in case of disagreement in regard to 
any of these matters, it is also agreed that the compositors aforesaid shall not inaugurate 
nor engage in any strike in the office of the Providence Press Co., without having given 
to the manager at least one month's notice of their intention to do so. And that said 
Providence Press Co., on their part, agree to give one month's notice in writing to said 
compositors before enforcing any change which may affect the interests of said composi- 
tors, such notice on each side to date from the time when a definite decision shall have 
been arrived at by either of the contracting parties. 

"4. Any wilful violation of this agreement by any compositor in the employ of the 
Providence Press Co. shall terminate it so far as it relates to him, and shall terminate also 
his employment by the company. 

"5. This agreement may be modified at any time by the mutual consent of the 
parties to it, or it may be terminated by either party upon giving to the other not less 
than 30 days' notice. 

"PROVIDENCE PRESS CO., 

" Z. L. WHITE, Manager. 



'FREDERICK M. SIMONS, "JAMES L. BlCKNELL, 

' J. CROIL RYAN, " HENRY W. POTTER, 

'S. T. B. TRIMMER, 'JOSEPH B. LEVENS, 

JOSEPH C. BARKER, ' MEYRICK WAITES, 

'WILLIAM CARROLL, 'HENRY A. BARNES, 

'EDWIN W. SMITH, 'H. A. DARLING, 

'THOMAS M. NOLAN, 'WILLIAM PALMER, 

'H. C. BARNES, 'D. MCCANN, 



'JOHN LOCKLIN, 

' HENRY R. SAWYER, 

'G. W. WILSON, 

' ELIAS S. NICKERSON, 

' JOHN J. NOLAN, 

'A. P. BROWN, 

' GEORGE E. COOLEY, 

' WILLIAM E. TOURTELLOT, 

' J. J. HANLON." 



"AHIRA HALL, "E. L. PIKE, 

" C. E. BURTWELL, 

A modification of this agreement was afterward made so that only 
Union men could work in the office (excepting those men already em- 
ployed there). 

"[Copy.] 

" PROVIDENCE, R. L, Feb. 26, 1884. 

"We, the undersigned, members of the investigating committee, and officers of 
Providence Typographical Union, No. 33, by virtue of the power vested in us by its con- 
stitution, do hereby indorse and ratify the action of those of the members of said Union, 
who have subscribed, or who may hereafter subscribe, to the agreement entered into 
between the printers employed by the Providence Press Company and the manager 
(Mr 2. L. White), on behalf of said company, this 26th day of February, 1884, by which 
the restrictions against the employment of Union printers by the Providence Press Com- 
pany are removed. 

"EDWARD L. PIKE, Chairman Inves. Com., 
"JAMES M. GOULD, 
" J. H. OLDFIELD, 
"WILLIAM PALMER, 

" MEYRICK WAITES, Pres. Typo. Union, No. 33. 
"[Seal.] "J. A. McGuiNNESS, Cor. and Rec. Secy. 

NOTE. The investigating committee under the constitution adopted at the reorgan- 
ization of Typographical Union, No. 33, and the executive committee under its present 
constitution are synonymous. 



106 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



"[EXHIBIT III.] 

"[Copy.] 

" OFFICE OF THE PROVIDENCE PRESS Co., 

PROVIDENCE, R. I., Sept. 29, 1884. 

"DEAR SIR The Providence Press Company, having disposed of its newspaper prop- 
erty, will have no further use for your services after the publication of the Press on 
Tuesday, September 30. 

"Truly yours, 

"PROVIDENCE PRESS Co., 

" Z. L. WHITE, Manager. 
"[Copy.] 

" PROVIDENCE, R. I., Sept. 29, 1884. 

"DEAR SIR Having acquired the newspaper property of the Providence Press Com- 
pany, I shall take possession after the publication of the Press on the 30th inst. I desire 
to engage your services in the same position, at the same pay, and on the same conditions 
as those upon which you have heretofore been employed by the Press Company. 

"Truly yours, 

"Z. L. WHITE. 

"[EXHIBIT IV.] 

"The call for the special meeting of September 17 on its face purported to come from 
the executive committee of the Union, but Mr. William Palmer and Mr. Robert Grieve, 
regular members of that committee, and members in good standing of the Union, who 
were neither absent from the city nor in hiding, and who were both easily accessible, were 
neither of them notified of any meeting of the executive committee immediately preceding 
the special meeting of September 17, and knew nothing of it until they read the call. 

" ( Signed ) " WILLIAM PALMER, 

"ROBERT GRIEVE." 

The President was authorized, at a meeting held November 1, to 
choose two members of the Union to assist him in preparing an answer 
to the Star chapel's appeal to the I. T. U. 

By mutual consent, however, the appeal was withdrawn, but the 
subject was not dead by any means. 

At a special meeting held February 4, 1886, called by the executive 
committee at the request of the Telegram chapel, the following question 
was submitted for consideration : 

" Shall members of this Union be permitted to work in newspaper offices where plates 
or blocks, technically known as 'plate matter,' are used as reading matter to the exclusion 
of composition?" 

This was decided: Nay 64; yea 24. 

At the same meeting it was moved and adopted, "that all matters 
pertaining to 'plate matter' be, in the future, referred to the executive 
committee with power to act." 

The executive committee at a later meeting presented a resolution 
to the effect that the use of plate matter to the exclusion of composition 
was injurious to the members of this Union and the craft in general, and 
that the delegate to the L T. U. convention to be held at Pittsburg be 
instructed and directed to influence legislation preventing its manufac- 
ture; and that they (the executive committee) be directed to inform 
the proprietors of the different papers in this city that the Union con- 
siders the use of plate matter detrimental to the interests of printers and 
an imposition upon the public. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 107 

At this point William Carroll said that he understood that the chair- 
man of the executive committee had in his possession a communication 
from the President of the International Union on the subject before the 
Union, and hoped that, if the gentleman had such a communication, it 
would be read. 

The chairman of the executive committee replied that the com- 
mittee desired to retain for the present the information they had on the 
subject. 

The resolution was then adopted. 

At the meeting following, March 7, 1886, it was voted that the 
chairman of the executive committee read the communication referred 
to at the last meeting. 

The following were then read by Mr. Dolan : 

[Telegram.] 

"Sx. Louis, Feb. 8, 1886. 
" To JOHN P. DOLAN, JOURNAL OFFICE. 

" Executive Council will not support strike against plates. Will write. 

"M. R. H. WITTER." 
[Letter.] 

"ST. Louis, Feb. 8, 1886. 
"JOHN P. DOLAN, CHAIRMAN EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 

"DEAR SIR My telegram to you announces a decision formed by the executive 
council soon after the laws went into effect, and is based on the divergence of opinion in 
the craft as to the effect on the business of the use of plates there being no agreement 
whatever. While, therefore, the plates are under the jurisdiction of local Unions, the 
executive council have uniformly declined to tax those (not a small number) who think 
them no injury, to support a strike against their use. 

"Hoping you will find some amicable settlement possible, 

"I remain fraternally, 

" M. R. H. WITTER, President I. T. U." 

No action is recorded as having been taken on this communication, 
which evidently afforded cold comfort to the "anti-platers," and for 
three months the matter was held in abeyance. 

In the meantime the executive committee having secured a copy of 
the laws referred to in the President's communication, and with which 
they were previously unfamiliar, decided to present to the meeting to 
be held July 25, the following preamble and resolutions as the wisest 
and best course to pursue in the premises: 

"WHEREAS, Since the passage of the new laws touching upon plate matter by the 
I. T. U., the use of said manufacture has increased in this jurisdiction to such an extent 
that members of this Union have been thrown out of employment; therefore, it is 

"RESOLVED, That a committee of three be appointed for the purpose of collecting 
all the facts in relation to the question, and laying them before the executive council of 
the I. T. U. for action. 

" RESOLVED, That this Union believes its material interests to be threatened by the 
continued use of 'plate' in its jurisdiction and request authority from the executive 
council of the I. T. U. to strike against such use should other means fail to effect its dis- 
continuance. And it is further 

"RESOLVED, That in the event of said executive council refusing such authority to 
strike, this Union demand of the President of the I. T. U. that he, or someone by him 
appointed, personally visit Providence, investigate the matter and advise the Union of 
its duty. 



108 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

The matter was referred back to the executive committee to carry 
out the recommendations. 

Plate matter was not again mentioned until the November meeting. 
Dr. L. F. C. Garvin and Robert Grieve, from the Board of Directors of The 
People, were allowed to address the assembly. Their statements were 
to the effect that they would have to reduce the force in the composing 
room of The People and intended to use plate matter in the columns of 
that paper. 

This renewed the controversy and plate matter continued as a live 
topic until April 27, 1887. At that meeting reference to the subject was 
made in form of a resolution praying that the International Union take 
positive stand in opposition to its manufacture. 

From the time of the introduction of the controversy to the period 
of its conclusion, the changes wrought in the printorial affairs of Provi- 
dence were of a kaleidoscopic character. To summarize: The Star 
and Press were of those to be remembered. The Item, launched auspi- 
ciously, had foundered, and The Republican, issuing from the wreck, had 
grounded in the shallows of poverty; The Evening Mail, a democratic 
organ, had been attuned to life and died of dividendal discord. Plate 
matter had made its appearance in the columns of The Telegram, and 
many of those printers who had, in the past, bitterly antagonized its 
employment were now its flaccid defenders or silent witnesses to its 
extensive use. And as a finial to the "pot metal" debate, suppressing 
further discussion of that matter without restoring the compositors' 
equanimity, came the announcement of the introduction of typesetting 
machines in the office of the Journal. 

At the January (1885) meeting a clipping from one of the daily 
papers of this city was read, announcing the establishment of a depart- 
ment of instruction in printing at the State Reform School. After pro- 
longed discussion it was voted that the executive committee investigate 
the matter and report upon the advisability of holding a public meeting 
to protest against the creation of such a department. After listening 
to the report of the executive committee at the next meeting action 
was indefinitely postponed. 

It was believed by those who favored its abolition that the instruc- 
tion to be dispensed would not redound to the benefit of the craft nor 
to the dignity of the art, and an examination of the work produced at 
the school and an acquaintance with some of its " graduates " proves 
that the apprehension felt at that time was entirely correct. 

In addition to his report, made June 28, the International delegate 
presented a resolution of thanks to George W. Childs of the Philadelphia 
Ledger, for his courteous invitation to the I. T. U. delegates to visit him 




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HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 109 

at his home in Philadelphia, free of expense. The resolution was adopted, 
and the delegate, William Carroll, was thanked for his able representation 
of No. 33 at the convention. 

The inquiry committee was instructed at the August meeting to 
ascertain the names of all non-union printers then employed in the city. 
The committee evidently failed of its purpose as no report is entered in 
the books. 

A preamble and resolution of censure, directed against those indi- 
viduals known as " frame jumpers," was offered at the August meeting 
and was referred to the delegate to the I. T. U. Several special meet- 
ings were held during September for the purpose of discussing " plate 
matter," and at the time of the holding of the regular September meet- 
ing, the delegate, having more important business on hand, failed to 
report on that particular matter. The phraseology of the preamble and 
resolution is unfortunately omitted from the minutes, but the author is 
named and, to those who know the gentleman, it does not require a 
very vivid imagination to glean from between the lines of the simple 
announcement of its introduction, the tenor of the resolution, nor to 
fancy the causticity of its vituperation. Many of the travelling frater- 
nity the itinerant subs had a weakness for accepting work and failing 
to fulfill the engagement, to the great annoyance of the lords of the com- 
posing room. Joseph C. Barker, the father of the resolution referred 
to, was not a foreman at that time, but evidently sympathized with the 
unhappy lot of the holders of that responsible situation. 

At a special meeting held September 21, Mr. McKay, " a gentleman 
from the Cigarmakers Union of Pawtucket," was given the privilege of 
the floor, and he asked that the Union use its influence in suppressing 
the sale of cigars called " Roman Punch," the labels on which had been 
surreptitiously obtained. These cigars were on sale at a place much 
frequented by printers, and the. committee appointed to handle the 
matter reported at the regular meeting, held one week later, that they 
had succeeded in accomplishing the object for which they had been 
appointed. 

The permanent organization of the Rhode Island Co-operative 
Printing and Publishing Company was announced at an adjourned 
meeting held November 1. 

A change in the management of the Providence Journal Company 
was regarded by the Union as a favorable opportunity to have the re- 
strictions against the employment of Union men in that office removed. 
As a result of a " chapel strike " in the Journal office June 12, 1875, the 
management drew up the following card, to which all printers subse- 
quently employed in that establishment were obliged to subscribe: 



110 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



" Some years ago, when the compositors in the Journal office were ordered to leave 
their employment without notice, on a question involving less than 25 cents a month, by 
the votes of men working for a lower rate of compensation, the publishers of the Journal 
decided that thereafter they would employ no men whose responsibility to any outside 
organization was greater than to the men for whom they had contracted to work. Under 
these circumstances, which imply a non-affiliation with any organization in this city 
known as a Printers' Union, if you desire employment on the Journal, will you please re- 
turn this card with your name upon it. We wish to influence no man in the independent 
management of his own concerns, and simply intend to maintain the same rights for our- 
selves which we freely concede to all others. 

"KNOWLES, ANTHONY & DANIELSON." 

July, 1885, an editorial, very favorable to organized labor, appeared 
in the Journal. A letter was sent to Richard S. Rowland, the new 
manager, quoting the editorial and asking that he concede to the em- 
ployes of his composing room, and to the other printers of the city, the 
privileges advocated in the article. July 15 a sub-committee, delegated 
by a committee appointed for the purpose, was received by Mr. Rowland, 
and the question of abolishing the requirement of signing the above card 
was discussed. Mr. Rowland said he desired to confer with his associates 
before acceding to the Union's request, but would later communicate 
with the committee. His reply was unfavorable, undoubtedly because 
the employes of the old management had become the advisers of the new. 
It was then decided to boycott the publications of the Journal Company. 

The matter was taken up by the Central Labor Union and District 
Assembly K. of L., and a joint committee from those two organizations 
made effort to have the card withdrawn. October 25, 1885, this joint 
committee was given the courtesy of the floor of the Union, and reported 
that Mr. Rowland was willing to remove the restriction provided it could 
be demonstrated that it would be to the interest of all concerned. 

A committee was then appointed to act in conjunction with the 
joint committee with that object in view. 

At the meeting held November 30, this committee reported that 
the mission for which it had been appointed had been accomplished. 
During the space of one month the committee had secured from Mr. 
Rowland an agreement to submit the matter to arbitration, had selected 
arbitrators, and had successfully presented their case before the arbitra- 
tion board. The following are copies of the official reports as recorded: 

"PROVIDENCE, R. L, November 28, 1885. 
"To THE PRESIDENT AND MEMBERS OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, No. 33: 

"Your committee appointed to boycott the Providence Journal Company respectfully 
announce that they have accomplished the object for which they were appointed and that 
the restrictive card heretofore existing in the Journal office has been removed, and 
appended are fac-simile copies of decisions of the arbitration committee. We also desire 
to make honorable mention of the Newsdealers' Protective Union, and recommend the 
members thereof to the patronage of our members as recompense for the aid afforded. 

" Respectfully submitted, 

" C. H. STILES, Chairman, 
"JOSEPH C. BARKER, 
"RICHARD J. FAULKNER. 
"Committee of Providence Typo. Union, No. 33. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 111 



"(Copy.) 

" TERMS OF AGREEMENT. 

"Mr. Rowland agrees to submit to an arbitration board consisting of two members 
chosen by himself, two members chosen by organized labor, and one member to be ap- 
pointed by the four thus chosen, the question as to whether the restrictive card now in force 
in the Journal office, prohibiting the employment of Union men shall be removed or not. 

" On behalf of the Journal, 

"R. S. ROWLAND, Manager. 
"On behalf of organized labor, 
" J. P. KORAN, 
"JOSEPH NORMANDY. 
"A true copy attest, 

" C. H. STILES, Secretary. 

"PROVIDENCE, R. I., Nov. 28, 1885. 
" To TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, No. 33. 

" GENTLEMEN The arbitrators appointed by your committee to meet the representa- 
tives of Mr. Howland, beg leave to report that they have concluded their labors, and are 
proud to record that the struggle has terminated entirely in favor of your organization. 
Not only has the card been removed, but the arbitrators have, in their decision, seen fit 
to introduce some very complimentary remarks with regard to the Providence Typo- 
graphical Union. Appended is the decision, signed by the full board. Congratulating 
you upon the result of our joint labors, we remain, 

"Respectfully and fraternally yours, 

"JOHN P. HORAN, 
"JAMES A. McKAY. 

"Arbitrators representing organized labor. 
"A true copy attest, 

"C. H. STILES, Secretary. 

"PROVIDENCE, R. I., Nov. 24, 1885. 

" The undersigned, who were appointed arbitrators under the foregoing agreement, 
have heard the parties and their allegations and evidence, and do find and determine that 
the restrictive card now in force in the Journal office, prohibiting the employment of 
members of the Typographical Union, causes injury to the Union, and that the with- 
drawal of the requirement to sign the card will work no present injury to the Providence 
Journal Company. The arbitrators are further satisfied that the present purposes and 
policy of the Typographical Union are not such as to threaten any unfair action toward 
the Company or their employes, and they do therefore decide that those employed by the 
Company shall no longer be required to sign the card. 

"G. M. CARPENTER, 
" A. B. CHACE, 
"LuciAN SHARPE, 
"JOHN P. HORAN, 
"JAMES A. McKAY, 

"A true copy attest, "Board of Arbitrators. 

"C. H. STILES, Secretary. 
"JOSEPH NORMANDY, Chairman." 

William Carroll, who had presented the Union's argument before 
the board, was appointed a committee to draw up suitable resolutions 
of thanks to the members of the arbitration board. 

Out of a total of 57 men in the composing room of the Journal at 
that time (November, 1885,) 39 were Union men. 

The matters considered during 1886 were mostly of minor import- 
ance, but the "plate matter" question added zest to dull routine through- 
out the year. 

Resolutions denunciatory of the copyright bill introduced by Senator 
Hawley, and endorsing the bill of Senator Chace, were adopted at the 



112 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

January meeting and forwarded to the Senators and Representatives of 
Rhode Island. 

At the March meeting the Union appropriated $10 for the purpose 
of assisting to defray the expense of a constitutional amendment torch- 
light parade. 

At the same meeting the proposed amalgamation of trades unions 
with the Knights' of Labor was discussed. The matter was to be acted 
upon at the convention of the I. T. U., and while the opinion was held 
that such amalgamation, in so far as the Typographical Union was con- 
cerned, was inadvisable, the delegate to the I. T. U. convention was not 
instructed as to his vote in the matter. 

May 30, 1886, the following scale of prices was adopted : 

"FOR NIGHT WORK. 

" 1. Composition, 40 cents per 1000 ems. 

" 2. Work by the hour, to be paid for at the rate of 40 cents per hour. 

" 3. Tabular matter shall be paid for as follows : Five columns of figures or words, 
or words and figures, with or without rules, double price; three or four columns of figures 
or words, price and a half; type set in half measure which shall contain two columns of 
figures or words in each half stick, price and a half. 

"4. Copy shall be furnished continuously for seven hours from the calling of 
'time/ and all waiting time within said seven hours shall be paid for at the rate of 
40 cents per hour. 

" 5. All single measure cuts in reading matter shall be measured by the compositor." 

Substituting 35 cents for 40 cents, the scale for day work was iden- 
tical with that for night work. 

A miscellaneous addenda provided for the payment for all changes 
from copy made in the proof, and the payment of $1 to the compositor 
who might be called to accommodate the office after work had been 
commenced. 

At the June meeting John Mulleda and Patrick F. McGrath, repre- 
senting the Journeymen Bricklayers' and Masons' Union, were given the 
privilege of the floor and pleaded for financial assistance in a struggle 
then being waged by that Union for a shorter workday. Typographical 
Union responded by voting $50 almost depleting No. 33's treasury to 
the Bricklayers. 

A situation on a co-operative weekly newspaper proved no sinecure 
to the Union printer, and because of a denial by the Rhode Island Co- 
operative Printing and Publishing Co. of many "rights" demanded and 
received of the capitalistic press, that company was time and again 
reported as violating the scale. Committees appointed had failed to 
make the issue fully clear to the board of directors of that concern, and 
at the May meeting a committee was appointed to explain to the board 
the "real" trouble between the Union and that paper. This committee 
reported at the August meeting that it had complied with instructions 
from the Union, but that no answer had been received from the board 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 113 

of directors as promised. President Horan then produced and read a 
letter which he had received from the secretary of the Rhode Island 
Co-operative Printing and Publishing Co. It was moved that the report 
of the committee be received and that the letter read by the President 
be laid on the table. Amended that the letter be laid " under " the 
table; the amendment was adopted. 

An appeal from Cleveland Union was read at the September meet- 
ing. The appeal stated that owing to a technicality Cleveland Union 
was not entitled to benefits from the "strike fund/' then in operation, 
and a circular, signed by the executive council, was attached, which 
stated that after careful investigation it had concluded that local Unions 
would be doing a noble act in assisting Cleveland Union in its battle with 
the Cleveland Leader. The secretary was instructed to communicate 
and ascertain as to the technicality. At the December meeting the 
Union donated $20 to Cleveland Union. 

A flurry was caused by the action of a member at the October 
meeting. Balloting upon the name of a candidate had just been com- 
pleted and upon the announcement of the candidate's election this 
member " arose from his seat and approaching the President, threw his 
card upon the desk and withdrew from the meeting." A committee was 
immediately appointed to take possession of the card and to ascertain 
the reason for such action on the part of a member. A satisfactory 
apology was made to this committee by the offender and no further ac- 
tion was taken by the Union in the matter. Later on it was voted that 
all reference to the matter be stricken from the books. 

The first banquet and social of the reorganized Union was held 
Thanksgiving night, 1886, in Slocum Light Guards' Armory. Gelb & 
Norton were the caterers on that occasion, and the Alpine Orchestra fur- 
nished the music for the dance which followed. Thomas L. Horan acted 
as toastmaster of the post prandial exercises, and F. J. Crandall, editor 
of the Telegram, being unable to be present, responded by letter to 
the first toast, "The President of the United States." Messrs. Barnes, 
Elsbree, Hurley and Stratton, a quartette of members from the Journal 
office, then sang, and was followed by President John P. Horan in re- 
sponse to the toast, " Providence Typographical Union." Mrs. Maxime 
Bourett read an original poem, filled with allusions to the craft. " Our 
Honorary Members" was eloquently responded to by Hon. George J. 
West. Other toasts were responded to as follows : " The Press," Martin C. 
Day of the Journal; " Our Chapels," by Andrew Moran of the Journal, 
James H. Russell of the Telegram, J. Croil Ryan of the Star, and 
Howard E. Sherman of the Dispatch. Joseph Newton of the Journal 
and Al. Devenish of J. A. & R. A. Reid's, were heard in comic songs. 



114 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

The last toast of the evening, "The Ladies" was responded to by 0. M. 
Remington of the Dispatch. At the close of the literary exercises the 
hall was cleared for dancing and soon all were " footing it to a merry 
measure." The committee in charge of the affair were : William Carroll, 
of the Star ; William M. Leavitt, of the Journal ; James J. Murray, of 
the What Cheer Print ; William Palmer, Star ; and Thomas L. Koran, 
Telegram. Letters of regret were read by the toastmaster from Hon. 
George M. Carpenter, Judge of the United States Circuit Court ; A. M. 
Williams, editor of the Journal ; R. S. Rowland, manager of the Journal 
and others. 

At the December meeting the Hon. George M. Carpenter was 
elected to honorary membership, and the secretary received in answer 
the following reply which was read at the January meeting : 

"UNITED STATES COURTS, 

" PROVIDENCE R. I., Jan. 25, 1887. 
" MR. JOHN P. DOLAN, CORRESPONDING AND RECORDING SECRETARY : 

"DEAR SIR I have your favor of 24th instant notifying me that the Providence 
Typographical Union have voted to place my name on their honorary roll. I accept with 
much pleasure this expression of your regard, and with best wishes for the prosperity of 
your members, I remain, 

" My dear Sir, 

"Yours, very truly, 

"G. M. CARPENTER." 

The auditing committee at the January, 1887, meeting added the 
following to its seport: 

" Your committee desires to call attention to the large amount of money collected by 
the secretary, Owen M. Gledhill, and to express their unanimous approval of his manner 
of conducting the affairs of his office. Not an obscure or doubtful point appears in his 
accounts, and all moneys have been handed over to their proper custodian." 

Because of ill health Mr. Gledhill tendered his resignation at the 
same meeting. The resignation was regretfully accepted, and the re- 
tiring secretary was further thanked by the Union. Later, before 
turning over his books to his successor, Mr. Gledhill discovered a short- 
age of $7.90 in his accounts, explained how the error occurred, and 
asked that the auditing committee be excused for overlooking the item. 

At the February meeting the secretary was instructed to notify the 
Hon. George J. West that he was welcome to attend any and all meetings 
of the Union. This action was taken in recognition of Mr. West's legal 
services gratuitously given to the Union. Mr. West was formerly a 
printer and a member of the Union and at the time this resolution was 
passed was an honorary member. 

March 27, 1887, vote was taken for the election of two delegates to 
the Buffalo convention of the I. T. U. There were four candidates in 
the field and 113 votes were cast. Joseph N. B. Meegan and James P. 
Bowes were elected by large majorities. Sixty dollars each was the 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 115 

amount appropriated for the delegates' expenses. The nine-hour pro- 
position was voted on at this meeting and resulted in a vote of 52 for, 
10 against. 

In compliance with the request of the I. T. U. it was voted at the 
April meeting that an assessment, equal to the scale price of 1000 ems, 
be levied on all working cards on the occasion of the birthday of 
George W. Childs, the same to be applied to the fund then being estab- 
lished that the Childs-Drexel gift might be accepted. At the August 
meeting a letter from Mr. Daily of the Childs-Drexel Fund was read, 
acknowledging the receipt of $50.75. 

The committee appointed to incorporate the Union under the State 
Laws reported at the May meeting, and presented the charter to the 
Union. The report was received as one of progress and the committee 
instructed to glean full information as to the legal phase of the charter 
before the same be accepted. At the January, 1888, meeting the final 
report of the committee was presented and accepted, and the charter 
hung on the wall. 

At the same meeting the following resolution was adopted : 

"RESOLVED, That we respectfully recommend to His Excellency Governor Davis the 
appointment of Josiah B. Bowditch as commissioner of Industrial Statistics, being well 
assured of his ability in statistical pursuits and of his impartial and incorruptible char- 
acter as a man and in full sympathy with the purposes for which the Bureau of Indus- 
trial Statistics was created." 

It was voted that a committee be appointed to lay the matter before 
the governor, and at the next meeting the committee reported that Mr. 
Bowditch had been appointed to the position. 

The cigarmakers' label was discussed at the May meeting, and the 
members earnestly urged to purchase none but "blue label" cigars, and 
at many subsequent meetings this manner of assisting the cigarmakers 
was advocated. The May meeting was held in the composing room of 
the Telegram, because admittance to the hall could not be had. 

The Union was requested at the July meeting to adopt some meas- 
ure to relieve the dullness of "subbing " on the Telegram. The matter 
was left in the hands of the executive committee. 

A motion appointing a committee to solicit subscriptions for a ban- 
ner was reconsidered, after listening to an appeal from Indianapolis 
Union, and it was voted to send $6 a month to that Union as long as its 
strike lasted. The chairmen of the different offices were instructed to 
collect by subscription as much as possible for this purpose and thereby 
relieve the treasury. The following is a supplementary appeal received 

from Indianapolis: 

" INDIANAPOLIS, IND., July 27, 1887. 
" To SISTER UNIONS : 

"We appeal to you, in this, our time of need, to assist us financially to the extent of 
your ability, to enable us to continue the fight against the rat Protective Fraternity, who 



116 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



have come upon us about seventy-five strong, and captured the Morning Journal and 
Sentinel offices. 

" Their unmolested stay here will be a menace to all sister Unions, and give them 
courage to attempt the capture of other offices at the first opportunity. They boast 
openly of their intentions of doing so. 

" Hoping to have a favorable reply from your Union at the earliest possible date, 
we remain, 

" Yours fraternally, 

"THE COMMITTEE." 

At the August meeting acknowledgement of the receipt of $22 by 
Indianapolis Union was read, and at the September meeting it was 
announced that $16 additional had been contributed. At the December 
meeting contributions to Indianapolis Union were suspended. 

At the June meeting, under the head of reports of chairmen, that 
officer for the Telegram stated that he had no report to make. It was 
then voted that the report be accepted. 

A committee was appointed to make arrangements for the Union 
to take part in a labor demonstration to be held July Fourth, under the 
auspices of the Central Labor Union. At the July meeting $4 was 
ordered to be paid to the C. L. U. as Typographical Union's share of the 
expenses incurred on that occasion. Three dollars additional was voted 
at the August meeting. 

A communication from Boston in relation to Boston printers coming 
to Providence on an excursion was read at the July meeting, and a 
committee on entertainment appointed. August 24 a game of base-ball 
was played between nines representing Providence and Boston printers 
on the grounds corner of Atwell's avenue and Eagle street. These 
grounds are now covered by the buildings of the Providence Brewing 
Co. September the committee reported that the Boston printers had 
been royally entertained and that it held a balance of $12.42. This sum 
was voted a member who had been on the sick list for a long time. 

It was voted in August to publish in The Craftsman, a printers' 
publication issued at New York, a notice to printers to stay away from 
Providence for the present. 

At the September meeting the secretary was instructed to notify 
the delegates to the Central Labor Union to attend to the duties of their 
office or suffer the provided penalties. 

The financial secretary was ordered to prepare a list of all non- 
union men and send the same to the State Deputy. 

"Cashing strings" was discussed at the October meeting, and the 
chairman of the Telegram office was instructed to investigate and 
report at the next meeting as to the allegations that the practice was 
employed to the extent of abuse in that chapel. The chairman reported 
by letter at the November meeting, and by amendment to the motion, 




2 ^ 









Ii 



S3 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 117 



that the letter be laid on the table, the executive committee was given 
charge of the matter. 

A "string" was the "pasted and measured" result of a printer's 
day's labor, and its value was determined by its total "ems." The im- 
provident printer, in need of ready money, sacrificed his "string" to 
"Shylock," a fixture in every printing office in the hand-set days. Five 
per cent, was the minimum charged by "Shylock" for the accommoda- 
tion, and to the discount the impecunious printer cheerfully acquiesced. 
International law proscribed the practice of members taking advantage 
of their more unfortunate brothers, and in those offices where attempt 
was made to enforce that law the business was transferred to another, 
usually employed about the building, but not a member of the Union. 
In the office under investigation Shylock was known as the " Boiler," no 
doubt because the individual who cashed the strings was employed as 
engineer, and instead of " cashing " the practice was referred to as 
" boiling." 

Nothing was done about the matter as far as the reports of the 
executive committee show. 

At the November meeting the Union voted to exempt female mem- 
bers from all dues and assessments. 

A letter was read from Chicago Union asking for a loan of money, 
and the same was laid on the table for one month. At an adjourned 
meeting, held December 18, 1887, a circular from the executive council 
of the I. T. U. was read in relation to the strike at Chicago, urging the 
assessment of $1 on each member of the Union for the purpose of aiding 
Chicago Union, and a committee, consisting of Messrs. DeLeeuw, Duggan 
and Sullivan, was appointed to solicit subscriptions from members. It 
was also voted to have 200 copies of that appeal printed and circulated. 
The committee reported at the January meeting, after which the Pres- 
ident read a letter received from I. T. U. headquarters, in which it was 
claimed that a certain amount was due the I. T. U. because of the 
assessment above referred to. The following letter was then drawn up 
and ordered sent to the executive council, I. T. U. : 
"To THE HONORABLE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE I. T. U.: 

"Just previous to receiving your circular recommending (for such was the interpre- 
tation put upon it by this Union,) a per capita assessment of one dollar to aid the Chicago 
strike, we received an appeal from the Chicago Union asking financial aid. Our funds 
being very low no immediate aid was rendered, but the matter was still under consider- 
ation when your circular was received. The question was discussed at length, and it was 
argued that in view of the numerous assessments in the past, and the raising of dues 
10 cents per member, as ordered by the I. T.U., it would be to the detriment of this Union 
to levy a compulsory assessment at this time. It was therefore voted to make the assess- 
ment a voluntary one, and the sum of $44 was collected and forwarded to the Chicago 
Union." 



118 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

It would be a pity to overlook this entry under date of November 

27,1887: 

"A motion was made and seconded that the Union remain in its present quarters and 
that the hall committee look around for a better hall." 

Could it have been that the Union had become tired of the presence 
of its hall committee? Or, perchance, did the Union believe that an or- 
namental body like its hall committee should occupy more luxurious 
quarters ? 

At the November meeting a committee of six, including the Pres- 
ident, was appointed to arrange for a grand ball. The committee stated 
at the adjourned meeting, held December 18, that the ball would be held 
February 14, 1888, in the Emmett Guards' Armory, the music to be fur- 
nished by Alpine Orchestra. It was also stated that tickets would be 
sold for not less than $1. At the regular December meeting the com- 
mittee was instructed by motion not to allow the sale of intoxicating 
liquors at that function, but at a special meeting, held January 6, 1888, 
called for the purpose of reconsidering that motion, the point was raised 
that the Union had no right to further instruct its committee, after 
giving it full power, without first reconsidering the vote giving it that 
power. The chair decided the point well taken, and that the prohib- 
tory motion passed at the last regular meeting was null and void. 
Appeal was taken from the decision, but the chair was sustained. 
Charles G. Wilkins injected the point, to the discomfort of the purists 
and the joy of the other fellows. By the way, a careful scrutiny of the 
minutes fails to reveal wherein the committee was given full power. 
The original committee consisted of James H. Russell, chairman ; John C. 
Hurll, James J. Murray, John E. Hurley, William Donovan and John A. 
O'Niell. John C. Hurll resigned, and it was voted to fill the vacancy, 
but his successor is not named in the minutes. Forty-seven dollars was 
the amount added to the treasury as the accrued profit on that occasion, 
and " it was voted that the thanks of the Union be tendered to Andrew P. 
Martin for services rendered at the ball." Mr. Martin, an honorary mem- 
ber of the Union, was at that time a member of the police force of the 
city and at the present time occupies the position of warrant officer. 

The Portland, Ore., locked-out printers were assisted by the pur- 
chase of a package of tickets at the adjourned meeting held December 
18, 1887. The resignation of James J. Murray as treasurer was accepted 
at this meeting, and for his long and faithful service in that office he 
was rewarded with a vote of thanks. 

At the regular meeting held December 25, 1887, Mr. Jolly " moved 
that a folding board, for the purpose of hanging up reports, be pro- 
cured." The motion was lost. January 29, 1888, Mr. Jolly renewed 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 119 

his motion, viz : " That a folding board be purchased." This motion 
was indefinitely postponed. At the same meeting he proposed that a 
" board " be purchased, and that motion was lost. February 26, 1888, 
Mr. Jolly moved to reconsider; lost again. December 30, 1888, ten 
months later, Mr. Jolly gave notice that at the next meeting he would 
introduce a resolution that the Union purchase a folding board. In so 
far as the January, 1889, meeting is concerned the records show that 
that notice was a " jolly," but at the February meeting Mr. Jolly pro- 
duced the resolution and the Union rewarded his persistence by adopting 
it. Mr. Jolly was appointed a committee of one to purchase the folding 
board, the expense being limited to $6. 

The details of this matter are not given to demonstrate the value of 
a folding board, but to emphasize the importance of keeping everlast- 
ingly at it. Mr. Jolly's achievement is a practical illustration of the 
success which attends persistent endeavor intelligently directed. 

At the regular meeting held January 29, a committee of seven was 
appointed to work up membership among job printers. 

John C. Kuril, on behalf of A. Judson Keach, presented the Union 
with a memorial tablet at the February meeting. The secretary was 
ordered to return thanks to Mr. Keach, and to have the tablet framed. 

Provision for the election of a delegate to the I. T. U. was made 
at the February meeting, and William M. Leavitt, Alvah Withee, F. F. 
Sorbie, B. Murphy, J. H. Russell and N. J. Rodgers were placed in nom- 
ination. The contest proved to be the most bitter ever waged for the 
honor. There had been hustling and protests before, as there have 
been since, but in this case the battle was carried to the floor of the 
convention, which was held that year at Kansas City, Mo. 

A recess was taken at the March meeting for the purpose of bal- 
loting for delegate, and after counting the votes the tellers appointed 
for that purpose announced the following result : Leavitt 53, Russell 48, 
Sorbie 13, Murphy 9, and six protested ballots, sealed and not counted. 
A motion was made that the report be received and the tellers dis- 
charged. Amended that the report be received, the six protested ballots 
counted and resealed. The chair ruled that the protested ballots could 
not be counted pending a decision from the President of the I. T. U. 
Appeal was taken, and the ruling of the chair was not sustained. The 
amendment was then passed, and the tellers recounted the vote, in- 
cluding the protested ballots, and announced as the result : Leavitt 53, 
Russell 53, Sorbie 13, Murphy 10. 

It was then voted to take another ballot because of the tie, and 
to keep the polls open one hour. In the meantime many of the mem- 
bers, believing the matter had been settled for the time being, had left 



120 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

the hall, while some others who remained refused to take part in the 
second election. The result of the vote, as reported by the tellers, was : 
Russell 48, Leavitt 38. Mr. Leavitt gave notice of appeal. 

At the April meeting the President read a letter from the President 
of the International Union, and declared William M. Leavitt elected 
delegate to the I. T. U. convention. Mr. Russell gave notice of appeal to 
the convention. The convention committee, to whom the controversy 
was submitted, recommended that both delegates be seated, for the rea- 
son that Providence Union was entitled to two delegates and because 
the contestant had travelled so great a distance. At the same time the 
committee made plain that Mr. Leavitt was the one regularly elected. 
The question as to whom should be paid the voted expenses of delegate 
then agitated the placid deliberations of the Union. Both principals to 
the controversy were about equally represented at the meetings of the 
Union and motions, amendments, points of order, etc., with oratory, 
combined to delay definite action. At the May meeting a motion that 
the sum of $127 be sent to the secretary-treasurer of the I. T. U., to be 
paid over to the seated delegate, was declared out of order by the Pres- 
ident. An appeal was taken from this decision which the chair refused 
to entertain. A resolution expressing a lack of confidence in the chair 
was presented and the President vacated his seat. The Vice-President 
then refused to entertain the resolution, and amid great confusion the 
Vice-President declared the meeting adjourned. Mr. Leavitt made a 
report as delegate to the I. T. U. convention at the June meeting, which 
was received and laid on the table, and it was voted that the $127 be 
held by the Union until the International secretary-treasurer be heard 
from. The secretary's letter, which was read at the July meeting, did 
not settle the matter, however, and the executive committee was in- 
structed to ask the President of the I. T. U. to decide who was entitled 
to the money. The decision of the President was unfavorable to Mr. 
Russell, and Mr. Leavitt was voted the $127, so long held up, at the 
August meeting. 

The following is a copy of the letter which brought the delegate 
wrangle to a close : 

"INTERNATIONAL TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, 
, "OFFICE OF PRESIDENT, 

" INDIANAPOLIS, IND., August 11, 1888. 
"RUDOLPH DELEEUW, CHAIRMAN EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL 

UNION, No. 33: 

"DEAR SIR Yours of 8th inst. is at hand, submitting to me the question: 'Who was 
the legally elected delegate as recognized by the convention, and who is entitled to the 
money voted by said Union to its delegate? (No. 33 voted to send but one delegate.)' 

" Supplemental report of committee on credentials (I copy from proof of their report 
verified by original report ) says : ' Your committee has carefully gone over the papers 
and affidavits presented by the regularly accredited delegate from Union No. 33, Provi- 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 121 



dence, Mr. Leavitt, and also those of Mr. Russell, the contestant for the former's seat, 
and after giving both gentlemen a verbal hearing, are unanimously inclined to the belief 
that Mr. Leavitt is entitled to the contested seat in the convention. Both gentlemen 
have come quite a distance to attend the session of this convention, and both would evi- 
dently have been sent as delegates had Providence Union felt able financially to do so; 
therefore, in the interest of harmony and in view of the fact that Union No. 33 is entitled 
to two delegates, the committee unanimously recommend that both gentlemen be given 
seats in this convention.' 

"This report was signed by the members of the committee and adopted by the con- 
vention, and gives the contested seat to Mr. Leavitt. [As your Union intended to elect 
but one delegate, and made provision for but one, the emoluments, if any, should of right 
go to the delegate who was declared to be entitled to the seat. Under the law as it then 
was (see Con. Art. II, Section I, p. 160 Proc. 1887,) the International Typographical Union 
had nothing to do with the pay of delegates, the subordinate Unions and the delegates 
being interested only]. I think there can be no question as to which of these two gentle- 
men was entitled to the seat under the ruling of the convention. 

" Fraternally, 

"EDWARD T. PLANK, Pres. I. T. U." 

To take up the important doings of the Union during the months 
in which the delegate question was a live topic, necessitates a return to 
the April meeting, at which Mr. Wilkins gave notice that at the next 
meeting he would " rise to a question of distinguished privilege." As 
recorded above, the May meeting, at which Mr. Wilkins was scheduled 
to "rise," was abruptly adjourned by the Vice-President, which may ac- 
count for no reference in the minutes to Mr. Wilkins' ascension. At 
the November meeting, however, the gentleman did "rise" under the 
specified conditions, but the altitude attained cannot be learned by 
reading the minutes of that meeting. The " distinguished privilege " 
became rather popular, and for a while afterward different members 
availed themselves of the opportunities afforded by the introduction of 
that edifying exercise. 

For neglect of duties the delegates to the Central Labor Union 
were requested to tender their resignations at the July meeting, and 
a new set of delegates were elected. 

A committee was appointed at the July meeting to prepare a book 
and job scale of prices and to revise the newspaper scale. This com- 
mittee presented a printed report at a special meeting called Novem- 
ber 15, and that part of the scale relating to the newspaper branch 
was, with some amendments, adopted at that meeting, adjournment 
being had to November 18 for consideration of the book and job scale. 
After the adoption of the job scale by sections, ballot was taken on the 
adoption of the scale as a whole, which resulted in a unanimous vote. 
A committee, consisting of Messrs. Wilkins, Coogan and Ward, for the 
newspaper branch ; and Donovan, Murray and Vinal for the job branch, 
was appointed to interview employers as to their acceptance of the scale. 
The committee made a report at the regular meeting November 25, 1888, 
but the nature of the report is not given. It is remembered, however, 
that the report was not very encouraging. The Telegram management 



122 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

could not be induced to sign, and only a verbal agreement was had with 
the Dispatch proprietors, the scale to go into effect at the latter office 
February 25, 1889. 

The formation of Pawtucket Union, No. 212, was announced at the 
November meeting. 

The summary discharge of three members of the Union in the 
Telegram office was the subject of discussion at a special meeting held 
December 11. A yea and nay vote taken at the meeting shows that 99 
members were present. A motion that a committee be appointed to 
investigate the matter was lost. It was then voted that the executive 
committee demand the immediate reinstatement of the three discharged 
members. The reason for the discharge of the men is not divulged 
by the minutes. Briefly stated the facts are : Messrs. Ayres, Boomer, 
McGuinness and Wilkins began the publication of a weekly newspaper 
(The Paper) devoted to labor matters. Ayres, Boomer and Wilkins 
held situations on the Telegram, and in the second issue of The Paper 
there appeared an article offensive to D. 0. Black, then publisher of the 
Telegram, for which he ordered the discharge of the men last named. 
At the regular meeting, December 29, the executive committee reported 
that the three men had been reinstated. 

The reinstatement of the men was accomplished, however, only by 
resort to the " strike," which was ordered by the executive committee 
at 7 o'clock Saturday evening, December 15, 1888. The management 
of the Telegram capitulated, and the men returned to work at 8.30 the 
same evening. Twenty-nine men and three apprentices were involved 
in the trouble. 

A committee was appointed October 28, 1888, to prepare for a ban- 
quet and social to be held Thanksgiving night, November 29. Slocum 
Light Guards' Armory was the scene of the festivities. The following 
exercises followed the feast: Toasts Providence Union, responded to 
by John P. Dolan; President United States, George M. Carpenter; State 
of Rhode Island, Royal C. Taft; City of Providence, Gilbert F. Robbins; 
International Typographical Union, C. G. Wilkins; The Compositor, 
W.F.Elsbree; The Sub., J.J.Murray; The Ladies, John E. Hurley; Our 
Visitors, E. P. Tobie. Songs by Mr. Black (not D. 0.) and Etta Bren- 
nan; recitation by Katherine Loughran. Committee James J. Murray, 
chairman; James Moore, Walter F. Walsh, William Donovan, John C. 
Kuril, Matthew J. Cummings. It was voted at the February, 1889, 
meeting that the committee be discharged and the deficiency on account 
of the entertainment liquidated. 

It was announced at the regular meeting held December 30 that 
there was not enough money on hand to pay bills then due, and several 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 123 

efforts to levy an assessment were defeated. The financial secretary 
stated that considerable money was due the Union from the chairmen 
of the different offices. It was voted that the chairmen be notified to 
liquidate immediately. 

January 27, 1889, a letter was read from a member then in Woon- 
socket, demanding that the Union forward his travelling card. The 
financial secretary was instructed to notify the gentleman that upon 
payment of his accumulated dues and the price of three banquet 
tickets his card would be forthcoming. 

James P. Bowes, chairman of the Central Labor Union delegation, 
reported from that body at the January (1889) meeting that a move- 
ment was on foot looking toward the formation of a State Branch of the 
American Federation of Labor, and asked for an expression of feeling 
by this Union on the matter. The delegation was instructed to favor 
the scheme. 

An assessment of 25 cents per capita was levied at this meeting. 

The following resolution was passed: 

" RESOLVED, That no member of this Union patronize any saloon, hotel, drug store, 
cigar store or other dealers in cigars, who do not keep Union made goods, and that any 
member violating this resolution shall be disciplined by this Union." 

At the February meeting it was voted, 35 to 34, to send a delegate 
to the I. T. U. convention to be held at Denver. Andrew F. Moran was 
chosen to represent Providence. 

The executive committee was instructed to wire request to the 
congressmen from this State to vote in favor of the Chace copyright 
bill, then under consideration before the House of Representatives. 

The February meeting was held on the 24th, and a committee pre- 
viously appointed looking to the unionizing of the Journal office reported 
progress. The following day there appeared in the columns of the 
Telegram a statement which read substantially as follows: 

"The management of the Providence Journal is to be turned over to the printers, 
and one of its proprietors, who superintends the work of the composing room, is to be 
compelled to join the Union, which is reported to be maturing plans for lessening the 
profits of the Journal. Mr. Howland, when seen, had not been notified of the demands to 
be made upon the paper. When the time comes the statement of Mr. Howland will be 
truthfully given, and not garbled and distorted as was an account given by the Journal 
of trouble with one of its contemporaries." 

The executive committee was instructed to have a card inserted in 
the Providence Journal and the Telegram denying the statements made 
in the above article. 

February 25 was the date set for the establishment of the new scale 
in the Dispatch office. Saturday, February 23, Charles C. Corbett, editor 
of the Dispatch, who had for some time been on bail because of a $10,000 
libel suit, was surrendered by Richard Thornley, one of his bondsmen, 
and was not released from durance vile until the Wednesday following 



124 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

at about 10 P. M. Before starting for Cranston, in custody of the officer, 
Corbett assured the men working in the office that he had made provision 
for the payment of wages in case he should not be on hand the following 
Monday. The ghost did not walk, however, but the men were told that 
the money would be ready Tuesday at 4:30. At a special meeting of the 
Union held that afternoon it was reported that the money did not ma- 
terialize at the hour specified. The executive committee was instructed 
to make effort to collect, and to employ legal talent, if necessary. The 
committee reported back to the same meeting that it was unable to 
obtain the money due the men. It was then voted that the men be 
" called out." Wednesday, February 27, the Dispatch was not printed, 
but it was announced on the bulletin board of that paper that it would 
appear the next day as usual. The only person about the office on the 
27th, according to the Providence Journal's report of the strike, was the 
engineer, who, when asked why he was there, answered that he was 
there "to prevent the place from being blown up." Twenty-three at- 
tachments were placed on the property February 27, and the next day 
two more attachments were filed against the paper. On March 1, 
according to the same authority, "two or three non-union compositors 
had been secured and one column of original matter was set up and 
locked in a form with plate matter." This form, with three others of 
plate matter, was transferred under police protection to the office of the 
Rhode Island Democrat. The present Chief of Police was one of the 
officers forming the cordon. No sooner had the form arrived, however, 
than a deputy sheriff was on hand and placed a keeper in charge, but 
allowed the paper to be printed. The sheriff then notified the Dispatch 
people that they must issue the paper from their own plant in the 
future. Editorially the paper said an improvement in its appearance 
would be made in forthcoming issues. On Wednesday, March 7, Deputy 
Sheriff McCabe released the 25 attachments on the receipt of $786.18, 
the sum total of the amounts due the employes. March 6 the Dispatch 
secured the services of Al. Cohick and a gang of "rat" printers from 
Norwich, Conn., and elsewhere. 

The executive committee reported at the March meeting that polit- 
ical pressure was being brought to bear in the Dispatch trouble. 
Accepted as progress. 

The President of the Union and the chairman of the Telegram 
chapel were instructed to call upon Mr. Black of the Telegram and 
obtain his signature to the scale of prices. 

A special meeting was called April 17, for the purpose of taking 
action in regard to the issuing of a travelling card to an apprentice 
member. Michael H. Donahue, employed in the Telegram office, had been 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 125 

discharged before the completion of his apprenticeship. Before his dis- 
charge the boy had been admitted to the Union as an apprentice member, 
and upon his discharge he made application to the executive committee 
for full membership. The committee granted Mr. Donahue a travelling 
card. It was for the purpose of revoking the action of the executive 
committee that the special meeting was called. After a bitter wrangle 
the committee was sustained by a vote of 28 to 10. Twenty or more 
members present did not vote. 

That the executive committee exceeded its authority in this matter 
there can be no doubt, and had the 10 members who so ably opposed its 
action appealed their case to the I. T. U. officials they would as surely 
have been sustained. 

Trouble developed fast for Providence Union after the adjournment 
of this meeting. With the Dispatch still in the breach, the Journal an 
open office, the job branch in a demoralized condition and everything 
looking all but rosy, on April 27, 1889, at the close of composition on the 
Evening Telegram, Mr. Black appeared in the composing room of that 
paper and announced that all who desired to remain in his employ must 
immediately sign a contract, which he thereupon presented. A chapel 
meeting was called by the chairman, George W. Wilson, who stated the 
conditions of the contract, and it was voted unanimously that the con- 
tract be not signed. Mr. Black then gave notice to the men that their 
services were no longer required, and every man took leave of the 
Telegram. 

In refusing to sign the contract the men were justified in that they, 
as a chapel, did not have the authority, and as individuals would be 
obliged to sever their connection with the Union. 

The regular meeting of the Union was held the next day, Sunday, 
April 28, and the following resolution was adopted and ordered com- 
municated to the Rhode Island Central Labor Union : 

" WHEREAS, D. 0. Black, publisher of the Evening and Sunday Telegram of this city, 
having locked out the compositors and Union men from his employ and declared his office 
a non-union shop, thereby placing himself on record as opposed to organized labor, there- 
fore, be it 

"RESOLVED, That the Central Labor Union of Rhode Island do pledge itself to stand 
by Providence Typographical Union in its struggle for its rights, and will use all lawful 
efforts to bring said D. 0. Black to terms with said Union." 

Notwithstanding all the trouble on hand and no apparent decrease 
in the visible supply of that article, this meeting was marked by seem- 
ingly reckless prodigality. One member was voted $42 strike benefits, 
to be paid out of the local treasury, and the executive committee was 
instructed to present a claim for that amount to the I. T. U.; the dues 
and assessments of all female members, with the exception of per capita 
taxes, were remitted; $175 was voted for expenses of the I. T. U. dele- 



126 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



gate, and bills to the amount of $59.63 were ordered paid. An assess- 
ment of 10 per cent, of the earnings of the members was voted for the 
purpose of conducting the fight against the Telegram. 

In less than one week after the lockout on the Telegram the ex- 
ecutive committee had established a daily paper, The Call, and the 
Union continued its publication for about eight months. 

While no special meetings of the Union were held during the month 
of May the executive committee and the locked out members of the 
Telegram chapel held frequent meetings, at which the welfare of the 
Call and the progress of the fight with the Telegram were discussed. 

The May meeting was devoted almost entirely to the reports of 
committees and officers. The manager of the Call, Frank E. Jones, 
also made a report, and he was instructed to correspond with Messrs. 
Remington, Bowditch and Crandall in regard to the editorial man- 
agement of the paper. The minutes of the June meeting show that 
J. D. Hall, Jr., had succeeded Mr. Jones as manager of the Call, Mr. Jones 
having assumed editorial control. Mr. Hall was thanked by the Union 
for the able manner in which he was conducting the paper. Mr. Hall 
explained that the dull season for advertising was at hand and that the 
Union must take that fact into consideration if the business to be done 
for a few months to follow showed a decrease. August 10, a special 
meeting was called by the executive committee to consider an offer 
made by Messrs. Pease and Bowditch for the purchase of the Call. The 
amount offered was $1000 for the plant and good will of the paper, with 
the understanding that they be allowed to use " plate matter " without 
restriction. The offer was accepted, by vote, after considerable dis- 
cussion. For some reason the deal was not consummated, and at the 
regular meeting August 25, Mr. Hall, manager of the Call, was reported 
as sick and A. L. Randall was appointed manager during Mr. Hall's 
illness. At the October meeting Mr. Hall reported on the condition of 
the Call. The report was referred to the executive committee, and at 
the November meeting his report was referred to a newly appointed 
finance cbmmittee. 

A special meeting was held December 8, 1889, and J. H. Russell, 
representing other parties, offered $700 for the Call plant. At that 
meeting it was voted to sell the property to the highest bidder during 
the next three days, the price to be not less than $700, and a committee 
was appointed to consummate the sale and adjust finances. 

Evidently this committee was unable to carry out its instructions, 
for at the regular meeting held December 29, it was "Voted, That if the 
Call is not sold by January 15, 1890, it shall be suspended." The ex- 
ecutive committee and the manager of the Call were instructed to attend 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 127 

to the details. Final reference to the Call as the Union's newspaper was 
made at the January (1890) meeting, and is expressed in these words in 
the minutes: "Mr. Hall made report on the Call matter. Accepted." 

During the eight months' life of the Call as a printers' paper, very 
little business, other than discussing the policy and prospects of the 
venture, had been transacted at the Union meetings, the battle against 
the Telegram being waged through the columns of the Call. The sale 
of the paper transferred the struggle to the floor of the Union. 

A letter from A. M. Williams, editor of the Providence Journal, 
was read at the meeting held June 30, 1889, returning the $100 death 
benefit of James Williams, and requesting that the money be devoted 
to the aid of sick and disabled members. It was voted to accept the 
money for the purposes assigned in the letter, and the secretary was 
instructed to forward the thanks of the Union to Mr. Williams. 

At the July meeting $5 was donated to the Central Labor Union 
to help defray a deficiency incurred by its Fourth of July picnic. 

Nothing of interest is recorded in the minutes of the meetings for 
the six months following, ordinary routine to a degree depressing 
ruling the assemblages. 

January 26, 1890, it is recorded that the Union men employed in 
the Telegram office had been " ordered out " by the executive com- 
mittee since the last meeting of the Union, December 29, 1889. The 
reason alleged for the action being " discrimination and unfair treat- 
ment of members of the Union." 

At the February meeting resolutions were adopted and forwarded 
to the congressmen and senators from this state asking their support 
in the effort then being made by Columbia Union to have restored the 
prices current previous to March 3, 1877, in the Government Printing 
Office. 

Rudolph DeLeeuw was elected to represent Providence Union at 
the Atlanta convention of the I. T. U., and he was instructed to sustain 
the executive council in the Albany matter. The "Albany matter" 
was an appeal by Albany Union from a decision by President Plank of 
the I. T. U. The appeal and decision were read at the meeting held 
March 30, 1890, and the above action taken. 

A committee was appointed at the June meeting to devise means 
for entertaining the I. T. U. delegates to the Boston convention to be 
held June, 1891. 

A motion to appoint a committee to formulate some plan for the 
admission of non-printer linotype operators, the same to be submitted 
to the I. T. U. executive council, was lost; the secretary was instructed 
to correspond with unions where machine operators were employed in 



128 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

regard to rules they may have for the admission of non-printer 
operators. 

Mr. Martin, President of the Union, at the September meeting, 
suggested that two shares of the Call be purchased. The matter was 
referred to the executive committee with power to act. 

A committee was appointed at the December meeting to make 
effort to form a beneficial society among the printers employed in the 
Telegram office. The purpose of this move was to organize the men 
in that office in a manner intended to give no offence to the manage- 
ment. Of course, the object was to eventually gather the society into 
the Union fold, but alas, the motive was too apparent. December 30, 
two days after the appointment of the committee, three Union men 
were discharged from the Telegram. A special meeting was called 
December 31 to consider the matter. The meeting was held in a room 
of the Hotel St. George, southeast corner of Washington and Mathew- 
son streets. The building in which the hotel was located has since 
been demolished to make way for the widening of Washington street. 
It was decided at this meeting to prepare a statement for publication, 
and a committee was appointed for that purpose. 

Four delegates were appointed at the meeting held January 25, 
1891, for the purpose of attending a Labor Conference to be held Sun- 
day, February 8. No report of the delegates is recorded. It was voted 
that $5 be forwarded to Sacramento Union. 

Nominations for delegate to the Boston convention of the I. T. U. 
were made at the February meeting, and at the March meeting Frank- 
lin P. Eddy was declared elected. The delegate was instructed at the 
May meeting to vote in favor of the death benefit provision ; against 
the permanent place of meeting, and uninstructed as to the general 
amnesty proposition. 

The records for the June, July and August meetings are missing. 

It was voted at the September meeting to endorse the action taken 
by the Central Labor Union in regard to the Record and News. The 
action of the Central body referred to was an endorsement of the atti- 
tude of those two papers in regard to organized labor. 

November 1, 1891, a special meeting was held, at which it was 
voted that the Union withdraw its permission to members to work in 
the Telegram office. It was provided that to those coming out the sum 
of $7 per week would be paid for a period of eight weeks. It was then 
voted that all working in the Telegram office after 9 A. M. on Novem- 
ber 2, would forfeit their Union ties. 

The finance committee reported at the meeting held November 30, 
that it had borrowed $50 to be used by the Telegram committee, and at 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 129 



the same meeting $10 was voted to Pittsburg Union in response to an 
appeal for aid ; besides it was gallantly voted to present to a female 
applicant for membership her initiation fee $2. 

At the December meeting the sentiment was expressed by vote 
that it would be economically wise and prudent for the city of Provi- 
dence to establish its own electric lighting plant. 

The committee having the Telegram matter in hand was dis- 
charged at this meeting. 

The Typographical Union Label is first mentioned in the minutes 
of Providence Union under date of January 31, 1892, and in conform- 
ity with the following resolution a committee was appointed to have 
custody of and authority to permit its use : 

" RESOLVED, That a committee of three be appointed, two of whom must be book 
or job printers, to take entire charge of placing a Union label in job and other offices ; 
provided that no label be issued to any office unless said office becomes what is known as 
a 'card' office. And that said committee be hereby directed to at once procure a 
Union label from headquarters and draw money from this Union to pay for the same. 
And said committee shall, at least once a month, cause to be published and sent to every 
Union connected with the R. I. C. L. U. the name of every firm entitled to use said 
label." 

The following preamble and resolution was adopted at the same 
meeting : 

" WHEREAS, In the Sunday Telegram of January 24, there appeared a letter signed 
P. H. Quinn, District Secretary and Treasurer D. A. 99, K. of L., in which was given 
what purported to be a statement of the relations of the Knights of Labor to the 
Providence Typographical Union in the past and present, and 

"WHEREAS, Said statement was in the main false and wholly uncalled for, and 
especially as it supported the Telegram in opposition to the Typographical Union ; be it 
therefore 

" RESOLVED, That this Union requests a retraction and apology for the publication 
of said statement, the request to be made through the District Master Workman of the 
K. of L." 

The Union approved the expressed intention of the Rhode Island 
Central Labor Union to publish a monthly " Union Bulletin," provided 
the publication would not entail assessments upon the component 
Unions. 

The Union also approved the report of the Commissioner of Indus- 
trial Statistics, in which he recommended that the law be so amended 
as to prohibit the employment of children under 13 years instead of 10, 
in factory, mercantile establishment or workshop, and hoped that the 
recommendation would be favorably acted upon at the present session 
of the Legislature. 

The bill introduced in the General Assembly by Representative 
Hughes of Cumberland, making the first Monday in September a legal 
holiday, to be known as Labor Day, was heartily endorsed, as was also 
the bill introduced by Senator Garvin, establishing a 9-hour day or 54- 
hour week. 



130 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Ten dollars was appropriated to aid in bringing the weekly payment 
bill before the Supreme Court. 

Quite a politico-economic record for one meeting. And still another 
resolution along the same lines was laid on the table, the proposal of a 
vote of thanks to the committee on city printing for its action in award- 
ing the printing of the city to friendly firms, meeting that fate. 

It was voted at the February meeting to send one delegate to the 
I. T. U. convention to be held at Philadelphia the following June. At 
the April meeting it was announced that George B. Sullivan had been 
chosen to act as the Union's representative. The expense appropriation 
was $35. 

It was stated by the committee having the matter in hand that 
$22.25 had been collected for the purpose of helping defray the cost of 
bringing the weekly payment bill before the Supreme Court. 

An invitation to attend a lecture to be given at Bell Street Chapel 
on March 18 was accepted at this meeting. 

In March a resolution was passed expressing sympathy and guar- 
anteeing moral support to the Clothing Salesmen's Association in their 
struggle with two firms persisting in keeping their stores open after 
6.30 P. M. At the November meeting these firms were placed on the 
"We Don't Patronize List," after which Mr. Whitaker, representing 
the salesmen, addressed the Union, and upon his retirement a com- 
mittee of one to act with representatives of other organizations was 
appointed to call on the proprietors of these stores in the interest of 
the salesmen. 

Al. C. Howell explained to the Union the reason of the recent visit 
of George Chance of Philadelphia, and a committee of five was 
appointed to solicit funds to aid Philadelphia Union. Fourteen dollars 
was obtained in this manner and forwarded to Philadelphia. 

The following is entered on the minutes of the April meeting : 

"The sound of martial music being heard it was voted to take a recess of five 
minutes to allow the members an opportunity to feast their eyes on a company of 
soldiers." 

Mr. Grieve, explaining the absence of George E. Boomer, stated 
that he had found him at Pawtuxet painting a boat, said boat belonging 
to a syndicate of which said Boomer was a member, which act, Mr. 
Grieve asserted, was "in direct contravention of both Biblical and 
International law, which prohibits a man from working seven days a 
week." 

The secretary was ordered at the May meeting to write to Boston 
Union in regard to the Telegram obtaining plate matter from a Union 
shop. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 131 

An attempt to raise the dues to 75c. per month, with a rebate of 
25c. for attendance at meetings, was made at the June meeting and 
laid over to July. At that meeting the matter was laid on the table for 
two months and then evidently forgotten. 

At the July meeting a committee was appointed to make arrange- 
ments for a delegation of printers to participate in an excursion of the 
Weavers' Union on August 20. 

August 28, a communication from New York Union, No. 6, an- 
nounced that the New York Tribune had become a strict Union office. 

An invitation to attend the Journeymen Plumbers' fair was ac- 
cepted at the September meeting. 

A special meeting of the Union was held October 17, 1892, because 
it was believed at that time that affairs in the Telegram office demanded 
immediate attention. The progress made by the executive committee 
in dealing with the Democratic city committee was reported. The 
executive committee was given full power to further negotiate with 
the leaders of the Democratic party. At the regular October meeting 
the committee reported another conference with the Democratic city 
committee, from which body a committee of ten had been appointed to 
call on Mr. Banigan; that they had also had an interview with the 
Democratic State Central Committee, a committee from that organiza- 
tion being appointed to co-operate with the committee of ten above 
referred to. An answer from the joint committee had not been re- 
ceived up to October 29, the date upon which one was promised. 

A scale of prices was adopted at this meeting, 35c. per 1000 ems 
being the rate for afternoon and weekly papers and 40c. for morning 
papers. 

At a special meeting held December 14, 1892, the secretary was 
ordered to apply to the executive council for permission for this Union 
to grant a general amnesty in accordance with Sec. 110 of the I. T. U. 
constitution. The minutes of this meeting were, by vote, suppressed 
until ordered read by the executive committee. 

At the regular December meeting a communication from P. H. 
Quinn was received, asking that the Union be represented at the ban- 
quet of the Industrial Alliance. 

The executive committee called a special meeting January 3, 1893, 
at which it reported that Providence Union had been granted the priv- 
ilege of a general amnesty. The committee was given full power to 
act under the order. 

A committee appointed December 18, 1892, to consider the advisa- 
bility of some form of entertainment reported in favor of a concert at 
the special meeting January 3, 1893, and after discussion the com- 



132 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

mittee was instructed to carry out the idea suggested. At Blackstone 
Hall on the night of January 31 a good-sized audience enjoyed the 
delightful programme arranged by the committee: The Providence 
Handel Club Orchestra opened the concert with " Fletterwoch Over- 
ture," the Weber Ladies' Quartette sang two selections, and William 
Hanrahan, tenor, rendered " Margherita," responding to an encore 
with " Let Me Like a Soldier Fall." Miss Florence Williams told of 
the fortunes and misfortunes of " The Whistling Regiment," and was 
followed by the Palma Mandolin and Guitar Club with enlivening 
selections. Mrs. Minnie H. Vaughn, soprano; J. H. Jennings, banjo 
soloist ; Miss Emily J. Ballou, contralto ; Charles H. Bosworth, bass, and 
Charles Tisdale, responded to encores. The committee in charge of 
the concert consisted of John J. Nolan, Joseph H. McGuinness, J. D. 
Hall, Jr., William Donovan, Rudolph DeLeeuw and George E. Boomer. 
The receipts of the concert amounted to $132, expenditures $55.37, 
leaving a balance of $76.63. 

At the regular meeting held January 29, 1893, a committee was 
appointed to aid in the formation of a Pressman's Union, and it was 
voted to advocate the purchase of Union-made goods and Union-label 
goods as opposed to K. of L. goods and K. of L. label. 

At the February meeting announcement was made that the Central 
Labor Union had received a charter from the A. F. of L. It was also 
stated that the Unions identified with the building and constructing 
industries were to hold a meeting for the purpose of forming a Build- 
ing Trades Council. 

Protest by resolution was made at an adjourned meeting held 
April 9 against the appointment of Charles William Edwards as Public 
Printer at Washington. A committee was instructed to wait upon the 
Democratic representative and ask that he object to the appointment 
of said Edwards; and to also lay the matter before other labor organi- 
zations. 

April 30 the executive committee reported that conditions in the 
Telegram office were very satisfactory. 

William Palmer was elected delegate to the I. T. U. convention 
to be held in Chicago. Seventy-five dollars was voted the delegate- 
elect, and at the May meeting an additional $25 was voted. 

A committee from the Rhode Island Central Labor Union was 
given the privilege of the floor at the May meeting. This committee 
stated that their visit was due to the fact that it had discovered that 
the working cards of the Typographical Union did not bear the Union 
label, a condition which the Central body did not approve and could not 
conceive its toleration by No. 33. An examination of their cards by 




- 
35 

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C u 
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E fc 

ii 

5 I 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 133 

the members revealed the truth of the committee's assertions, and the 
financial secretary, Franklin P. Eddy, since deceased, was asked to 
explain. That officer's defence is not recorded, but is remembered by 
one who was present at that meeting. During the life of the secretary 
it was jokingly remarked that there was no hole so small through which 
he could not crawl, and on this occasion he stated in explanation of the 
" unfortunate " occurrence that he had found a number of cards which 
had been printed before the label was adopted and, for sake of economy, 
had made use of them. After hearing the secretary's excuse the com- 
mittee withdrew and the regular order of business was taken up. 

It was then voted that all printed matter issued by the Union here- 
after must bear the Union label, regardless of cost, and the secretary 
was instructed to notify the Central Labor Union of the action taken. 

At the June meeting a member stated that he had heard that P. H. 
Quinn of the K. of L. wanted to " bury the hatchet." 

The " lockout " on the News was also announced at this meeting. 

At an adjourned meeting held next day,- Monday, June 26, it was 
stated that every man affected by the action of the manager of the 
News had reported for work that morning, as usual, and that of the 25 
men involved but four had been retained ; that 14 or 15 non-union men 
were at work. Mr. Hutton, the pressman, volunteered to assist the 
Union in any manner the men might suggest. It was " Voted, That it 
is the sense of this body that the action of the News management is a 
lockout." The meeting decided to ask that a special meeting of the 
Central Labor Union be called and the matter placed before that body, 
and adjournment was taken, to Tuesday, June 27. At Tuesday's meet- 
ing Mr. Grieve reported that the Union men who had worked in the 
News office Monday had individually resigned their positions. The 
pressmen and stereotypers had also resigned, and men from the Eastern 
Electrotyping Company were reported to be assisting the News in its 
stereotyping department. 

District Organizer Keyes of the I. T. U. was introduced and stated 
that he had an appointment with Mr. French, manager of the News, for 
to-morrow. He believed, however, that Mr. French did not care to 
settle the matter. Mr. Grieve then presented the following, which was 
given to Mr. Keyes as a basis for negotiations : 

" PROVIDENCE, R. L, June 27, 1893. 
"MR. GEORGE FRENCH, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF PROVIDENCE NEWS: 

" DEAR SIR If you desire to employ Union printers on the News it is within the 
power of Providence Union to furnish you all of the men that were engaged upon the 
paper last week, and the men will be notified at once if you so desire. It is inconsistent 
with the laws of the Union for any of them to work under the present foreman. 

" If the dull season necessitates saving in running expenses the Union printers will 
do all that is consistent, and are willing to submit the whole affair to arbitration. 

"J. D. HALL, JR., President, 

" For Providence Typographical Union." 



134 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

At the meeting held June 28 the District Organizer reported that 
Mr. French had stated that he had nothing to arbitrate ; that Governor 
Brown had been interested in the matter and had interviewed Mr. 
French but had accomplished nothing. Mr. Keyes assured the men 
affected by the lockout that they would receive strike benefits. Presi- 
dent Hall announced at the November meeting that he had received 
assurances that the new manager, Mr. Wardner, of the News would 
Unionize the paper at an early date. A committee appointed February 
25, 1894, to interview the manager of the News reported at the April 
meeting, and the report was accepted and the committee discharged, 
with thanks. 

July 30, 1893, the Telegram was declared an open office. The 
declaration was rescinded at the August meeting. 

Owing to a depleted treasury and the doleful outlook, Franklin P. 
Eddy, the financial secretary, stated that he would willingly accept a 
reduction of salary. It was voted not to reduce. 

The executive committee announced at the meeting held August 
27, 1893, that it had suspended the action taken by the Union at a pre- 
vious meeting declaring the Telegram an open office. 

A committee was appointed to make arrangements for the Labor 
Day parade with authority to expend not over $15. Prescott Post hall 
was the place where the members were to assemble on the morning of 
that day, and from there march in a body to the place assigned by the 
chief marshal. 

George E. Boomer was elected a visiting delegate to the convention 
of the Massachusetts State Typographical Union, without power to 
bind Providence Union to any course of action. Five dollars was 
allowed the delegate for expenses. 

A committee appointed September 24 to make arrangements for 
holding a concert under Union auspices reported later that the time 
was inopportune. 

October 29, $17.10 was received from the Central Labor Union as 
No. 33's share of Labor Day profits. 

A communication was read requesting members to purchase only 
from Union clerks, and $10 was voted the Olneyville strikers, regret 
being expressed that the finances of the Union did not warrant a larger 
appropriation. 

John J. Nolan was appointed press representative for the Union at 
this meeting. 

The amount of cash on hand November 26, 1893, was 17 cents, 
and according to the treasurer's report was divided as follows : 

" General fund . . . . $0.17 " 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 135 

As compared with the December statement the November rating 
might be termed gilt-edged. An examination of the bills presented for 
that month and a peep into the strong box, revealed an indebtedness of 
$19.70 in excess of the available coin. No report of the Union's finan- 
cial standing is given for January, but the statement for February 25, 
1894, shows that the Union had again begun to accumulate riches, the 
treasurer on that date announcing a balance on hand of six cents. 
How the amount was apportioned is not recorded. 

An effort to have a committee appointed to draft a scale for 
machine operators was tabled at the January, 1894, meeting. 

A communication from the New England Typographical Union 
was read at the February meeting. The communication urged Provi- 
dence Union to affiliate with that organization, and after laying on the 
table for one month, favorable action was taken. 

The most ungallant action recorded in the history of the Union 
was taken at the meeting held March 25, 1894. It was brought to the 
attention of the Union on that date that girls were to be employed in a 
local printing office to the exclusion of men, and it was voted that the 
President wait on the proprietors of that office and request that the 
girls be not allowed to go to work. The President at a later meeting 
reported that he had interviewed one member of the firm but had 
received no satisfaction. 

May 29, 1894, the special committee on government ownership of 
the telegraph reported that the Central Labor Union had endorsed the 
letter to our senators and representatives urging them to favor its 
passage. 

A protest from the manager of the Visitor was read at this meet- 
ing, to the effect that while he was paying 35 cents per thousand other 
weekly papers were paying but 30 and 33 cents. That he did not 
object to the payment of 35 cents, but thought that others should be 
charged as much, and felt that he should be protected in the matter. 
The secretary was instructed to assure Mr. Walsh of the Union's appre- 
ciation of his attitude ; also that some other papers paid 35 cents, and 
the Union hoped that the friendly feeling existing between it and Mr. 
Walsh would be continued, to the end that those paying less might be 
induced to pay more. 

The proposed appointment of a new city official to be known as 
Superintendent of Printing was discussed at this meeting. The Rhode 
Island Central Labor Union had already voted to endorse any candidate 
No. 33 might suggest. It was then voted that the Union endorse Mr. 
Grieve for the position should the office be created. 



136 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

August 26, 1894, the secretary was ordered to procure 100 badges 
in old gold, to cost not more than 5c. each, for the use of members 
Labor Day. The limit was later raised to 8c. 

Two delegates were appointed to attend a meeting of the Union 
for Practical Progress. 

At the September meeting Rudolph Modest addressed the Union in 
relation to the troubles of New York cigarmakers. 

October 30, 1894, no quorum. 

It was broached at the November meeting " that Justice was em- 
ploying a suspended member of this Union." Justice was advised to 
comply with its agreement or give up the label. The trouble was 
amicably adjusted and Justice pursued the even tenor of its way. 

The year died naturally, the December meeting being given up to 
the election of officers for 1895. 

March 31, 1895, Charles G. Wilkins, deputy organizer for the first 
district, spoke of the effect of typesetting machines in different parts of 
New England. Mr. Duggan of Worcester and Mr. Moffitt of Fall 
River also addressed the Union. 

Upon invitation of Pawtucket Union, No. 212, it was voted to 
appoint a delegation to attend a mass meeting and parade of the differ- 
ent labor organizations of that city to be held April 17, 1895. 

A communication from Philadelphia Union asking for a 50-cent 
subscription to the Childs' memorial was read at the April meeting and 
referred to the executive committee. The assessment was levied at the 
November meeting, 1896. 

The delegates from No. 33 to the Central Labor Union were un- 
seated for non-attendance, according to a communication read at the 
April meeting. The same delegates were then re-elected and requested 
to attend to their duty in the future. 

May 26, 1895, N. W. Reese was elected delegate to the convention 
of the New England Typographical Union, which was held that year at 
New Bedford. 

Twenty-three members were expelled at that meeting. 

At the June meeting the secretary was instructed to correspond 
with the chairman of the Boston Post and the President of Boston 
Union in reference to a proposed banquet and ball game between the 
employes of the Post and those of the Providence Telegram. At the 
July meeting letters were read, in reply to the secretary's communica- 
tions, from John F. Duggan of Worcester, Charles G. Wilkins and John 
Douglas of Boston. The answers showed that the game was arranged 
with a view to organizing the Telegram force. Providence Union did 
not appreciate the effort, however, and the President and secretary were 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 137 

instructed to officially protest against the game between Union and 
non-union men. 

A communication from the Carpenters' Union was read at the 
November meeting, severely criticising Typographical Union's member 
of the Labor Day Committee. George B. Sullivan, of Pawtucket Union, 
who acted as chairman of the Labor Day Committee, was present and 
stated that the matter could be of little concern to any individual 
Union represented, and advised that the matter be dropped. No action 
is recorded at this meeting. 

Franklin P. Eddy was unanimously endorsed for the position of 
State Organizer for the New England Typographical Union at the 
July meeting, and at the same meeting Mr. Eddy was formally 
appointed to that office by President Moffitt of the N. E. T. U., who 
was present. 

The August meeting was not held because of no quorum. 

A committee on entertainment appointed at the September meet- 
ing was discharged at the November meeting, nothing having been 
accomplished in the matter. 

A letter from an individual who had made application for member- 
ship was read at the December meeting. In it the applicant withdrew 
the application for the reason that he had secured a job in an office 
where a card was not necessary, and therefore the Union could be of no 
benefit to him. 

The salary of the financial secretary was reduced from $100 per 
annum to $5 per month. 

The matter relating to the action of our representative on the 
Labor Day Committee came up again for consideration at the January, 
1896, meeting on the reading of communications from the Painters' 
and Decorators', the Carpenters' and Joiners' and the Building Trades' 
Council. At thjs meeting a committee was appointed to investigate 
the matter, and in April the committee reported that the action of our 
representative had caused great annoyance and delay in settling affairs 
of Labor Day. The matter was then amicably adjusted. 

The recording secretary apologized at the March meeting for his 
absence at the February meeting, the minutes of which are not 
recorded in the books. 

At the April meeting William Abell and Franklin P. Eddy were 
elected delgates to attend the Hartford convention of the N. E. T. U. 

Five dollars was voted to the committee having in charge the 
Eugene V. Debs labor rally to be held in Music Hall, June 23, with the 
proviso that no ads. were to be placed in the Telegram or News. 



138 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

At the July meeting a committee was appointed to procure a drag 
for the use of members Labor Day. Flags, bunting and badges were 
ordered purchased. 

A committee was also appointed to prepare resolutions for presen- 
tation to the family of the late Hon. George J. West, an ex-member of 
the Union, and at the time of his death an honorary member. 

August 30, it was voted to withdraw from the Central Labor 
Union. 

John H. Cook of the Carpenters' Union, accompanied by John 
McGlucky of Homestead, Pa., asked the privilege of addressing the 
Union at the August meeting and the request was granted. Mr. 
McGlucky gave a blood-curdling account of the great Homestead steel 
strike, displaying to the awe-stricken members present numerous bullet 
wounds alleged to have been received from encounters with Pinker- 
ton's sharpshooters. An appeal for financial assistance by Mr. 
McGlucky was deferred until the next meeting, and then laid on the 
table. 

The President informed the Union that he had received a letter 
from Organizer H. Thomas Elder, an answer to which he had returned, 
and at a future meeting he would divulge the contents of the letter 
and the answer. The secret evidently died with the promise. 

A suspension of hostilities against the News was voted at the 
September meeting, and the entire matter was taken from the hands 
of the executive committee and placed in charge of the President and 
two members. 

November 18, 1896, an assessment of 50 cents per member was 
levied, the same to be forwarded to the trustees of the Childs-Drexel 
fund. 

At the December meeting a communication from Woonsocket 
Union was read, asking the support of Providence Union in advancing 
the candidacy of Leroy B. Pease for the position of Public Printer under 
the McKinley administration, and a committee was appointed for that 
purpose. Correspondence from senators and representatives was read 
at the January (1897) meeting, assuring hearty support. The commit- 
tee reported that the Central Labor Union had endorsed the petition, 
and that Boston Union had been visited and that Union had reconsid- 
ered previous action and had endorsed Mr. Pease. The committee was 
discharged in April, 1897, and while it was unable to report that it 
had been successful, the committee was thanked by the Union for its 
strenuous efforts. 

December 27, 1896, amended rules and regulations governing the 
use of the label were proposed and adopted. The amendments were 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 139 

introduced with a view to enhance the value of the label and to pre- 
vent abuse of the privilege of its use. 

That the Childs-Drexel assessment might be considered in the light 
of a Christmas gift, it was voted to draw on the treasury for an amount 
based on the number of members then in good standing. 

A committee was appointed at the February (1897) meeting to 
inquire into the reorganization of the Central Labor Union, and report 
at the next meeting. Upon a favorable report it was voted to re-affili- 
ate at the March meeting. 

March 28 it was announced that the I. T. U. per capita tax had 
been increased 5c. per month, but it was deemed advisable to make no 
increase in local dues until the amount then being paid proved inade- 
quate to meet expenses. 

The secretary was instructed, April 25, 1897, to notify sister Unions 
that antagonism toward the News on the part of Typographical Union 
had been withdrawn and the trouble satisfactorily adjusted. 

Two delegates, Messrs. Eddy and Roxburgh, were elected at the 
April meeting to attend the convention of the N. E. T. U. at Salem. 
Fifteen dollars each was voted the delegates. May 30, it was voted 
that the delegates endeavor to have the convention meet in Providence, 
June, 1898, and at the June, 1897, meeting a committee on ways and 
means was appointed to prepare for the convention's reception one year 
hence, the Union's delegates to Salem having reported that they were 
successful in securing for Providence the 1898 meeting. 

Delegates to the Labor Day Committee were appointed at the May 
meeting, and June 27, 1897, it was voted to apply to the Central Labor 
Union for No. 33's share of last Labor Day's profits. 

The formation of a chapel in the News office was announced 
July 25. 

The condition of the Union's banner was the subject of a discussion 
at the August meeting. Mr. Eddy remarked that " Providence Union 
should be proud of the distinction of being the oldest trade Union in the 
city, but of having the oldest banner Never ! " Mr. Shaw volunteered 
to polish up the brass work on the pole, and Mr. Roxburgh promised 
string to tie up the loose pieces. 

At the October meeting application was made for the label by the 
proprietor of an Italian newspaper. 

November 29, 1897, the salary of the financial secretary was 
increased to $75. 

The reorganization of the Central Labor Union under the name of 
the " Rhode Island Central Trades and Labor Union " was announced 
at the January, 1898, meeting. 



140 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

A committee was appointed at this meeting to formulate a scale 
of prices for offices using typesetting machines, but was at a later 
meeting discharged. 

Committee on ways and means for the reception of the N. E. T. U. 
reported progress at the February meeting, and sub-committees were 
appointed on hotel, hall, badges, banquet, etc. At the May meeting 
the sub-committee on hall reported that St. George Lodge, K. of P., 
would, on the night of the banquet, relinquish its hall to the printers 
and that organization was thanked for the courtesy. 

William Palmer and Charles S. Shaw were elected at the April 
meeting to represent Providence at the convention. 

President John McMorrow of the Brewers' Union was introduced 
at the May meeting and appealed to the Union to place before the N. 
E. T. U. the necessity of printers assisting the Brewers' Union in their 
fight to unionize the breweries of this city. 

The complimentary banquet ticket problem was settled by a vote 
authorizing the President to use his discretion in the matter. 

The convention of the New England Typographical Union was 
held in Journal hall, June 14-15. Twenty-nine delegates, representing 
14 Unions, attended the convention. The delegates were tendered a 
banquet and entertainment on the evening of June 15, at which the 
following programme was successfully carried out : Welcome, Presi- 
dent William J. Meegan; toastmaster, A. E. Morrill; remarks, Gov. 
Elisha Dyer; "N. E. T. U. and Allied Trades," John Moffitt; song, 
selected, Daniel Knoepfel; "The Power of the Press," Robert Grieve; 
remarks, Joseph D. Hall, Jr. ; piano solo, " The Witches' Flight," Miss 
Claja E. Burtwell; "The Nine-Hour Question," James J. Nolan; 
" Industrial Development," Hon. Henry E. Tiepke ; song, selected, H. 
Cornelius Barnes; "Employer and Employe," Col. L. B. Pease; "The 
Union Label," Thomas M. Nolan ; piano solo, Miss A. Bernice Abell ; 
"Municipal Ownership," Silas Gamble; reading, Charles S. Shaw; 
" Our Lady Guests," Charles E. Smith ; " Auld Lang Syne." Commit- 
tee in charge, Franklin P. Eddy, E. Leslie Pike, George B. Sullivan, 
William Abell, William Palmer, Charles S. Shaw, Richard W. Roxburgh. 

William Abell was elected delegate to the International Convention 
at the election held the last Wednesday in July, and at the August 
meeting the delegate gave a glowing account of the doings of that 
body and intimated that there was $2,500 somewhere that this Union 
could have by applying to somebody. The president, financial secretary 
and recording secretary were elected a committee to immediately annex 
the $2,500, but a diligent search failed to reveal the whereabouts of the 
princely treasure. The convention was held at Syracuse, and the 
mazuma may have been salted. 




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HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 141 

There was no quorum present at the July meeting, owing, as the 
minutes state, to the inclemency of the weather. 

Sunday, August 28, the financial secretary was " instructed to pro- 
cure at least 25 badges for Labor Day, which, in addition to those in his 
possession, is expected to be sufficient." 

At the September meeting a committee was appointed to draw up 
a circular protesting against the methods of the N. E. T. U. 

October 30, 1898, an invitation to attend Pawtucket Cigarmakers' 
fair was accepted, and complimentary tickets to the Journeymen 
Bakers' Union masquerade ball were received. 

The meeting of November 27, 1898, was called to order by the 
recording secretary and, owing to the absence of a quorum, immediately 
adjourned. The secretary makes a note that " This was the day of the 
big snowstorm." 

Because of lack of a quorum the December meeting was adjourned. 

There was a very slim attendance at the January, 1899, meeting. 
Because no business had been transacted since the October meeting, 
a great deal of routine matter had accumulated. This fact, and the 
I. T. U. law, which required subordinate Unions to meet at least once 
in three months, seemed a sufficient reason for the President to ignore 
a point of order that there was no quorum present. Appeal was taken, 
but the attitude of the President was sustained. 

A committee appointed at this meeting to prepare a scale of prices 
for hand, machine and job composition was, at a later meeting, dis- 
charged for non-performance of duty. 

March 26, 1899, a ballot taken on a proposition to levy an assess- 
ment of five cents per week for a period of twelve weeks, resulted 33 
for, 12 against. The financial secretary was given discretionary power 
as to the method of collecting the assessment at the April meeting. 

A committee of one was appointed at th'e April meeting to inter- 
view all printers in the city who were not members of the Union and 
ascertain their reasons for not joining. The recording secretary was to 
keep a record of such reasons on file. At this meeting the Union voted 
to withdraw from the New England Typographical Union. 

It was voted also to elect a delegate to the I. T. U. convention at 
Detroit ; and after the names of three candidates had been placed in 
nomination, it was voted that any member, so desiring, could- become a 
candidate by filing his candidacy with the financial secretary. The 
election was held in the ante-room of Journal hall and Rudolph 
DeLeeuw was chosen to represent Providence Union. Mr. DeLeeuw 
desired instruction as to his vote upon certain matters to come before 
the convention, but the Union expressed confidence in its delegate's 
good judgment on all matters. 



142 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

The report of the Central Labor Union delegates at the meeting 
held July 30, 1899, showed that the action of the I. T. U. in assuming 
control of linotype machinists was condemned by that body. 

It was reported at the August meeting that No. 33 had been given 
the right of line in the Labor Day parade. 

September 24, 1899, a communication from I. T. U. headquarters, 
asking that financial support be given for the contest with the New 
York Sun, was received, and a committee, one member from each office, 
was appointed to solicit subscriptions. 

A special meeting was held October 1, to consider ways and means 
for unionizing the Telegram. Organizer McMahon gave an account of 
his work up to that time, and Herbert W. Cooke of Boston made a 
vigorous appeal for united action. The executive committee was in- 
structed to act in conjunction with the organizer in the matter. 

October 29, 1899, Messrs. Raphael and Strauss, two members of the 
National Cigarmakers' Union, addressed the meeting in relation to cer- 
tain brands of non-union cigars. A committee of three was appointed 
to attend a conference to be held in the interest of the cigarmakers. 

Delegates to the Central Labor Union reported that a mass meet- 
ing, preceded by a parade, would be held under the auspices of that 
body on November 16. A committee was appointed to assist in making 
the affair a success. 

At a special meeting, held November 18, the secretary was in- 
structed to communicate with New Haven Union and demand an ex- 
planation of its action in refusing to accept a travelling card issued 
by Providence Union. 

The executive committee was authorized to receive Samuel B. 
Donnelly, President of the I. T. U., who was expected to visit Provi- 
dence. 

November 26, 1899, John Mee addressed the Union in behalf of the 
Waiters' Alliance. 

The label committee reported that it had granted probationary use 
of the label to the Journal of Commerce. The President then stated 
that the foreman or superintendent of that company had withdrawn 
permission to the Union to do missionary work in that office. 

A committee of two was appointed to attend a meeting of the 
Textile Workers. The Union voted to reaffiliate with the New Eng- 
land Typographical Union. 

December 31, 1899, the Label League delegates reported that the 
league was working for the passage of a bill through the State legisla- 
ture in the interest of labels, trademarks, etc. February 25, 1900, it 
was stated that the Label League had dissolved. At the May meeting 
the passage of the label law was announced. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 143 

At the December meeting it was " Voted that all pressmen belong- 
ing to this Union be given a withdrawal card and instructed to affiliate 
with the Pressmen's Union." A committee was then appointed to 
confer with the pressmen, stereotypers and others for the purpose of 
organizing an Allied Printing Trades' Council. 

January 28, 1900, Mr. McDermott, a representative of the Socialist 
Labor party, addressed the Union upon the subject : " Socialism vs. 
Trades Unions." At the conclusion of the address several members of 
the Union spoke in refutation of the ideas advanced by that gentleman. 
A vote of thanks, however, was extended to Mr. McDermott. 

It was voted that hereafter meetings of the Union be held in the 
hall known as the Labor Temple. 

A committee was appointed at the January meeting to make 
arrangements for a ball ; and on Monday, February 26, 1900, Winslow 
Hall was comfortably filled with devotees of Terpsichore, who thor- 
oughly enjoyed the exercises. Included in the committee were : Bed- 
ford Codrington, chairman; Austin E. Malone, Frederick J. Tully, 
Brandon Shaw and Thomas Graham. Mr. Malone acted as floor direc- 
tor, and Mr. Tully as assistant floor director. William Donovan, George 
B. Sullivan, Franklin P. Eddy, William Palmer and James H. Russell 
served as a reception committee. The affair was reported at the March 
meeting as a social and financial success, about $40 being added to the 
Union's bank account. The committee was discharged with thanks, 
and the boys assisting Mr. Russell in the coat room were voted $1 each. 

At the February meeting Mr. Raphael addressed the Union on 
grievances of the cigarmakers, and the moral support of Providence 
Union was unanimously extended. 

Delegates to the Central Labor Union reported at the March meet- 
ing that a mass meeting would be held in Music Hall on Friday, March 
30, and that the meeting would be preceded by a parade. A committee 
was appointed to assure proper representation in the proposed parade, 
and, if possible, to secure Mr. Cooke of Boston to speak at the mass 
meeting. 

The delegates reported also that a committee from the C. L. U., 
awaiting in the ante-room, desired admission to present charges against 
one of our members. The committee was admitted; and upon their 
retirement, it was voted that the charges be considered cognizable by 
the Union, and a trial committee was appointed to hear the evidence. 
At the March meeting this committee, in its report to the Union, exon- 
erated Bedford Codrington, the accused. 

It was voted that the secretary call the attention of the chairmen 
of all political parties to the Union label, and urge their endorsement 
of that emblem by its use on printed matter. 



144 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

The financial secretary was instructed to subscribe for five copies 
of the Typographical Journal, to be distributed at his discretion. (At 
this time the I. T. U. had not provided for the Journal's distribution to 
all members, its circulation depending upon local Union or individual 
subscription.) 

Mr. Raphael of the Cigarmakers again addressed the Union at the 
March meeting. 

Messrs. Cook and Barrett from the Central Labor Union addressed 
the members at the April meeting, urging the endorsement of a propo- 
sition of the C. L. U. to employ a business agent. It was voted to con- 
tribute our proportionate share of the expense such an undertaking 
would incur. 

At the same meeting a scale of prices, submitted by a committee 
previously appointed, was adopted by sections. The same was adopted 
as a whole at the July meeting. 

This scale called for $14 per week and a 9-hour day in book and 
job offices, and 40 cents per hour for hand composition on newspapers. 
For machine composition, it demanded $24 and $20 per week for morn- 
ing and evening newspapers, respectively, and specified that 45 hours 
should constitute a week's work. Piece work on machines was to be 
13 and 11 cents morning and evening. 

Candidates were nominated for one delegate each to the Interna- 
tional and New England Typographical conventions. At the May 
meeting it was announced that Austin E. Malone was duly elected 
delegate to the International convention, and Hugh F. Carroll to the 
New England convention. 

Ten tickets to the Printing Exposition, under the auspices of " Big 
Six," New York, were ordered paid for by the financial secretary. 

Two special committees were appointed at the May meeting to 
endeavor to have the label appear on City and State printing. 

A communication from Painters' and Decorators' Union was read 
at the June meeting, thanking Providence Union for financial assist- 
ance. 

Arrangements were completed at the August meeting for the 
Labor Day parade. John P. Dorl was elected marshal, and it was voted 
that he devote one day to canvass the membership to the end that a 
creditable showing would be made. It was also voted that " Johnny " 
McGuire, apprentice on the News, be engaged to carry the banner, and 
that $1 be the compensation therefor. 

Ten dollars was appropriated to assist Galveston Union at the 
September meeting. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 145 

It was voted that the President appoint a committee of 30 for the 
purpose of handling the reorganization of .the Telegram, the names of 
said committee to be made known at an adjourned meeting to be held 
October 8, at 8 P. M. In the meantime the executive committee was 
instructed to obtain the affidavit of a Union man who had been dis- 
charged from the Telegram solely because he was a Union man. 

At the adjourned meeting the President announced the names of 
those comprising the committee, and methods of procedure were dis- 
cussed. 

A committee was then appointed to confer with the master printers 
in relation to the scale adopted at the July meeting, and it was voted 
that the same become operative January 1, 1901. 

According to the minutes of the October meeting the committee of 
30 on the Telegram reorganization " reported briefly " ; and Mr. Brown, 
for the committee on conference with the master printers, " reported 
steps taken by that committee." Both reports were received as reports 
of progress. 

" Typothetae " was substituted for " master printers " in recording 
the report of the " Committee on Conference " at the November meet- 
ing, and the report again accepted as one of progress. It was provided 
that, if necessary, a special meeting might be called. 

At the special meeting held October 8, it was voted that the dele- 
gates to the Central Labor Union confer with the delegates to that 
body from the Pressmen's Union, to the end that a resolution be pre- 
sented to the City Council urging that the label appear on all city 
printing. " That the delegates act before the coming election "' was 
attached as an amendment. A bill of $4, contracted by the latter com- 
mittee, was ordered paid one-half of said bill to be charged to the 
Pressmen's Union. 

At a regular meeting held October 28, 1900, a member inquired as 
to the propriety of his writing fraternal order notes for the Telegram. 
The idea was expressed that such action by a member was ethically 
improper, and he was advised to discontinue his writings and use 
his influence among lodge members to refrain from patronizing the 
Telegram. 

A committee was appointed to wait on the women employed in a 
certain office and endeavor to have them join the Union. 

Copies of the Report of the Commissioner of Industrial Statistics 
were distributed to those present. 

At the December meeting it was " Moved that all members em- 
ployed in printing offices which shall refuse to pay the scale decline to 
go to work on January 1, 1901." The matter, after discussion, was 



146 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

laid over for action to an adjourned meeting to be held the following 
evening at 8 o'clock. A committee, one man from each office, was 
selected to request the payment of the scale by the office in which each 
was employed, and to report at the adjourned meeting. 

At the adjourned meeting, every one of the committee reported 
an adverse reply to his request. President Donovan and Organizer 
McMahon then gave an account of their reception by the different pro- 
prietors not at all encouraging. A telegram from President Lynch of 
the I. T. U. was read, notifying the Union that a strike could not be 
endorsed unless all regulations governing same were complied with. 
After considerable discussion, a committee of three was appointed to 
confer with the Pressmen's Union (then in session in the same building) 
and to report result. 

The committee, upon its return, reported that the Pressmen's 
Union had voted to await a final answer from headquarters before 
taking aggressive action. A recess was voted and the Pressmen were 
invited to discuss the situation. The invitation was accepted by the 
Pressmen. After all who so desired had expressed their opinions on 
the subject, the Pressmen withdrew and the Union resumed business. 

It was then unanimously voted to strike two of the largest offices 
on Tuesday, January 1, 1901. The strike lasted two days, and resulted 
in a victory for the Union. 

A special meeting was called Friday, January 25, 1901, at the 
request of President Lynch of the I. T. U., who, however, was unable 
to be present, for the purpose of taking action on an agreement between 
the Providence Telegram Publishing Company and the International 
Typographical Union. After a reading of the agreement, the instru- 
ment was ratified by the Union, and thus ended an unpleasantness 
which had existed for almost twelve years between the Union and the 
Telegram management. 

At the regular meeting, Sunday, January 27, the "committee of 
30" was discharged, the object for which it had been appointed having 
been accomplished. 

The committee was composed of the following members : 

BOWEN, THOMAS, HORTON, J. J., O'CONNOR, DANIEL, 

BURRETT, H. N., HOFFMAN, MAX, OGDEN, C. S., 

BARNES, H. C., IRONS, ERNEST, RUSSELL, J. H., 

CARTER, D. E., KEENAN, JOHN P., REENEY, FRANK, 

CHOQUET, A. H., LEWIS, WILLIAM, REES, N. W., 

CLOWES, ROBERT J., LYONS, JAMES, SHAW, W. S., 

DORL, JOHN P., MALONE, A. E., SHANNON, J. A., 

DOLAN, H. F., MAHONEY, F. J., SMITH, FRED, 

DEFINI, VINCENT, MEEGAN, W. J., TULLY, F. J., 

DONAHUE, J. H., MADDEN, F. C., WILLIAMS, D. E. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 147 

The Union voted to indorse the proposed agreement between the 
American Newspaper Publishers' Association and the International 
Typographical Union. 

The election of officers, postponed from the December meeting, 
was taken up at this meeting. A committee was appointed to appear 
before the City Council Printing Committee in relation to awarding the 
contract for city printing. 

February 24, 1901, it was voted to hold a "smoker" in Labor 
Temple hall some time during the month of March. The committee 
having the affair in hand provided a lengthy miscellaneous programme 
which was greatly enjoyed by all who attended. George B. Sullivan 
acted as chairman of the exercises. Mayor Fitzgerald of Pawtucket 
made an address, and letters of regret were read from Mayor Granger 
of Providence, who was ill, and Frank E. Fitzsimmons of Lincoln, who 
had to attend an important meeting of the school committee. Edward 
Leslie Pike recited " Barbara Frietchie," with star-spangled accessories. 
Among others taking part in the exercises were Brandon Shaw, 
who sang, and . ex-President Martin, who made a short address. 
While the " smoker " was in session a ballot, taken on the ratification 
of the agreement between the American Newspaper Publishers' Asso- 
ciation and the International Typographical Union, resulted in a unani- 
mous vote. Tuesday evening, March 19, 1901, was the date upon 
which the exercises were held, and the committee in charge comprised 
Messrs. Sullivan, Russell, Eddy, Gattrell and Evans. March 31, 1901, 
Mr. Sullivan, for the committee, reported a very successful affair at 
an expense of about $44. 

The financial secretary was instructed at the February meeting to 
subscribe for one copy of the Typographical Journal to be sent to the 
Providence Public Library. At the meeting following, a letter from 
Librarian Foster was read, thanking the Union for its thoughtful 
action. 

William A. Newell was granted an honorable withdrawal card. 

A committee was appointed at the March meeting to draft resolu- 
tions upon the death of Franklin P. Eddy. The death of no member 
since the time of reorganization had been more keenly felt than that of 
Brother Eddy. Notwithstanding his frail physique he had devoted to* 
Union matters the energy of a giant and, outside of the Typographical 
Union, in the local labor world, he had wielded a powerful influence 
which, in turn, had accrued to the benefit of No. 33. 

At the April meeting it was decided to send no delegate to the 
I. T. U. convention, but it was deemed advisable to send one to the 



148 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Lowell convention of the New England Typographical Union, and Eli 
Alford was elected. Twenty dollars was allowed the delegate for 
expenses. 

The Central Labor Union delegates, at the May meeting, announced 
the formation of a Retail Clerks' Union, and urged members to patron- 
ize Union clerks exclusively when making purchases. 

A committee from the Barbers' Union was given the privilege of 
the floor at the June meeting, and it requested that members patronize 
only Union barber shops. Cards bearing the Typographical label were 
distributed on which was printed a list of the Union barber shops. 

Five dollars was appropriated for the benefit of black-listed railroad 
employes. 

At the July meeting, at the suggestion of President Lynch, a com- 
mittee was appointed for the purpose of label propaganda. 

It was voted at the August meeting that the Union should parade 
Labor Day. Eli Alford was chosen marshal for the occasion, and Carl 
Robb was elected unanimously to carry the banner. George B. Sullivan 
was authorized to invite Pawtucket Union to parade with No. 33, and 
the financial secretary was instructed to procure badges. 

The financial secretary's salary was increased from $75 to $120 per 
annum. 

Ten dollars was donated to the Steel Workers to be used in their 
battle with the trust. 

A committee vested with discretionary powers to arrange for a 
ball, reported at the November meeting that its mission had been 
accomplished, and while the affair had been a huge success socially, yet 
financially it had not reached the committee's expectations. Only $5.05 
was realized on the venture. 

The ball was held October 29, 1901, in Labor Temple hall, and 
music was furnished by Fay's Belmont Orchestra. The committee 
comprised J. H. Graham, Daniel O'Connor, William Abell, F. J. Mahoney, 
Carl Robb and Charles J. Rothemich. The floor director was C. J. 
Rothemich, F. J. Mahoney acting as assistant. The aids were Daniel 
O'Connor, William H. Jillson, Thomas Bowen, N. A. McPherson, James 
Cox and Daniel E. Mooney. Messrs. Donovan, Palmer, Abell and Russell 
served as a reception committee. 

A communication from the Barbers' Union, stating that it had 
voted to have all its printing bear the Union label, was read at the 
September meeting. 

Delegates to the Central Labor Union were instructed to call the 
attention of that body to the discourteous treatment accorded a com- 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 149 

munication from this Union, requesting C. L. U. officers to patronize 
Union printing offices. 

Mr. Robb asked that the secretary write a letter to the German 
Brewers' Union, thanking its members for their efforts to unionize 
Anzieger. It was so voted. 

At the October meeting a torchlight parade, to be followed by a 
mass meeting in Infantry Hall, was announced for November 22, by 
the delegates to the Central Labor Union, and a committee was 
appointed to carry out the suggestions contained in a circular in rela- 
tion to the same matter. 

October 27, 1901, resolutions expressing sympathy and offering 
financial assistance to New York Union in its fight with the Sun, were 
adopted. 

Delegates to the Central Labor Union reported that after many 
attempts they had secured the adoption of a resolution calling for the 
use of the Union label on all printed matter ordered by that body. 

A motion to endorse the candidacy of Lucius F. C. Garvin for 
Governor was ruled out of order by President Donovan, for the reason 
that it introduced partisan politics into the Union. On an appeal from 
the decision of the chair, democracy triumphed, the decision was over- 
ruled and the motion passed. 

November 24, 1901, $5 was voted to the Allied Printing Trades' 
Council to help defray the cost of a " sangerfest." 

Attention was called to the expiration of the Chinese Exclusion 
Act, generally known as the " Geary Law," and appropriate resolutions 
were passed, advocating the immediate re-enactment of a similar law. 

A vote of thanks was extended to the Barbers' Union, Electrical 
Workers' Union and Central Labor Union for the interest manifested 
by those bodies in the Union label. 

Sunday, December 29, $15 was voted to the International Brother- 
hood of Blacksmiths for use in San Francisco, where a vigorous fight 
for eight hours was being waged. 

At the meeting held January 26, 1902, the Allied Printing Trades' 
Council delegates reported that they had had an interview with the 
City Council committee on printing, and expressed the belief that they 
had made an impression on that august body. 

A communication from a member who desired to have his name 
" crossed off the list " was laid on the table. For negligence of duty 
on the part of the inquiry committee for the past year, a vote of cen- 
sure was passed as an amendment to a motion that the members be 
fined. The retiring President, Mr. Donovan, was thanked for faithful 
and efficient services. 



150 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

February 23, the organization of the Bartenders' Union was an- 
nounced by the Central Labor Union delegates, and printers were 
advised to quench their thirst only in those cafes employing the wearers 
of the I. B. L. blue button. The delegates stated also that a sacred 
concert, under the auspices of the Central Labor Union, would be held 
at Infantry Hall, Sunday, March 16. 

A communication from President Lynch of the I. T. U. in relation 
to the International Union's liability for strike benefits to members 
called out of non-union or open shops, was read at the February meet- 
ing, and it was voted to voice the protest of Providence Union against 
the International law as interpreted by President Lynch. 

An adjournment was taken from the February meeting to March 
9 for the purpose of revising the scale of prices. The proposed 
changes were adopted by sections at the adjourned meeting and 
adopted as a whole at the regular meeting, March 30. 

It was voted at the April meeting to send one delegate to the Cin- 
cinnati convention of the I. T. U., and one delegate to the Manchester 
convention of the N. E. T. U. William Donovan was chosen to act as 
delegate to the former convention, and Daniel O'Connor to the latter. 
The delegate to Cincinnati was instructed to do all in his power to have 
a law passed by which all Union men should be guaranteed strike 
benefits when called on strike, whether they be employed in Union 
offices or not. The delegate to the N. E. T. U. convention was in- 
structed to urge the disbandment of that organization on the ground 
of having outlived its usefulness. Mr. Donovan was allowed $100 for 
expenses and $15 was appropriated for the use of Mr. O'Connor. 

May 25, 1902, an agreement with the News Publishing Company, 
identical with that of the Telegram, was reported as having been 
signed, and the application of the News Company for the Union label 
was referred to the Allied Printing Trades' Council. 

It was announced that the name of the Rhode Island Central 
Trades' and Labor Union had been changed, Providence being substi- 
tuted for Rhode Island. 

It was voted to send ten delegates to the next meeting of the 
Economic League. 

June 29, 1902, a committee was appointed to solicit subscriptions 
for a banner. 

A communication from Stereotypers' Union relating to the refusal 
of the Central Labor Union to seat its delegates was read at the June 
meeting, but no action taken. 

The strike of the Providence Street Railway Employes' Association 
against the United Traction Company was endorsed, and it was voted 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 151 

to levy a fine of $1 on any member of this Union patronizing the cars 
of that company during the continuance of the strike. 

Little but routine business was transacted at the July meeting. 
Several vacancies on committees were filled, and a motion by Mr. Carl 
Robb that $40 be appropriated for the purchase of a new banner was 
ruled out of order by the presiding officer. It was then voted to parade 
on Labor Day, and Eli Alford and Carl Robb were elected as marshal 
and standard bearer, respectively. The re-election of these two gentle- 
men to the offices they had so ably filled one year previous evidenced 
the Union's appreciation of work well done. 

For some time there had been dragging along in the courts an 
action of the Union vs. J. J. Ryder & Co., for infringement of the 
Union label. At the August meeting the delegates to the Allied 
Printing Trades' Council reported that Mr. Ryder had been fined $30 
for use of a counterfeit label. 

Governor Garvin was endorsed for re-election, and at the Novem- 
ber meeting his appointment of Joseph McDonald as factory inspector 
was endorsed by resolution. 

The name of George H. Pettis was placed on the Honorary List at 
the August meeting. 

September 28, a communication from the Eight-Hour Work Day 
Committee of the I. T. U., urging action along lines suggested in an 
accompanying circular, was received and a committee was appointed to 
attend to the matter. 

A communication from the International Women's Auxiliary was 
received at the meeting held October 26, 1902. 

The formation of an association of retail cigar dealers in opposition 
to the tobacco trust was announced at the October meeting. The new 
association had agreed to sell only Union cigars, it was stated, and 
members who were in the habit of using B. L. plug tobacco were 
advised that L. B., a Union-made plug, was an admirable substitute. 

November 30, 1902, members were allowed to wear their hats dur- 
ing the meeting, because the janitor had failed to have the room com- 
fortably heated. 

The banner committee reported that the object for which it had 
been appointed was in sight not ocularly, but prospectively. 

Three delegates were appointed by the chair to attend a convention 
called to consider the advisability of organizing a State Branch of the 
American Federation of Labor. At the December meeting the dele- 
gates announced that a branch had been duly organized and recom- 
mended affiliation. The report was received and recommendation 
adopted. 



152 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

A ballot taken by the members present at the November meeting 
on the Los Angeles assessment proposition, resulted in a vote of 33 in 
favor of the assessment and 3 against. 

Two amendments to the constitution were offered at the January 
(1903) meeting, both relating to Article VII., governing " Dues." One 
was for a flat assessment of 60 cents per month. The other was based 
on the percentage plan. Both were laid over to the February meeting, 
and at that meeting the former plan was adopted. 

A committee appointed at the January meeting to wait on the 
printing committee of the City Council, to urge that the city printing 
be given to Union offices, reported at the February meeting that they 
had been courteously received and given a fair hearing. That, how- 
ever, was all. 

Ten dollars was voted to Owosso-Carunna Union. 

William S. Waudby of Rochester was endorsed for the office of 
United States Labor Commissioner at the March meeting. 

March 29, 1903, a committee of three was appointed to wait on the 
Pressmen's Union for the purpose of formulating a joint proposition 
calling for increased wages and shorter hours. It was voted to procure 
a ballot box and a copy of Cushing's Manual. 

Along in the fall of 1920, President Lynch of the I. T. U. sent a 
letter to Richard S. Rowland, editor-in-chief of the Providence Journal 
Company, in which was set forth the relations then existing between 
the International Typographical Union and 95 per cent, of the publish- 
ers of daily papers in the United States. Mr. Rowland, for a period 
covering several months, investigated the matter and found that Presi- 
dent Lynch had not overstated in any particular the friendly feelings 
existing between those proprietors and the Typographical Union. On 
April 2, 1903, M. S. Dwyer, then publisher of the Journal, acting for 
Mr. Rowland, instructed the foreman, William Carroll, to ascertain if 
the men in the composing room desired that the office be made strictly 
Union or remain as it then stood. After work had ceased that after- 
noon, William Donovan, at the suggestion of the foreman, called the 
men together in the composing room, and Mr. Carroll stated the object 
of the gathering. 

The proposition was a surprise to the men, and that fact caused an 
inquiry as to the purpose of it there being a suspicion on the part of 
some that, as the Union scale, then existing, called for less than that 
paid by the Journal Company, it might be for the purpose of reducing 
wages. 

Mr. Carroll said that although the matter had not appeared to him 
in that light, he felt assured that he could, without consulting Mr. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 153 

Rowland, inform the men that such action was not intended. He 
stated further that he believed, if the men desired the office strictly 
Union, it would be made such. If they wished to have it remain as it 
was, that would be the end of it. 

It was then moved and seconded that the office be made a Union 
office. The motion was put and carried unanimously. The same 
question was asked that evening of the men who worked nights, with 
the same result. 

Information of the result was given to Mr. Dwyer by Mr. Carroll, 
and Mr. Dwyer asked that a committee from the Union call upon Mr. 
Howland to arrange for the contemplated change. 

A special meeting of the Union was called April 5, 1903, for the 
purpose of appointing a committee to confer with Mr. Howland, and at 
that meeting it was voted that a committee consisting of the I. T. U. 
Organizer, the President of the Union, and three members to be 
appointed, meet Mr. Howland the following day. President Palmer 
appointed Andrew F. Moran, Ira N. Tew and James H. Russell, to act 
with himself and I. T. U. Organizer McMahon. 

The committee was given full power to consummate negotiations, 
and at the regular meeting held April 26, the committee submitted a 
signed agreement and a scale of prices. The new scale provided for 
an advance in wages ranging from 12% per cent, to 33% per cent., and 
in all respects the best scale ever negotiated by Providence Union up 
to that time the agreement to continue until February 6, 1906. 

The scale submitted by the committee was adopted at the meeting 
as the scale of the Union ; the agreement was ratified and the commit- 
tee discharged with thanks. 

Mr. Robb, for the committee appointed to purchase a new banner, 
reported that $30 had been subscribed by members, and asked that the 
Union appropriate the balance necessary for its purchase. It was voted 
that $25 be placed at the disposal of the committee. At the August 
meeting the committee reported the purchase of a banner at a cost of 
$50, leaving a balance of $5, which was returned to the treasury. 

The resignation of President Palmer, presented at the April meet- 
ing immediately after the ratification of the agreement and adoption 
of the scale of prices, was taken from the table at the May meeting. 
Before action could be taken, Mr. DeLeeuw asked permission to make 
a few remarks out of the regular order. He then presented to Presi- 
dent Palmer $100 on behalf of the members employed in the Journal, 
Telegram and News chapels. Mr. Palmer replied fittingly. A motion 
that the resignation be accepted did not reach a vote, Mr. Palmer with- 
drawing the resignation. 



154 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

A book and job scale, embodying the 8-hour day and $16 per week, 
was adopted at the meeting held May 31, 1903, the same to go into 
effect September 14, 1903. A compromise was effected between the 
Typothetae and the Union in relation to this scale, the Typothetae 
agreeing to the increase of wages with no reduction of the working 
hours 54 for the week. 

June 28, 1903, it was reported that some members of the Press- 
men's Union were, at times, called to work on the " case " in two of 
the large offices, and it was voted that the Pressmen's Union be 
requested to instruct its members to cease the practice. The Press- 
men's Union replied that it could do nothing in the premises. It was 
then decided to call the attention of the I. T. U. officials to the matter. 

It was voted at the July meeting to protest against the action of 
the Board of State Charities and Corrections in importing a man to act 
as instructor of printing at the Sockanosset School when many capable 
men were available at home. 

A copy of the protest was sent to Governor Garvin, and by His 
Excellency returned to the Union, with the information that the chief 
executive was powerless to grant relief in the premises. 

At the August meeting George B. Sullivan was elected to represent 
No. 33 at the convention of the State Federation of Labor to be held 
at Woonsocket. 

Ten dollars was appropriated for the benefit of the Journeymen 
Horseshoers' Union of Providence. 

A special meeting was held at Allied Printing Trades'. Council hall, 
98 Weybosset street, on Sunday, September 13, 1903, to receive the 
report of a committee appointed to submit to the master printers the 
scale of prices adopted at the May meeting. Mr. Sullivan, for this com- 
mittee, gave a full account of the conference with the Typothetae, and 
also read a counter proposition submitted by that organization. The 
committee recommended that the proposition be rejected. This action 
was taken. It was then voted that the scale of prices, as adopted by 
this Union, be enforced as soon as sanctioned by the I. T. U. executive 
council. 

The Union was called together again the following Friday (Sep- 
tember 18). The hall of the Providence Workmen's Beneficial Asso- 
ciation was occupied on this occasion. Mr. Shannon, for the scale 
committee, read a revised proposition submitted by the master printers. 

It was then voted to accept the revised proposition, of which the 
following is a copy : 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 155 

AGREEMENT 

BETWEEN 
AND 

PROVIDENCE -TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, No. 33 
FOR BOOK AND JOB OFFICES 



TIME WORK 

SECTION 1. Book and job compositors, when employed by the week, shall receive 
not less than Sixteen dollars per week ; fifty-four hours to constitute a weeks' work. 

SEC. 2. Overtime shall be paid for at the rate of time and one-half until 12 o'clock, 
midnight. When required to work until 9 P. M. or later, one half hour shall be given and 
paid for by the office. All work done on Sundays or holidays shall be paid for at the 
rate of double time. By the term " holidays " is meant Memorial Day, Fourth of July, 
Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. 

SEC. 3. Apprentices shall be limited as follows: One apprentice to every four 
journeymen or less, and one apprentice to each additional four journeymen or majority 
fraction thereof, but in no case to have more than three apprentices in a less proportion 
than one to eight journeymen. The term of apprenticeship shall be four years. 

SEC. 4. No apprentice shall run a typesetting machine until within six months of 
the expiration of his term of apprenticeship. All apprentices shall be registered accord- 
ing to International Typographical Union regulations. 

SEC. '5. The hours of labor shall be between 7 A. M. and 6 P. M. 

The above scale of prices is hereby agreed upon between, etc., etc. 

The scale adopted May 31 was then amended to comply with the 
above agreement. 

At a later meeting it was reported that every large firm in the city 
had signed, except one. 

George B. Sullivan reported as delegate to the State Federation 
and received the thanks of the Union for the excellent manner in which 
he had represented No. 33. 

The finances of the Union at no time warranted the inordinate 
bonding of its treasurer. That something might accumulate within 
its "strong box," however, time and again it had been proposed to 
increase the dues, and time and again the proposition had been 
defeated. Such was the fate of the proposition offered at the October 
meeting, providing for an increase of dues of 10 cents per month per 
member. The proposed amendment to the constitution read as fol- 
lows: 

" The dues of this Union shall be seventy cents per month, ten cents of which sum 
shall be set aside as a fund to enforce eight-hour legislation." 

Other amendments were offered at the same time to those sections 
of the constitution which would necessarily be affected by the adoption 
of the above amendment. 

Notwithstanding the provision in the above amendment that set 
aside the increase for the exclusive benefit of the job printers, it was 
just that element that compassed its defeat. 



156 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

A counter proposition was offered, providing for the assessment of 
dues upon the percentage plan, the amendment reading : 

" The dues of this Union shall be one per cent, per week of weekly earnings." 

Both amendments were laid over until the following meeting, when 
both were defeated the percentage plan' receiving 38 votes to 35 
against, and the 70-cent flat assessment receiving 41 votes to 31 
against. 

Mr. Manshell, of the Sun Printing Company, was extended a vote 
of thanks for furnishing the Union gratuitously certain printed matter. 

A political circular, bearing the Union label, reflecting upon the 
Union principles of a former member and ex-President of the Union, 
which had been under investigation for some weeks, was discussed at 
the November meeting. The committee having the matter in charge 
reported that it was satisfied that there had been no unlawful use of 
the label and recommended that the matter be dropped, inasmach as a 
resolution exonerating the gentleman accused had been passed at the 
October meeting. 

December 27, 1903, the committee intrusted to prepare this history 
of the Union was appointed, and resolutions defining its powers and 
privileges were adopted. The committee, as originally organized, com- 
prised the following: William Carroll, John A. Shannon, William 
Palmer, George B. Sullivan and William J. Meegan. 

At the time of the appointment of this committee it was believed, 
and in reality is a fact, that Providence Union was organized June, 
1856, and that its 50th anniversary would, therefore, occur June, 1906 ; 
but, for reasons stated in the introduction, 1907 was chosen as more 
appropriate under the circumstances. 

Twenty-five dollars was voted for the preliminary expenses of the 
committee at the adjourned meeting held February 7, 1904. 

The minutes of the meeting held January 31, 1904, are missing, 
but it is remembered, as the record of the following meeting suggests, 
that no business of importance was transacted, adjournment being 
taken to the following Sunday that the members might attend the 
funeral services of Charles H. Hopkins. 

The adjourned meeting was held February 7, 1904, in Allied Print- 
ing Trades' Council hall, 95 Westminster street. 

Resolutions of respect for our departed brother, Charles H. Hopkins, 
were adopted, and the charter of the Union ordered draped for a period 
of 45 days one day for each year of his life. 

A committee which had been previously appointed to consider the 
advisability of holding a ball or entertainment of some sort, reported 
the proposal as inexpedient at that time. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 157 

The Los Angeles Times committee reported progress in its work. 

A dues scheme something of a straddle of the flat rate system 
and the percentage plan was defeated ; ayes 27, nays 23. A propo- 
sition to levy an assessment of 10 cents per month for a period of six 
months was also defeated. 

The regular February meeting was held Sunday, the 28th. 

The Allied Printing Trades' Council delegates reported that the 
label had been taken from the Telegram. The discussion which fol- 
lowed was somewhat animated and prolonged. It was finally voted to 
ask the council to restore the label pending the arrival of Organizer 
McMahon. It was also voted that President Geer proceed to Boston to 
confer with the organizer, to the end that the matter might be settled 
as quickly as possible. 

The trouble was precipitated substantially as follows : A News- 
paper Writers' Union had been organized in this city, and soon after its 
formation its President was discharged by the Telegram manage- 
ment for the reason, as stated by the deposed President, that he 
belonged to the Union. The Telegram management denied that the 
man was discharged for any such reason. Being represented by dele- 
gates in the Allied Printing Trades' Council, the newspaper writers 
succeeded in having that body remove the label from the Telegram. 

After the adjournment of the February meeting it was expected 
that something definite would be accomplished in regard to the matter 
before the time for the March meeting, but such was not to be. Presi- 
dent Greer was not present at the March meeting, he having accepted 
work in Boston. Organizer McMahon had not visited Providence in 
the meanwhile. Things remained in statu quo. It was then voted 
that the I. T. U. officers be fully informed of the situation. The label 
was not restored to the Telegram until July, delegates to the Allied 
Printing Trades' Council reporting to that effect. In the meantime, 
the Newspaper Writers' Union had ceased to exist. 

An honorable withdrawal card was granted to H. B. Ladd at the 
meeting held March 27, 1904. 

Ex-Financial Secretary Abell, who had retired from the business, 
was present at the March meeting and gave an interesting account of 
the "simple life" he was then practicing, and extended a cordial 
invitation to all members to visit him " down on the farm." 

At the April meeting it was voted to send one delegate to represent 
Providence at the I. T. U. convention to be held at St. Louis. The 
names of six members were placed in nomination, four of whom with- 
drew before the election. An assessment of $1 per member was levied 
on the June card. At the May meeting the election committee reported 



158 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

that William J. Meegan had been elected delegate, and $100 was appro- 
priated for expenses. At the July meeting $50 additional was appro- 
priated. 

A donation of $5 was voted to Parkersburg, W. Va., Union at the 
April meeting. 

Mr. Paquette of the Bakers' and Confectioners' Union addressed 
the members at the May meeting, and asked the moral support of the 
printers for the Bakers' Union, which was then on strike for recogni- 
tion as an organization. 

George B. Sullivan was endorsed as Providence Union's candidate 
for I. T. U. Organizer, and a committee appointed to present his candi- 
dacy to other Unions for endorsement. 

To a member who had been ill and who wished to return to his 
native home, $10 was voted. 

At the June meeting Mr. Reed of the Western Federation of 
Miners addressed the members and gave a graphic account of the 
doings of the " Citizens' Alliance " in the mining districts of Colorado. 
The Union sympathized with the miners to the extent of $10, and a 
committee appointed to solicit contributions for the same purpose for- 
warded to miners' headquarters $12.50 more. 

It was voted that the July meeting be held in Squantum woods, 
and a committee was appointed to make arrangements for shelter in the 
event of bad weather. The secretary was instructed to notify all 
members of the change of place of meeting. 

In accordance with the above vote the July meeting was held in 
the woods, it not being necessary to seek shelter, the day being delight- 
ful. Twenty-four members were present. 

An ideal spot, surrounded and shaded by a group of hemlocks, was 
selected ; and after President Daniel O'Connor had wormed himself into 
a comfortable position upon the ragged edges of a huge boulder, he 
declared the meeting open for the transaction of business. 

The executive committee reported that a bundle of tickets from 
Norwalk Union had been disposed of to individual members and the 
proceeds forwarded to that Union, and an appeal for financial aid from 
Freight Handlers' Union was laid on the table because the strike for 
which the aid was asked had been declared off. 

Delegates to the Central Trades' and Labor Union reported that a 
meeting of delegates from all organizations intending to take part in 
the parade on Labor Day would be held Tuesday evening, August 2, 
for the purpose of electing a chief marshal. Six delegates were 
appointed to attend that meeting, and by vote, George Wilson of the 
Cigarmakers' Union was endorsed for the position of chief marshal. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 159 

A committee was appointed to decide where it would be advisable 
to hold the next meeting. 

The August meeting was called to order in the Union's regular 
quarters in Labor Temple. 

William Carroll was elected delegate to the State Federation con- 
vention to be held at Newport. 

Tickets for a ball to be held Labor Day at Trinidad, Col., were 
received and laid on the table, and a communication announcing a ball 
game between Outlet clerks and Photo-Engravers' Union was received 
and placed on file. 

The delegates to the C. T. and L. U. were instructed to protest 
against sending the Labor Day Programme to Boston to be printed. 

September 25, 1904, delegates to the Central Trades' and Labor 
Union reported that a committee had been appointed by that body for 
the purpose of organizing a Woman's Auxiliary, to be composed of the 
wives and daughters of members of the different Unions affiiliated with 
the C. T. and L. U. 

A committee of five was appointed to draw up a new contract for 
book and job offices, and the committee was instructed to hold itself 
in readiness to meet a committee of master printers, that agree- 
ment might be had for the year 1905 between employing printers and 
the Union. The committee was also empowered to formulate a scale 
for weekly newspapers. George B. Sullivan reported at a meeting held 
December 18, that the committee had met the master printers and had 
submitted a scale of prices differing slightly from the one then in oper- 
ation. A communication was read in which a discussion of the eight-hour 
day was declined by the master printers. At the January (1905) meet- 
ing the committee reported that an agreement had been reached, and 
asked that the same be ratified by the Union. That action was taken 
and the committee empowered to obtain signatures to the contract. 
February 26, 1905, the committee reported nine offices signed and an 
agreement with the proprietor of the Weekly Visitor. March 26, prac- 
tically all offices were reported signed-. 

A committee was also appointed at the September (1904) meeting, 
for the purpose of revising the constitution. At the October meeting 
this committee was ordered to report at the November meeting, under 
penalty of discharge for failure. The committee protected itself 
from the disgrace so generously provided by submitting a printed list 
of proposed amendments. The report was received and laid on the 
table for one month. At the meeting held December 18, 1904, consid- 
erable progress was made with its reading and several sections were 
adopted. Amendments to the proposed amendments, however, began 



160 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

to interrupt the work, and the greater part of the printed list was laid 
over until the next meeting, and at that meeting consideration of the 
amendments was postponed. At the May (1905) meeting a new com- 
mittee was appointed to correct and revise the constitution, and at the 
July meeting this committee requested members to bring in their 
changes and proposed amendments that the committee might be able 
to offer a report which would, perhaps, meet with less objections. No 
further progress was made with the work of adopting the amendments 
until at a special meeting held November 15, 1905, when about one-half 
of the unfinished matter was gone over. That ended consideration of 
the amendments until May 26, 1907, the matter being postponed from 
month to month. At the May meeting it was voted to devote one-half 
hour to the consideration of the amendments at that and each subse- 
quent meeting until the adoption of the constitution as amended be 
completed. The matter is still before the Union. 

Still another committee appointed at the September (1904) meeting, 
was one authorized to prepare for some form of entertainment of the 
members. On Tuesday evening, November 15, 1904, the committee in 
charge provided a bounteous feast, consisting of a turkey supper with 
all the fixings, coffee and ice cream. Because of a boycott on one of 
the leading caterers by the Bakers' Union, the affair was held in Labor 
Temple hall, and the supper served by a member of the Waiters' Alli- 
ance. After the tables were cleared away the members gathered about 
to listen to the exercises provided by the committee. President O'Con- 
nor made a felicitous address and introduced William Carroll as toast- 
master. Hugh O'Halloran, ex-President of Boston Union, made the 
principal address, in which he ably set forth the duty of members to 
the Union, and the benefits to be derived therefrom. Other speakers 
were George B. Sullivan, President Charles A. Salisbury of Pawtucket 
Union, James Muspratt, Samuel R. Macready on " The Oldest Printer," 
and William J. Meegan on the " Printers' Envelope." Singing, dancing, 
and a sparring match between Monk, the Newsboy, and Little Mike, 
gave variety to the programme. William Carroll, John P. Dorl and 
William Lewis comprised the committee. 

November 27, 1904, the request of a Mr. Olyott that he be given 
permission to practice on a spare Mergenthaler machine in the News 
office was refused. 

Because the regular December meeting was scheduled to fall on 
Christmas Day it was voted to hold the next meeting on Sunday, 
December 18. 

The death of Clarence E. Burtwell was announced at the December 
meeting, and the secretary was instructed to obtain the names of all 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 161 

deceased members and have the same inscribed on the memorial tablet, 
presented some years previous by Judson A. Keach. 

Delegates to the Central Labor Union reported at the meeting held 
January 29, 1905, that many of the Union labels were being counter- 
feited or imitated, and that the word " Union " was being used as part 
of the name of many non-union articles. 

At this meeting the treasurer reported a notification from the 
International Union that Providence Union was in arrears for per 
capita tax. Charges were then preferred against the financial secre- 
tary for withholding Union moneys. The charges were deemed cog- 
nizable and a committee appointed to take testimony. A great amount 
of labor on the part of the auditing committee was necessary to arrive 
at a just conclusion as to the amount involved. The affair was event- 
ually settled by the Union accepting a note for $150, payable in six 
months. Bitter feeling was engendered during the discussion of the 
matter at the different meetings, at one of which charges were pre- 
ferred against the President for neglect of duty. These charges were, 
however, deemed not cognizable by a unanimous vote. 

That the Building Trades' Council was about to issue a monthly 
magazine was announced at the January meeting, and it was voted to 
take space in the book for the purpose of advertising those offices using 
the Union label. 

A committee of two was appointed at the meeting held February 
26, 1905, to appear before a legislative committee and favor the adop- 
tion of a law requiring the labeling of convict-made goods. This 
committee reported March 26, and recommended that a standing com- 
mittee be appointed to attend to such matters in the future. 

The official handbook of the Barbers' Union, not bearing the Union 
label, was given to the delegates to the Allied Printing Trades' Council 
for investigation. The delegates reported later that the work had been 
done in a Union office. 

A communication from Pawtucket Union in relation to the transfer 
of matrices from a Providence paper to one in Pawtucket, was referred 
back to Pawtucket Union. 

Notice of a field day to be known as May Day, and to be held Sun- 
day, May 7, by the Central Trades' and Labor Union and Building 
Trades' Council was announced at the March meeting. 

The attention of the Union was also called to a resolution adopted 
by the Central Trades' and Labor Union, denying moral or financial 
support to any organization refusing to submit its contract for inspec- 
tion by that body before the same shall be formally signed. 

At the meeting held April 30, 1905, the death of William H. Jillson 
was announced, and a letter from Mr. Jillson's father, expressing thanks 



162 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

for the many courtesies extended to his son, was read by the President, 
who stated that the death benefit had been paid to the senior Mr. 
Jillson. 

A case or cover for the preservation of the banner was ordered at 
this meeting, and Carl Robb was delegated to procure the same. 

It was voted to send two delegates, one from the book and job 
branch and one from the newspaper branch, to the Toronto convention 
of the International Typographical Union. Six candidates were nomi- 
nated three from each branch. At a special meeting held in Musi- 
cian's hall, May 10, 1905, a committee was appointed to attend to the 
election, and it was voted to keep the polls open from 4 to 8.15 P. M. 
The election was held May 17, at 93 M> Clemence street. Eli Alford for 
the newspaper branch and Maurice E. Hughes for the job branch were 
elected. The total number of votes cast was 136. At the May meet- 
ing a motion to assess the membership $1.50 was laid over to the June 
meeting, and at that meeting the assessment proposition was withdrawn 
and a motion was passed transferring $150 from the eight-hour fund to 
the general fund, provision being made to replenish the eight-hour fund 
with the money soon due on note for $150. This amount was divided 
between the delegates. There were 31 members present at the meet- 
ing at which the transfer was made, the meeting being held at Boy den 
Heights. 

At the May meeting it was voted to give up Labor Temple for a 
period of three months, it having been voted to meet at Boyden Heights 
June, July and August. 

Edgar 0. Beacham was elected delegate to the New England Allied 
Printing Trades' convention at Fall River, $10 being voted as expenses. 

An eight-hour committee was appointed and given power to call a 
meeting at any time. 

June 25, 1905, the meeting was called to order at " The Lookout," 
a high point of land overlooking Narragansett Bay, and close to the 
Squantum Club grounds. 

Delegates to the Central Trades' and Labor Union reported that the 
President of that organization had, upon his own request, been author- 
ized to issue a weekly paper. The project had been opposed by No. 33's 
delegates because of abuse of like privilege in the past and the danger 
involved in giving one man authority to speak for so great and diver- 
sified interests. 

The July and August meetings were held in the open air and near 
the same locality as the June meeting, the minutes all being dated 
Boyden Heights. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 163 

At the July meeting there were 27 members present and a com- 
mittee of five was appointed to draw up a scale of prices for newspaper 
work, to replace the scale appearing in the agreements expiring Febru- 
ary 1, 1906. 

After adjournment the minutes state that ample justice was done 
to a shore dinner in honor of Organizer Charles Scott, who was present. 

At the August meeting the committee on summer outings made a 
final report, and the secretary was instructed to thank the manager of 
Boyden Heights for courtesies extended to the Union. 

John Moffitt, President of the New England Allied Printing Trades, 
gave a brief history of the work accomplished in the Providence 
district. 

A committee was appointed to make arrangements for a parade on 
Labor Day, and it was voted that all members not parading be fined $3. 
The secretary was instructed to call the roll on Labor Day. It was also 
voted to provide carriages for female members. 

Cards, bearing a list of label offices, were ordered printed and 
distributed. 

A motion that " no printer be allowed in the line on Labor Day 
unless he shall wear Union-made shoes, clothes and hat," was lost. 
The mover of the motion then gave notice that he would refuse to 
parade with any printer who did not wear Union-made clothing. 

William Carroll was elected delegate to the convention of the State 
Federation of Labor at Westerly. 

The meeting of September 24, 1905, was held in Labor Temple 
hall. The eight-hour and newspaper scale committees reported 
progress. 

It was voted that the President and secretary notify the master 
printers that the Union would ask for a change in the book and job 
scale, January 1, 1906. 

On motion, John J. Horton was elected reading clerk, that office 
having been created at the same meeting. The minutes state that Mr. 
Horton was escorted to a chair amid great applause. 

The organization of a Typographical Union in the Pawtuxet Valley 
was announced at this meeting. 

A communication from Boston Union requesting the attendance 
of a delegate to represent Providence Union at a conference of New 
England Unions, to be held at Boston for the purpose of discussing the 
proposed demand for an eight-hour day, was received, and H. S. Richard- 
son was chosen to act for Providence Union. Four dollars per day was 
voted the delegate for expenses. At the October meeting the delegate 
read the resolutions adopted at the eight-hour conference. 



164 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

George H. Brown, delegate to the Central Trades' and Labor Union, 
recommended that Providence Union draft some sort of a resolution of 
protest against having the official Labor Day Programme printed in 
Boston. The delegate was instructed to attend to the matter himself. 

October 29, 1905, the newspaper scale committee presented its 
report, and it was voted that the same be made the special order at the 
next meeting, all members to be notified to that effect. At the Novem- 
ber meeting those of the proposed changes differing radically from the 
scale then in operation, were defeated. The scale as adopted was still 
further compromised by the committee negotiating the contracts with 
the newspaper publishers, the result being practically the same scale as 
the one previously in force. 

The President announced that he had notified the master printers 
in regard to a change in the book and job contracts for January 1, 1906, 
and also said that he had called a special meeting two weeks previous for 
the purpose of discussing the amendments to the constitution, but that 
the meeting had not been held because few had attended. It was then 
voted to call a special meeting within 30 days for the purpose of consid- 
ering the constitution. 

It was voted that in event of the passage of the 50-cent assessment, 
a ballot on which was about to be taken, the Union pay the same for all 
members who may be unemployed during the life of the assessment. 
The count of the vote showed that Providence Union had endorsed the 
proposition 52 to 6. 

The resignation of William Abell as financial secretary, and that of 
Eli Alford as recording secretary, was laid on the table for one month. 

At the meeting held November 26, 1905, a motion that the scale, as 
adopted, be submitted to the Central Trades' and Labor Union for 
approval, was laid on the table. The scale was ordered printed and the 
scale committee discharged. A committee was then appointed to nego- 
tiate contracts. At the December meeting the proposition to submit 
the scale to the Central Trades' and Labor Union for ratification was 
defeated, and on motion the delegates to that body were instructed to 
maintain a discreet silence about the whole matter. 

A communication from the International Typographical Union in 
regard to the 50-cent assessment was read, and the suggestion made 
that the assessment be raised to $1, the additional 50 cents to be 
retained by the local Union to help finance the eight-hour movement. 
It was voted to so assess all earning over $15 per week. To obtain 
exemption of the assessment, out-of-work members were required to 
report to the financial secretary. 



"Robert F William K. 
Carroll. powers 



Wallace. 

Kaskma 
JbHn 
Keen an 




HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 165 

A motion that the salary of the financial secretary be increased to 
$10 per week, with $2.50 per week for office hire, was laid on the table 
for one month, and at the December meeting the matter was laid on 
the table, where it still remains. . 

The resignation of the financial secretary was accepted at the 
November meeting and the names of three candidates were offered in 
nomination to fill the vacancy. Charles Carroll was elected. 

The resignation of the recording secretary was not accepted. 

Officers for the ensuing year were then nominated. 

A special meeting was held December 26, 1905, in Musicians' hall, 
at which the proposed International Typographical Union assessment 
of 10 per cent, on weekly earnings was discussed. Organizer Scott and 
John Moffitt of the New England Allied Printing Trades spoke in favor 
of the proposition. To obtain the sentiment of those present, a test 
ballot was taken, which showed but one dissenting vote. 

Communications from various members of the Typothetae were 
read, in which little encouragement was given of a peaceable accept- 
ance of the eight-hour contract. The letters from the independent 
firms were, on the contrary, most favorable. 

The book and job scale was then taken up, and it was voted that 
those sections be considered adopted to which no objection was offered 
at their reading. The scale was then adopted, no objection or amend- 
ments being offered to any of the sections. A motion to postpone the 
adoption of the scale as a whole until the following Sunday was carried, 
but later reconsidered, and the vote was then taken. The count showed 
that the scale had been adopted by a vote of 58 for, one against. 

The committee appointed to collect and count the vote on the 10 
per cent, assessment proposition announced that they had secured Hall 
No. 2, Labor Temple, and that the polls would be open Wednesday 
evening, December 27, from 6 to 8 P. M., for the accommodation of 
those members who did not vote in chapels. The committee reported 
at the meeting held December 31, that a total vote of 136 had been 
cast 123 for the assessment, 13 against. 

The President announced that the eight-hour committee would 
hold an open meeting in Musician's hall, Friday night, December 29, at 
8 o'clock. 

The amount in the local treasury, as announced by the treasurer at 
the special meeting, was $846.32. 

The meeting adjourned at 11 o'clock P. M., after having been in 
session about three hours. 

At the regular meeting held December 31, 1905, a communication 
from President Lynch was read, which advised that no men be called 



166 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

from " open " or non-union offices, until such a course was sanctioned 
by the executive council of the International Typographical Union. 
President O'Connor stated that he, in conjunction with the executive 
committee of Providence Union, after considering every phase of the 
matter, recommended that the men be called from every office where 
the eight-hour day had been refused. 

A motion passed at the special meeting just previous, "that the 
President be authorized to instruct the members at the next meeting 
what course will be taken on January 1, 1906," was no doubt responsi- 
ble for the President's recommendation, which was concurred in by the 
Union. 

The executive committee reported that during the month they had 
received a communication from the Providence Printing Pressmen's 
Union, protesting against one of our members doing presswork. Inves- 
tigation showed that said member was foreman of the office .and clearly 
within his right in peforming any work under his control. 

The newspaper scale committee reported that the management of 
the Telegram was ready to meet the committee, but insisted that the 
committee must possess full power to negotiate the contract. The com- 
mittee was clothed with the proper authority. At the meeting held 
January 28, 1906, the committee reported contracts closed with the 
Telegram and Journal companies for a period of five years. At the 
February meeting the committee reported that the signing of the con- 
tract with the News had been delayed and that a conference between 
the chairman of the committee and Mr. Brown of the News, held that 
morning, February 25, 1906, had resulted in a deadlock. The com- 
mittee, however, were of the opinion that the matter would be satis- 
factorily adjusted on or before March 1. The report of the committee 
at the March meeting was received as one of progress. The signing of 
the contract with the News occurred shortly after the adjournment of 
that meeting. 

The secretary was instructed at the December (1905) meeting to 
ask the Board of Directors of the Musicians' Union to use its influ- 
ence with members of that Union to employ the Union label on their 
individual business and address cards. At the meeting held June 24, 
1906, the secretary was instructed to draft a suitable answer to a com- 
munication from the Musicians' Union stating that the printers' inter- 
ests were being attended to. 

J. J. Manning of the Barbers' Union was endorsed as a candidate 
for appointment as member of the Barbers' Commission. 

A communication from the International Ladies' .Auxiliary, urging 
the formation of a local branch, was read, and three ex-delegates, 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 167 

Messrs. Meegan, Alford and Hughes, were appointed a committee on 
organization of a local auxiliary. At the January (1906) meeting the 
committee reported that it believed it would be possible to organize an 
auxiliary by the expenditure of a little money. The committee was 
given full power to go ahead. At the February meeting the committee 
reported progress, and at the March meeting the committee recom- 
mended that the Union provide for an open meeting of the auxiliary, 
and also asked that No. 33 pay for the auxiliary charter and the 
first quarter's dues of the members then enrolled. The recommenda- 
tions were adopted. The open meeting was held in Gelb's parlors on 
the night of Ash Wednesday, the committee unfortunately selecting 
that date without being aware of its significance to many who might 
have attended. However, a permanent organization was perfected, 
and for a while the auxiliary held its meetings at the homes of different 
members. A hall has since been secured for its gatherings, and the 
auxiliary is now in a thriving condition. At the first meeting held for 
the purpose of organizing the auxiliary, John W. Hays, First Vice- 
President of the International Union, was present, and addressed the 
ladies assembled. Mr. Hays commended the purpose of the gathering, 
and gave a brief outline of the progress of the eight-hour strike. At 
the close of the meeting a social hour was enjoyed., during which light 
refreshments were served. 

The 50-cent local assessment was discontinued at the December 
(1905) meeting. 

The " strike " for the eight-hour day was inaugurated January 1, 
1906, and at the meeting held January 28, President O'Connor, who had 
been assigned to handle the matter, made a report of the situation, 
showing conditions that existed in the shops before and after the incep- 
tion of the strike. At this meeting the strike benefit was increased 
from $5 to $7 for single men, and from $7 to $10 for married men. An 
account of the strike, written by Financial Secretary Charles Carroll, 
covering all of its salient features from the beginning up to September 
1, 1907, will be found immediately following this story. 

A committee from Pawtucket Typographical Union was given the 
privilege of the floor at the January meeting, and asked that Providence 
Union endorse a resolution which Pawtucket Union had adopted, call- 
ing upon the Legislature to place the Union label on State printing. 
The resolution was endorsed and the delegates to the Central Trades' 
and Labor Union and the Allied Printing Trades' Council were in- 
structed to present the resolution to their respective bodies for adoption. 

A communication from President Lynch, offering all needed financial 
aid during the strike, was read at the meeting held February 25, 1906. 



168 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

One year's subscription to the "Progressive Printer" was ordered, 
the magazine to be addressed to the Providence Public Library. 

The death of Harry F. Davis was announced at this meeting, and 
a communication from Henry R. Davis, his father, was read, thanking 
the Union for its expression of sympathy. 

Charges were preferred against a member for entering into a 
private contract with his employer, at the February meeting, and a 
committee appointed to take testimony. At the May meeting the 
member was expelled for " ratting," after having been found guilty. 

Communications from Erie in regard to poster work being done in 
unfair shops in that city for Providence firms, and from New York, 
urging a boycott of certain magazines, were referred to the strike 
committee. 

At the March meeting the label committee distributed copies of a 
book containing the names and business addresses of 325 firms and 
individuals who had agreed to have the Union label on all printing 
ordered in the future. 

Two members (Messrs. Houle and Pike) were appointed to repre- 
sent Providence at a Union label demonstration to be held at Brockton. 
They were accompanied by Mrs. Abell and Mrs. Hughes of the Ladies' 
Auxiliary. 

The financial secretary's report for March was $2,640.25 collected. 

At the meeting held April 29, 1906, it was voted to send one dele- 
gate to the Colorado Springs convention of the International Union. 
Eight candidates were nominated, four of whom withdrew before the 
day of election. Daniel O'Connor received a pronounced plurality and 
within a few votes of a majority over the field of candidates. A motion 
to set aside $150 for use of the delegate was defeated at the June meet- 
ing. At the July meeting a motion was passed appropriating $150 for 
that purpose. It was decided by vote at the September meeting not to 
allow a bill presented by the delegate for $50 for expenses incurred 
over and above the original appropriation, and a resolution appropriating 
$50 for that purpose, offered at the same meeting, was laid on the table. 

The executive committee reported at the April meeting that the 
men employed by the Providence Linotype Company had been ordered 
out. It also reported that $15 had been contributed to the San Fran- 
cisco earthquake sufferers, and the Union voted to open subscription 
lists in all offices within its jurisdiction. 

Committees were appointed to draw up suitable resolutions on the 
deaths of James L. Bicknell and Charles Williams. 

It was also voted at this meeting that overtime in newspaper offices 
be made accumulative. 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 169 

At the May meeting Charles H. Lee was elected delegate to the 
New England Allied Printing Trades' convention at Springfield. 
Twenty dollars was voted for expenses. 

Report had been made to the executive committee by the chairman 
of one of the newspaper offices that he had been insulted by a member 
of the Union while in the pursuit of his duties as chairman. The 
executive committee at the May meeting recommended that said chair- 
man be instructed to fine said member one day's pay ($3.50), to be paid 
on or before the next regular meeting. It was provided that the chair- 
man might accept an apology in lieu of the fine. The recommendation 
of the committee was adopted, but the chairman failed to carry out 
instructions. 

In view of the number of Italians seeking admission to the Union, 
it was voted to add an Italian member to the inquiry committee. 

The application of a member on strike for permission to leave the 
city and at the same time draw strike benefits was denied by the execu- 
tive committee, and the action sustained by the Union at the July 
meeting. 

Resolutions condemning the Republican party for its failure to give 
a hearing on the eight-hour proposition submitted at the 1906 session of 
the State Legislature, were passed at the July meeting. During the 
campaign which followed, these resolutions were the subject of much 
newspaper comment and political oratory. 

It was voted to parade Labor Day, and a committee of six was 
appointed with full power to make arrangements. It was also voted 
that all members not parading be fined $2. The names of those members 
who did not parade were read at the September meeting, and the secre- 
tary was instructed to collect the fine provided. At the meeting held 
January 27, 1907, the secretary was again instructed to collect the fines 
due the Union from members who did not parade Labor Day. The 
fine was assessed on the February card, and, after having been col- 
lected, at the February meeting the fines were remitted and the money 
returned by the secretary. 

Organizer Scott was present at the August (1906) meeting and 
stated that he had been authorized to offer $75 to Providence Union 
for the purpose of pushing the label campaign. The gift was accepted 
with thanks. 

The Central Trades and Labor Union delegates were instructed to 
endeavor to have the Labor Day book printed in Providence. 

Charles H. Lee was elected delegate to the State Federation con- 
vention. William Carroll and Samuel R. Macready were elected dele- 
gates to attend a special convention of the State Federation. 



170 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

A special meeting was held October 8, 1906. The meeting was 
held for the purpose of taking action on the following propositions : 

" Shall a local assessment of three per cent, be levied on the earnings of members 
of Providence Typographical Union for the purpose of assisting in financing the strike 
in this jurisdiction ? " 

" Shall Providence Typographical Union endorse the candidacy of one of its mem- 
bers, William Palmer, for the office of Secretary of State, and take such action as, in its 
judgment, will best further the interests of his candidacy ? " 

Both propositions were carried unanimously, and a committee was 
appointed to promote Mr. Palmer's candidacy by securing the endorse- 
ment of other Unions. The three per cent, assessment was supended 
at the regular October meeting. 

At the meeting held October 28, a member of a committee appointed 
at the September meeting to solicit campaign funds to be used by the 
State Federation of Labor, related his experience and asked that the 
committee be discharged. 

Five dollars was appropriated for the purpose of establishing an 
apprentice column in the Typographical Journal. 

The chairman of the Journal office was instructed to use his good 
offices to persuade the Journal barber to join the Barbers' Union, and 
a committee was appointed to assist the Stationary Engineers in their 
effort to unionize the Journal boiler room. 

Twenty-five dollars was voted the Lithographers' Union to assist 
them in their effort for an eight-hour day. 

A communication from a member desiring to withdraw .from the 
Union was placed in the hands of the strike committee, with instruc- 
tions to urge the member to consider the seriousness of his contem- 
plated action. 

A recess of 45 minutes was taken at the meeting held December 
30, 1906, for the purpose of electing officers. 

A committee of four was appointed at the December meeting to 
investigate the origin of several defamatory circulars which had been 
issued during the heat of the campaign for local Union offices. Imme- 
diately after the January meeting, at which but one member of 
the committee was present, there appeared an anonymous satirical 
booklet, comprising about sixteen pages, which purported to give 
an idea of the methods pursued by the committee in its investi- 
gation. Besides the references to the committee, the booklet exploited 
the pecularities of a number of well-known Union characters. At the 
February meeting the committee reported its inability to place the 
responsibility for the circulars, and asked that it be discharged, but was 
continued, the latest publication to be included in a further inquiry. 
March 31, 1907, the literary sleuths were discharged after reporting 
" non est inventus." 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 171 

At the meeting held January 27, 1907, a committee was appointed 
to prepare for the celebration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Providence 
Typographical Union, and the committee on history of the Union was 
given one month to report ways and means for its publication. At the 
February meeting this committee presented a plan of procedure which 
was sanctioned by the Union. 

The International Typographical Union per capita card was adopted 
at the January meeting. 

At the February meeting an invitation to attend an open meeting 
of the Woman's Auxiliary, to be held March 19, was accepted. 

The executive committee was instructed to communicate with the 
executive council of the Foresters of America in regard to using the 
label on its printing. 

The resignation of Rudolph DeLeeuw as treasurer was laid on the 
table. Mr. DeLeeuw was induced to withdraw his resignation, and is 
still serving the Union in that capacity. 

Delegates previously elected to the Label League reported at the 
February meeting, and at the March meeting an assessment of one cent 
per member was voted to help defray the expense of publishing the 
Label League Bulletin. 

A communication from the State Federation in regard to making 
election day a legal holiday, was endorsed at the March meeting. 

The ball de luxe of Providence Union was given by a committee 
appointed at the November (1906) meeting. At the December meeting 
this committee was authorized to go ahead with the venture. At the 
Eloise on February 4, 1907, at 8 o'clock P. M. the dance was on to the 
music of the Standard Union Orchestra. From that hour until one 
o'clock A. M. about 75 couples enjoyed the 22 numbers on the pro- 
gramme. A quartette composed of Percy J. Cantwell, George Libby, 
Thomas Franey and Edward Young sang several selections during the 
evening. Charles J. Rothemich acted as floor director, with Robert E. 
Newton as assistant. The aids were Walter B. Norton, Thomas A. 
Scales, Walter B. Davis, Daniel E. Mooney, Joseph E. Devenish and Eli 
Alford. The committee of arrangements were Daniel O'Connor, 
Charles H. Christie, Carl C. Robb, C. J. Rothemich, R. E. Newton. 
Reception committee, Percy J. Cantwell, Carl C. Robb, Mrs. R. E. 
Newton and Mrs. George Clayton. The dances on the card were 
dedicated to the different officers of the Union and Auxiliary and to 
friends of the committee. A deficiency of $26.20 is recorded as part of 
the committee's report. 

The application for an honorable withdrawal card by a member 
who was in ill health, and who desired to return to his native country, 



172 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

was received and allowed at the March meeting. A testimonial sub- 
scription was then headed by the Union with a contribution of $25. 

Carl C. Robb and John P. Dorl were elected delegates to the New 
England Allied Printing Trades' convention, to be held in Providence, 
June, 1907. 

It was voted to send a delegate to the Hot Springs convention of 
the International Union. Five candidates were nominated, two with- 
drawing before the day of election. In the three-cornered contest, 
Charles Carroll received a clear majority of the votes cast. The amount 
allowed the delegate for expenses was $150. 

At the May meeting a former member who had lost his card by 
being attached to a local which had surrendered its charter, was given 
the floor that he might explain the circumstances, after which he was, 
by vote, admitted to good standing. 

Frank J. Mahoney was elected a delegate to attend a meeting of 
the Rhode Island State Branch of the American Federation of Labor, 
to be held June 9. 

Several sections of the new constitution were adopted at this 
meeting. 

The celebration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Providence Typo- 
graphical Union, which had been scheduled by the committee having 
charge of the matter to occur during the week of the holding of the 
New England Allied Printing Trades' convention, lasted three days 
June 10, 11, 12. 

Monday evening, June 10, the Union tendered an informal recep- 
tion to the delegates to the New England Allied Printing Trades' con- 
vention. Delegates to the State Branch of the American Federation of 
Labor, Providence Central Trades' and Labor Union, Providence Build- 
ing Trades' Council, Providence Allied Printing Trades' Council and the 
Union Label League were among the invited guests. Carl Robb, James 
Moore and Robert Hunt, the committee in charge, had provided an 
abundance of good things, and interesting impromptu speeches by 
prominent labor men enlivened the proceedings. 

Tuesday, June 11, the crowning feature of the celebration, a 
banquet attended by nearly 250 printers was held in Infantry Hall. 
On this occasion also the delegates to the New England Allied Printing 
Trades' convention were guests of Providence Typographical Union. 
Other invited guests present were Mayor P. J. McCarthy, Wilfred H. 
Munro, President of the Rhode Island Historical Society and Professor 
of History of Brown University ; Frederick Roy Martin, Frederick H. 
Howland and Hon. D. Russell Brown, editors and publishers, respect- 
ively, of the Journal and Bulletin, the Tribune and the News-Democrat ; 



HISTORY OF PROVIDENCE TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION 173 

Charles T. Scott, New England organizer for the International Union ; 
the President of each of the allied printing trades and of each of the 
local central labor bodies, and Hon. Francis E. Kelly and A. M. Robert- 
son, surviving charter members of 1857. Letters of regret, because 
of their inability to attend, were received from President James M. 
Lynch, Secretary-Treasurer J. W. Bramwood, Governor James H. 
Higgins, the Right Rev. Matthew Harkins, Bishop of Providence; 
the Right Rev. William N. McVickar, Bishop of Rhode Island; the 
Rev. W. H. P. Faunce, President of Brown University; Congressman 
D. L. D. Granger and Samuel Gompers. 

President Percy J. Cantwell welcomed the guests and introduced 
as toastmaster William Palmer. Owing to Vice-President Hays' un- 
avoidable absence, the toast assigned to him, "The International 
Typographical Union," was responded to by Organizer Scott. When 
" Providence Typographical Union " was called for, William J. Meegan 
reviewed the history of Providence Typographical Union, and read 
interesting extracts from its records. Professor Munro, in an interest- 
ing manner, told the story of the development of type printing from 
the block printing of playing cards. Henry McMahon, of Boston, 
reviewed his experiences as an organizer in Providence, and James R. 
McGirr responded for the " New England Allied Trades." Speaking of 
" Printing in Providence," William Carroll, after commenting on the 
changes in methods which had revolutionized the business, briefly 
mentioned a few of the Rhode Island printers who had become famous. 
The addresses of Frederick Roy Martin, who responded for "The 
Journal"; Frederick H. Rowland, for "The Providence Tribune," 
and D. Russell Brown, for "The News-Democrat," were cordial and 
congratulatory. Edgar 0. Beacham had a word to say for "The 
Union Shop," and Thomas J. Griffin, Jr., of the Franklin Press, gave 
" A Master Printer's Opinion of the Eight-Hour Day." Mayor P. J. 
McCarthy's address on "The Newspaper as a Creator of Public 
Opinion " was, he said, a " carefully prepared extemporaneous speech," 
and throughout his reply to the toast, wit was his master card. 

Lateness of the hour prevented the completion of the programme, 
which included addresses by Daniel O'Connor, Charles Carroll, Charles 
H. Lee, George H. Huston, Samuel R. Macready and Ephraim Harris. 

Wednesday evening, June 12, the members of the Ladies' Auxiliary 
were entertained at a complimentary hop given at the Casino, Roger 
Williams' Park. 

The committee having charge of the anniversary celebration com- 
prised the following : Percy J. Cantwell, chairman ; Eli Alford, secre- 
tary; John F. Lennon, treasurer; Charles Carroll, William Carroll, 



174 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

Rudolph DeLeeuw, George W. Flynn, Robert Hunt,. Charles H. Lee, 
James Moore, Charles J. Rothemich, Andrew F. Moran, Daniel O'Con- 
nor, Carl C. Robb and William Simmonds. 

The total cost of the celebration was $501.21. 

At the meeting of the Union held June 30, after the reports of the 
delegates to the New England Allied Trades' convention had been 
received and upon the reading of communications wherein it appeared 
that methods of soliciting advertisements for the report of the conven- 
tion which were disapproved of by Providence Typographical Union 
had been used by a person claiming to represent the New England 
Allied Trades, it was voted to withdraw from that body. 

At the same meeting a communication from J. J. Dirks, of St. 
Louis, in regard to an International Typographical Union pension plan, 
was laid over to some future meeting for discussion. 

Boyden Heights was selected as the place for holding the July 
meeting, the adjournment of the June meeting marking the close of 
Providence Typographical Union's fiftieth year. 



The first Constitution and By-Laws of Providence Typographical 
Union, No. 33, was issued in 1857. But one copy of this book is known 
to be in existence. That is in the possession of William Carroll, who 
has also a copy of all subsequent revisions, except that of 1865. Alex- 
ander M. Robertson possesses the only copy of the 1865 revision. Other 
revisions were issued in 1870, 1873, 1885 and 1901. The 1857 book con- 
tains a list of the members, and the 1865 revision has a list of the mem- 
bers from 1857 to 1865. 

Subordinate Unions connected with the National and International 
Typographical Union, in the 60's and 70's, issued annual circulars con- 
taining a list of members and those members admitted, withdrawn and 
expelled during the year. The earliest of these circulars that the 
Souvenir Committee has found was that of 1866. It found also copies 
of the 1867, 1875 and 1877 circulars. 



THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY AND THE GREAT 
: * STRIKE IN PROVIDENCE 

It is too early yet to write a history of the Eight-Hour Strike of 
1906-7, because the first campaign in that great industrial movement is 
scarcely finished ; it is too early to write a fair story of twenty months 
of that strike, because the passions of the men engaged in the struggle 
have not yet cooled sufficiently to render their perspective clear and 
their opinions of the relative importance of things and events unbiased. 
But " Printers and Printing in Providence," published in 1907, would 
not be complete without at least one chapter devoted to a record of 
what has been one of the most momentous events in the fifty years 
of existence of Providence Typographical Union. Discriminating judg- 
ment and sound sense of proportion are seldom found upon a battlefield 
from which the smoke has scarcely lifted. Some time in the future, 
when the Union has planned and executed its last raid upon the shop 
of an unfair employer, when the last Bourbon among the master 
printers has forsaken his mediaeval idea of the relation of master and 
journeyman and has capitulated, when the Holy Alliance represented 
by the United Typothetae has dissolved, when the Eight-Hour Day and 
Union Shop are universal, when industrial warfare has passed into 
oblivion and differences are settled under the sunshine of arbitration 
and conciliation ; then, and then only, can an authoritative and satis- 
factory story of the strike be written. In the joyous day of industrial 
peace, when master printer and journeyman, grievances and cross- 
purposes and mistaken ideas of separate self-interest no longer separat- 
ing them, are working in perfect harmony for the betterment of the 
world's most valued art, both may co-operate to record truly the then 
" late unpleasantness." 

No sudden fancy, no wild dream of power and mad desire to 
exercise it, no blind following of ambitious but indiscreet and dema- 
gogic leaders, far too often causes of industrial disturbances, precipitated 
the Eight-Hour Strike of 1906-7. Fifty-five years of militant effort to 
promote the welfare of its members, half a century of victories and 
reverses, each teaching its own lesson and each marking a new mile- 
stone on the road of progress, have chastened the great International 
Typographical Union of North America, but find it still in the flower 
of vigorous youth, still leading and pointing out the way for other 
associations of labor men. If diplomacy has succeeded the strike as an 
effective method of securing improvement of conditions in the printing 



176 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

trades, and if, as war in diplomacy, strike is the last word used in nego- 
tiations between the Union and employers, that is an indication, not of 
degeneracy or failing strength, but of conservatism, of calm conscious- 
ness of power held in reserve, with full realization of the waste and 
suffering that inevitably attend industrial warfare and a determination 
to avoid them, if possible. The great strike of 1906-7 in the book and 
job departments might have been averted if the master printers, repre- 
sented by their most powerful association, the United Typothetae of 
America, had delved more deeply into works on international law 
instead of wasting their time, their energy and their money on " flying 
squadrons" and other military tactics. Drunk as with new wine, 
deceived by a sense of the untried strength of their new organization, 
encouraged by promises of assistance and subsidies from the Citizens' 
Alliance and the Manufacturers' Association, led on by unscrupulous 
leaders who concealed beneath a pretext of merely resisting the en- 
croachments of the Union a desire to destroy it, the master printers 
gathered their hosts and went forth to battle with ears deaf to pleas 
for calm consideration and arbitration. 

The Eight-Hour Day was no new slogan ; for years the Interna- 
tional Typographical Union had endeavored to establish it by contract 
with employers. Success had crowned the Union's effort in the news- 
paper field. The production of a printed record must follow, as it 
cannot precede, the event. The man of the world demands news- 
papers containing only the latest and freshest and crispest news; all 
else he regards as stale and scorns. It is inevitable, therefore, that, as 
it attempts to cover events of the period nearest its hour of publication, 
the modern newspaper shall be produced in the shortest period of time 
possible. Thus expediency goes hand in hand with the shorter work- 
day in the newspaper office. Typesetting machines and other improve- 
ments have merely made possible the satisfaction of an actual demand for 
speed. To the credit of the newspaper publisher be it said that, in most 
instances, he has ungrudgingly, by paying better wages and requiring 
shorter hours, shared with his employes the increased profits accruing 
from improvements. Wise in his day and generation, he has avoided 
friction, and where requests for changes were fair has granted them. 
He has realized the benefits of industrial peace and has secured it by 
an agreement which now binds the Newspaper Publishers' Association, 
the largest employer of labor in the world, and the International 
Typographical Union, the oldest and strongest Union, to arbitrate 
all differences. 

The Union never has seriously combatted the master printer's 
argument that improvement in the book and job departments of 



THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY 177 



the trade has not been so rapid as in the newspaper department; on 
the other hand, the Union has recognized a difference in conditions by 
conceding to book and job master printers a lower scale of wages than 
to newspaper publishers, the publishers of Providence paying $5 per 
week more per man than book and job proprietors. The principle 
involved being recognized by both sides, and the possible difference 
of opinion being actually the proper monetary measure of the differ- 
ence in conditions, the granting of the Eight-Hour Day, from this point 
of view, involved merely the negotiation of a new scale if the prevail- 
ing scale were not satisfactory to both parties. The master printers of 
Providence in a letter to Providence Typographical Union in November, 
1905, declined to consider any proposition for a reduction of hours of 
labor which did not include a corresponding reduction of wages. It is 
unfortunate, perhaps, that Providence Typographical Union did not see 
its way clear to go into conference on that basis, but prevailing opinion 
was then, and is yet, that the book and job scale in Providence, at $16 
per week, is too low. Besides, at that time the question of the Union 
Shop had entered into the controversy. 

Sudden demands for increased wages or for shorter hours are unjust 
to an employer ; master printers, for instance, who had made long-term 
contracts on the basis of prevailing wages and hours, could not fulfill 
them on an Eight-Hour basis without pecuniary loss. Realizing the 
situation, and with a view to giving master printers ample time to 
prepare for the change, as well as with a view to recruiting its strength 
for enforcing its demands if they were not granted, the International 
Typographical Union gave at least eighteen months notice that it 
would on January 1, 1906, demand the Eight-Hour Day for all its mem- 
bers not working then under contracts for longer hours. The conven- 
tion of 1904 voted to levy an assessment of one-half of one per cent, upon 
the wages of the membership as a defence fund, and the membership 
by referendum vote ratified the assessment and the date for inaugu- 
rating the Eight-Hour Day. International officers were empowered to 
open negotiations with the United Typothetae of America, and local 
Unions where contracts expired prior to the date named were . in- 
structed to make new contracts only on an Eight-Hour basis after 
January 1, 1906. 

From the first the Typothetae were defiant. All overtures looking 
toward negotiations for establishing the Eight-Hour Day were rejected. 
The United Typothetae declared itself inalterably opposed to any re- 
duction of hours from 54 per week, and announced that it would 
oppose any attempt to establish a shorter work-day. At the Toronto 
convention of 1905 representatives of the Typothetae present reasserted 



178 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

their intention to resist, and advised the International Typographical 
Union to recant. The Toronto convention ratified the proposition to 
enforce the Eight-Hour Day, January 1, 1906, but gave the Executive 
Council power and authority to negotiate an Eight-Hour agreement with 
the master printers. Clothed with this authority, President James M. 
Lynch and Vice-President John W. Hays visited Niagara Falls, where the 
Typothetae met in 1905, and submitted a proposition that representa- 
tives of the Typothetae and the International Typographical Union 
should in conference consider an agreement looking to the " ultimate 
establishment of the Eight-Hour Day." Their proposition was dis- 
missed with scant courtesy, and negotiations ceased. 

We have already answered two reasons assigned by master printers 
for not conceding the shorter work-day, namely the differences exist- 
ing between conditions in newspaper offices and those in the book 
and job trade; and, secondly, the injustice of a change as affecting 
contracts. The second, if ever genuine, ceased to exist when the 
United Typothetae in convention rejected a proposition looking to the 
" ultimate establishment of the Eight-Hour Day." If time were needed, 
here certainly was the Typothetae's opportunity. Two other reasons 
which master printers might assign for refusing to concede shorter 
hours, as they involve economic principles affecting labor and capital, 
deserve attention. First of these is the doctrine that shorter hours, 
enforcing idleness of machinery, diminish the productiveness of capital. 
Concretely, the master printer's position may be explained by taking, 
for example, a printing press. Pointing to this press, the master 
says: "By enforcing the shorter work-day you rob me of 1000 im- 
pressions from that press to-day, 6000 impressions this week, 313,000 
this year, and every year until the press is worn out." Estimating the 
life of a press at a certain number of years, this master printer can tell 
you just what the Eight-Hour Day would cost him. He regards the 
press as a certain amount of fixed capital ; he may tell you that he paid 
for it out of the profits earned from its product for the first six months 
he owned it. He does not know that each impression printed on the 
press helps to pay for it, and that unless he maintains a fund for repairs 
and maintenance and replacement, his "fixed capital" is gradually 
wasting away. His error consists in measuring the life of his press in 
years, disregarding the plain fact that, even allowing for a deterioration 
of machinery when standing idle, the principal cause of wear and tear 
of machinery is use. A press run six hours per day will wear approxi- 
mately twice as long as a press run twelve hours per day. At the end 
of the first year under eight hours the master printer has a press 
capable of delivering 313,000 impressions more than the same press 



THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY 179 



could deliver if it had been operated nine hours per day. The master 
printer who grants the shorter work-day diminishes not the product- 
iveness of his capital, but merely the speed at which profits may be 
earned by his capital. He has in the specific instance postponed receipt 
of the profit on 313,000 impressions from his press. We have now 
reduced the first reason to simply a phase of the second reason advanced 
by the master printer, which is his " absolute right " to use his own as 
he sees fit, to run his presses as many hours a day as he pleases, to turn 
over his capital as many times a year as he can, to produce profits as 
fast as he wishes, and as a correlary to use his employes as many hours 
a day as he can get them to work. Free and independent, he denies 
the right of any man or any body of men to say that he shall not do 
all these things. 

Doctrines of political economy first concretely illuminated and 
explained by John Stuart Mill, brutal and inhuman as they are, still 
dominate the social and economic structure of the present day, and are 
especially dear to the capitalist. He views men and things alike as 
instruments which he may manipulate for his own profit. Things he 
may own absolutely ; men he would own if he could. Solely through 
Unions have men avoided a wage slavery as dejected and low as serf- 
dom. The doctrine that the best interests of the State demand that no 
curb or limitation shall be placed upon individual ambition, or effort, or 
rapacity, or upon the amount of the world's wealth which an individual 
may acquire and hold, fundamental in a system of political economy 
which preaches the production of wealth as the principal aim of men 
and nations, is still an unmoved foundation-stone in twentieth century 
economics. Men who criticise conditions and propose as remedies for 
admitted evils of the present day changes in the industrial system, are 
branded as anarchists and socialists, and such they are truly as seen 
through the eyes of the capitalist. One may believe that no better 
system than the present has yet been devised, but if the existence of 
evils is admitted, and it is also known that those grow out of the 
present system, shall he despise the man who is truly trying to alleviate 
them ? Imperfect it may be, contrary to principles of political economy, 
not entirely satisfactory, subject to abuses, but the Union has been 
found to be and still is the only effective method of placing the indi- 
vidual workingman on a plane where he may deal with his capitalistic 
employer on anything approaching a nearly even basis. 

The journeymen printers of America, members of the International 
Typographical Union of North America, 50,000 of the most competent 
and ambitious and enlightened and best-educated workingmen in the 
United States and Canada, do not contest the legal or the economic 



180 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

right of any master printer to conduct his printing establishment as he 
sees fit, to work it as many hours a day as he pleases, to reap all the 
profit he can from it ; they do not deny the right of any man to work 
such hours as he pleases, but they have determined that they will not 
work for any man more than eight hours per day, and consequently 
they are selling to employers who choose to do business with them on 
these conditions eight hours per day, and they are doing with the 
remaining sixteen hours what they please. They regard the relation- 
ship of master and journeyman as purely contractual and as interested 
parties to every contract they demand a proviso for eight hours and no 
more. Themselves free and independent, they claim an absolute right 
to determine how many hours per day they shall work, and they deny 
the right of anybody to say that they shall work more than eight 
hours. 

Conceding that the principle underlying the Trades Union move- 
ment may be contrary to the economic doctrines of Mill, we pass over 
as debatable matters requiring for their demonstration an array of 
figures, facts and argument too long for publication here, reasons for 
the Eight-Hour Day based upon the prosperity of the country and the 
right of the journeyman printer to demand as one portion of his share 
of that prosperity a shorter work-day. One other reason, paramount 
to all others and not generally appreciated or even understood, alone is 
sufficient. Printing ordinarily is not classed as a hazardous occupation 
because violent deaths in the trade are not numerous ; and yet nearly 
one-third of deaths among printers are caused by diseases of the 
respiratory organs and another large percentage by diseases of the 
kidneys and bladder. Printing offices, even the cleanest and brightest 
and most wholesome in the world, are unhealthy. The percentage of 
apprentice boys forced to leave the business with a trade half learned, 
of young men forced out on account of their health, is enormous. 
Lead dust and oxides of lead carried in the air, shaken from type cases 
and tables in use, lifted from the floor while walking, falling into 
open receptacles for drinking water or into drinking water cups, taken 
into the mouth with drinking water or from the fingers while eating 
lunch, breathed into the lungs, absorbed through the pores of the skin, 
afflict most printers with plumbaic poisoning and gradually weaken the 
heart, clog up the pulmonary system, demoralize the stomach and 
kidneys, and leave the printer scarcely able to withstand the attacks 
and ravages of disease germs. The only remedy is a work-day so short 
that the printer may find outside the shop sufficient time for recreation 
by daylight in which to recuperate his strength. 




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THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY 181 



One other issue was involved in the strike of 1906-7, and that is 
the Union Shop, or the " closed shop" as the Post and Parryites choose 
to call it. So far as the International Typographical Union is con- 
cerned, the Union Shop means that in composing rooms under its juris- 
diction no persons other than members of that Union or apprentices to 
the number allowed by the Union shall be employed. On this restric- 
tion is based the cry of " labor trust," shutting out the " independent " 
printer so dear to the heart of the master printer. But why demand 
or enforce it ? The Union Shop has been well styled the Union printer's 
insurance; it is designed to protect him against the "independent" 
printer. It protects him against the unfair competition of the printer 
who, by working under the Union's scale of prices, would lower the 
standard of living won for printers by the Union; it protects him 
against the underhanded employer who would undermine that same 
standard by first replacing Union by non-union men and then dealing 
with his employes not protected by the Union as individuals, offering 
them contracts for low wages and long hours ; it protects him against 
discharge for whim or fancy when his competency and good workman- 
ship have won him a steady position. But why, says the master 
printer, shall I not buy labor in the cheapest market, and why may I 
not hire whom I please and discharge whom I please; am I not a 
master? The International Typographical Union concedes to any 
employer the right to buy his labor in any market he pleases ; but if he 
finds, as he inevitably will, that competent labor in supply to suit his de- 
mand is found only within the Union, then he must deal with the Union ; 
and in dealing with the Union and with Union men he must surrender his 
position as master and become merely a contractor. The International 
Typographical Union offers to any master printer who desires to deal 
with it his choice of any one or more of its 50,000 competent members ; 
from these he may hire whom he pleases ; but it insists that when he 
has hired one of its members he shall pay him at least the scale of 
wages determined by his local Union, work him not more than Eight 
Hours per day under fair conditions, and that he shall not discharge 
the man so hired except for incompetency, to reduce his force of work- 
men when business is slack, or for violation of shop rules, which must 
be displayed conspicuously. The Union does not demand high wages 
for incompetents ; so far as these are concerned the right to discharge 
is absolute. 

The question is often asked, " What provision does the Union Shop 
make for the printer not a member of the Union ? " None whatever. 
The International Typographical Union does not concern itself particu- 
larly with the welfare of the printer outside its ranks. For fifty years 



182 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

it has fought the battle for him as well as for its members ; for fifty 
years he has profited by every improvement in conditions won by the 
Union ; and yet for fifty years he has fought the great organization 
which has accomplished so much good for him ; he has filled the places 
left vacant by men who stopped work because they found conditions 
intolerable ; he has acted as a strike breaker ; he has underbid for the 
place held by the Union man. This is the type of man dear to the 
hearts of the United Typothetae the man whose independence they 
would protect. Even at this hour, the hour of triumph and victory, 
the International Typographical Union extends the hand of fellowship 
to him and bids him come into the fold, that therein he may learn that 
individual liberty is best preserved by united effort. 

With these issues, the Eight-Hour Day and the Union Shop, clearly 
defined, the battle for their establishment or destruction opened in 
earnest shortly after the United Typothetae had rejected the Union's 
last proposition. Desiring to precipitate the struggle before the 
Union's preparations were complete, as well as to discourage the Union 
by giving it an advance sample of what might be expected, the United 
Typothetae locked out members of the Union in several cities in 
October, 1905. On January 1, 1906, members of the Union employed 
in establishments which had not granted the Eight-Hour Day and 
which were not covered by contracts for nine hours extending beyond 
that date, dropped rules and sticks, folded up their aprons and walked 
out. Thus was opened one of the most remarkable strikes in the 
world's history; remarkable for the stubbornness and endurance of 
the combatants, for the loyalty of striking members of the Union, for 
the method in which the International Typographical Union financed 
its strike, meeting the unlimited resources of the master printers and 
their allies with money contributed by its loyal working members 
ungrudgingly. Over four million dollars have been collected and spent 
by the International Typographical Union in its fight for the Eight- 
Hour Day, and the battle has been won. 

Few members of Providence Typographical Union will ever forget 
the meeting of the Union held December 31, 1905. The largest attend- 
ance in years was present ; and when every chair had been filled, late 
arrivals lined the walls of the hall. The Union was on the eve of a 
great battle for a principle which had been agitated for forty years or 
more. In 1865 delegates had been elected to a trades assembly, which 
organized an Eight-Hour League. The reports of these delegates, P. 
A. McDonald and Daniel Sherman, and a letter written by John A. 
Lonsdale, then a young and active member of the Union, show that 
the league flourished for a time, though otherwise its career is lost to 



THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY 183 



history. When routine business had been disposed of in a methodical 
manner and final instructions from International headquarters had been 
read, the motion to strike on the morrow was carried almost unani- 
mously, the result of the vote being received with vigorous applause. 
Forty of forty-seven members of the Union working in shops which had 
refused to grant the Eight-Hour Day obeyed the strike order, and three 
men not members and five apprentices joined the strikers on the first 
day. The strikers organized immediately with Edward Leslie Pike as 
chairman, Charles R. Christie as secretary, and Maurice E. Hughes as 
treasurer. When the gravity of the situation was fully realized, 
President Daniel O'Connor took charge of the strike, succeeding Brother 
Pike as chairman. A hall for meetings of the strikers was secured, 
committees were appointed and siege was laid to the struck shops, 
pickets being placed with instructions to attempt by peaceable persua- 
sion to induce the men who had remained at work to join the Union, 
and to head off strike-breakers who might be brought to Providence 
from other cities. Ten shops, among them the largest in the city, were 
affected on the first day ; subsequently five others were added to the 
unfair list as the strike extended and men not previously members of 
the Union enlisted in the movement for shorter hours. Eleven proprie- 
tors granted the Eight-Hour Day, and four others have since been 
added to the fair list, one after a three-months strike early in 1907. 
Most of the Union shops were small establishments when the strike 
started ; all have grown and flourished as the demand for the label has 
been created and nourished by the efforts of the strikers ; so that at 
the present time, September, 1907, the number of members of the 
Union working eight hours per day in job shops is just double what it 
was January 1, 1906. 

Within a few days after its inauguration the strike settled down to 
a monotonous routine of daily meetings, picketing, persuading strike- 
breakers, distributing Union literature and booming the Union label. 
Important incidents of the first month were an unsuccessful attempt of 
the master printers to coerce the striking apprentices to return to wdrk 
by threats of lawsuits, and an unsuccessful attempt to introduce into 
the struck shops boys from the Reform School at Sockanosset. Percy 
J. Cantwell succeeded Daniel O'Connor as chairman of the strikers early 
in March, and when Charles R. Christie found employment the offices 
of secretary and treasurer were combined, Treasurer M. E. Hughes 
holding both. Organizer Charles T. Scott being seriously ill at this 
time, Providence and all New England was deprived of the benefit of 
his energetic services. Vice-President John W. Hays of the Interna- 
tional Union visited the city in March, canvassed the local situation 



184 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

thoroughly, reported to headquarters that the strike in Providence 
was being handled in a satisfactory manner and recommended that the 
International Typographical Union render to Providence Typographical 
Union further financial assistance. In accordance with his recom- 
mendation, the proceeds of the ten per cent, assessment then being 
collected were retained and spent in Providence for strike purposes, 
the International Typographical Union paying the benefits provided 
for by the international constitution in addition. Mr. Hays also ad- 
dressed a meeting called for the purpose of presenting to the public 
the strikers' side of the Eight-Hour question. An attempt to open up 
negotiations with the master printers failed, their answer to the Union's 
overtures being that they had nothing to arbitrate and did not desire a 
conference. Throughout this period the Union pickets were successful 
in turning away many strike-breakers, the struck shops never being 
allowed to increase their forces beyond the number of men at work 
January 1, 1906. 

Chairman Cantwell resigned in April to assume charge of the 
Whitney Press and Charles H. Lee was appointed chairman to succeed 
him. Missionary efforts among strike-breakers and men still in the 
shops proved very successful; several of the best men remaining at 
work joined the strikers. Thoroughly aroused, the master printers 
determined to make an effort to break the strike by importing enough 
men to fill all places. A representative was sent through northern 
New Hampshire and Vermont to enlist the services of country printers 
ignorant of the real situation. He was followed by a representative of 
the Union, who gave close pursuit and undid the work of the Typo- 
theta? agent by explaining to the countrymen the real purpose for 
which they were being hired. In Canada advertisements for printers 
were inserted in newspapers. On the date set for the arrival of the 
army of strike-breakers, the representative of the master printers was 
followed to Boston by three representatives of the Union, who con- 
fronted him as he stood dumbfounded in the north terminal station, 
surprised and disappointed at the non-arrival of his cohorts. Explana- 
tions were exchanged, and an acquaintanceship was established which 
in a few weeks bore fruit, for the Typothetae agent and the woman 
who alone of all those whom he had visited came to Providence, both 
joined the Union. This expedition cost the master printers of Provi- 
dence nearly $1000. Thereafter strike-breakers came to town individ- 
ually or in pairs, sent forward by agents in New York or Boston. 
Many were not printers at all, but sought to extort money from 
masters and Union alike; a few succeeded, but a great many were 
turned away in short order. The Union continued its successes in 
winning over the real printers. 



THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY 185 



July 4, 1906, the Morning Tribune made its first bow to an expect- 
ant public. This new publication offered many situations, which were 
filled by strikers, and the Daily Journal, which increased its working 
force in order to meet the rivalry of the Tribune, took a few more off 
the list. The burden which the Union had been carrying was relieved, 
but the esprit de corps of the strikers was weakened, many active 
workers in the cause being thus drawn into another field. The strikers 
have been cheerful and contented throughout the struggle. In the sum- 
mer of 1906 a base ball team was organized and had a very successful sea- 
son. An outing at Emery Park was also thoroughly enjoyed. In Octo- 
ber, 1906, the master printers again refused to enter a conference. There 
has been little out of the ordinary in recent months. The strike has 
been quietly conducted, without violence or a police record. The efforts 
of the strike committee have been devoted to finding positions for men 
carried on the relief roll, to missionary work among printers not mem- 
bers of the Union and to booming the Union label. The energy put 
into the label campaign has borne direct fruit in a large volume of 
business diverted from struck shops into Union offices. A few members 
realized at the start of the strike that while a strike might prove suc- 
cessful temporarily, permanent success must depend upon an actual 
demand for the products of Union labor, evidenced by calls for the 
label on printed matter. Prominent in this work was John S. Houle. 
Almost alone he secured hundreds of signatures to agreements to insist 
upon use of the label, and he published two editions of the Union 
Man's Reference Guide, a classified list of merchants and business men 
who had signed agreements. When Mr. Houle left Providence to seek 
work in New York, the Guide was abandoned, the Bulletin of the Union 
Label League taking up the work in a broader manner. The label 
committee has distributed thousands of stickers for use on printed 
matter issued without the label. These have been placed in the hands 
of friends of the movement, and their general and effective use has 
been demonstrated by many calls for explanations, which when given 
have won over many an advertiser. In several instances thousands of 
circulars or advertising cards have been destroyed and new ones with 
the label ordered. Nearly 20,000 blotters, showing the Union Printers' 
Home and requesting support for it through use of the label, have been 
placed on the desks of business men. Cards and folders attractively 
gotten up have been distributed, and the label has been advertised in 
various Union publications. An increase in the amount of advertising 
matter with the label now in circulation testifies to results. Three 
theatre programmes now bear the label, and the official score card of 
the Providence Base Ball Club is fair this year. In 1906 the privilege 



186 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

of selling score cards was sold to a notorious foe of Union labor, and 
efforts to persuade him to use the label failed. Finally the Union 
entered the field and published a score card of its own, which drove the 
"official" card out of the market. One other signal success crowns 
the efforts of the label committee. Providence Lodge of Elks, said to 
be the first organization of the B. P. 0. E. to take the step, has ordered 
the label on all printed matter handled or issued by its committees. 
Vice-President John W. Hays, who made a flying trip to Providence at 
the request of the Union, deserves the greatest share of credit for this 
accomplishment. 

Of 48 original strikers 12 still remain on the strike roll. From a 
maximum of 80, the relief roll, which contains the names of over 100 
men and women, has been reduced to 28. Beginning with the first 
week of the strike, $5 per week was paid to single and $7 per week to 
married men. In February an extra benefit of $2 per week for 
single and $3 per week for married men was authorized. In addition 
special assistance was rendered in cases where the needs of the strikers 
were apparent, a relief committee taking care that nobody suffered 
actual want. Up to September 7, 1907, $36,061.12 had been paid to 
strikers as benefits or special assistance. Total strike expenses had been 
$41,877.40, the remaining $5816.18 having been expended as follows: 
For transportation of men leaving town, including bonuses paid strike- 
breakers induced to go away, $1307.36 ; for picket expenses of all kinds, 
including money paid directly to strike pickets for special service and 
the expenses of men sent out of town on special picket duty or to inter- 
cept strike-breakers, $965.37; for rent of headquarters, including all 
rooms used for strike purposes, $482.75; for printing and postage, 
including all sums applied directly to booming the label, $884.93 ; for 
salaries of strike officials, $1404.90 ; for miscellaneous expenses, $770.87. 
Strike expenses have been gradually reduced from a maximum at some 
periods of $700 per week to less than $200. It is pleasing to note that 
all the strike money has been collected and spent without a breath of 
scandal or suspicion of graft or dishonesty. The strike committee and 
financial officers have at all times enjoyed the utmost respect and the 
complete confidence of the members of the Union. Reports have been 
carefully audited, and the record books are complete and in splendid 
condition. Determined efforts have been made to conduct the strike 
economically and to keep the benefit rolls free from the names of men 
which ought not to be there. 

In other jurisdictions the fight for the Eight-Hour Day and Union 
Shop has been more successful than in Providence. Four hundred 
Unions have the Eight-Hour Day, and an army of 10,000 strikers has 



THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY 187 



been reduced to less than 1000. The gradual reduction in the amount 
of the assessment collected for strike purposes is good evidence of 
progress. The one-half of one per cent, assessment levied under author- 
ity of the referendum of 1904 was succeeded in October, 1905, by a 
50-cent per week per capita assessment. January 1, 1906, the assess- 
ment, by authority of another referendum, was made 10 per cent, of 
earnings. This assessment was reduced to 7 per cent, in October, 1906 ; 
to 5 per cent, in December, 1906 ; to 3 per cent, in February, 1907, and 
to 2 per cent, in March, 1907. The proceeds of the various assessments 
colletced in Providence have been : 

One-half of one per cent, assessment $633 96 

Fifty-cent assessment. 668 00 

Fifty-cent assessment, paid for members out of work 36 50 

Ten per cent, assessment 12,162 67 

Seven per cent, assessment 1,541 56 

Five per cent, assessment 1,888 50 

Three per cent, assessment 399 82 

Two per cent, assessment (to Sept. 1, 1907) 1,755 19 

Total $19,086 20 

In addition members of the Union have paid two local assessments, 
one of 50 cents per week during December, 1905, and the other of 3 
per cent, of earnings during October, 1906. These assessments netted : 
50-cent assessment, $329 ; 3 per cent, assessment, $317.37 ; a total of 
$646.37. 

September 1, 1907, find the Eight-Hour Day won. The Interna- 
tional Typographical Union at its convention in August, 1907, dis- 
charged its Eight-Hour Committee and turned over to the Executive 
Council the task of winding up the strike. It is proposed to transfer 
strikers still unemployed to centres where the demand for labor now 
exceeds the supply, to encourage strikers to learn to operate type- 
setting machines and to render assistance to men to whom the Union 
still owes a duty because of the sacrifices which they have made for 
the benefit of their fellow men. In cities like Providence, where the 
fight is still on, there is to be no diminution of activity, the methods to 
be pursued for the present being continued missionary work among 
non-union men and agitation for the use of the label, the local label 
campaign to be supplemented by an international label campaign. 

A magnificent victory has been won. The close of the first cam- 
paign finds the United Typothetae in full retreat, demoralized and dis- 
organized. Only 30 delegates attended its September, 1907, meeting at 
Niagara Falls, " a disconsolate, disgusted and utterly routed relic of a 
once great organization." The International Typographical Union 



188 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

stands triumphant; it has demonstrated that Citizens' Alliance and 
Manufacturers' Association cannot crush united labor. Standing in 
the present, gazing through a rift in the mist-like veil which conceals 
the future, with a full knowledge of the past to clarify our vision, we 
behold printed in letters of light across the heavens this glorious 
sentiment : 

"ICtbrrtu, an& Union, ant an& inarparablr, nnut ant fnrmrr." 



And the man who printed it there did not forget to place under it the 
label of the grand old International Typographical Union of North 
America. 




AnioineMeillieure, 
" TYenc Ky " 



EdwarclT. AngelL 
"Unole Meet" 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 

In the first seventy years of printing in Providence the wooden 
frame and stone bed of the hand-press were changed to iron. The 
composition roller superseded the ink ball. These were the important 
improvements in the materials for carrying on the business. Book and 
job work was probably more profitable than publishing a newspaper. 
The latter occupation called for a certain expenditure, regardless of 
receipts, while activity in the former was regulated by actual business 
demands. After the first makes of the Adams' and Ruggles' presses 
were introduced, the possibility of profits from the business became 
more certain and the one-man plants began to give way to larger print- 
ing offices. The sketches following cover the period of evolution. 

Albert N. Angell worked continuously at printing for more than 
60 years, beginning his apprenticeship April 3, 1839, in the job printing 
office of Knowles & Vose. His wages for the first year were $30 and 
board, for the second year $40, the third year $50, and the fourth and 
last year $100. On the anniversary of his golden wedding, July 16, 
1899, he told some of his experiences : 

" He went to board with Mr. Vose, but, unlike apprentices in country offices at that 
time, he was not obliged to take care of a horse and cow or run on errands for his 
master's family. 

"He learned about 'strap oil,' and 'type lice,' and 'round squares,' and how to 
' jeff. ' He washed rollers and built fires, and rolled for the hand-press, and boiled the 
glue and molasses to make rollers, and picked up type under the printers' cases, when 
he swept out, and swept up pi, and made his share of it. Incidentally he learned a little 
about typesetting. After doing the general work just described for several months, 
young Angell asked to be put on the case, and he was sent to the newspaper composing 
room on Market square. Here he soon became proficient at the case, and he did news- 
paper work most of the time during the rest of his apprenticeship. After he had finished 
his trade he worked by the piece as a journeyman printer. During his apprenticeship, 
after working his allotted ten hours, he often had an opportunity to work overtime, for 
which he was paid the regular price 20 cents per 1000 ems. In this way he earned con- 
siderable money, and had saved enough soon after he became a journeyman to purchase 
an eighth interest in the job office. 

" The gas works had not begun business in 1839, and the printers, when working 
nights, used the old-fashioned ' petticoat ' oil lamps. Each printer had two one each in 
his ' c ' and ' s ' boxes but the light afforded was so poor that it was difficult to set more 
than 500 ems an hour by them. There were no sewers at that time, and the apprentices 
took the dirty water from the office sinks in pails, which they emptied in the middle of 
the street. 

" After Mr. Vose's death in 1847, his partner in the job printing business, Joseph 
Knowles, soon divided the property into eight shares, and, retaining one share, sold the 
other seven. Among the purchasers were Senator Anthony, Charles J. Wheeler, John W. 
Angell, John S. Sibley, Samuel M. Millard, Josiah Jones and John S. Hammond. Some of 
the partners soon disposed of their shares and E. L. Freeman and James A. Reid were 
among the purchasers of them. 

" Mr. Angell bought the two shares of Mr. Millard, and afterwards purchased, one by 
one, the shares of the others, until, in 1868, he was sole proprietor. Meantime he retained 
his ' frame ' in the Journal composing room, and when he finally retired he had done 
continuous work upon the paper 29 years. 



190 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



" Under Mr. Angell's management the job office did the State printing one year and 
the city printing for 13 consecutive years. It did a large general business, at one time 
eight papers, whose publishers could not afford to own their plants, were issued from the 
office. The printing of the courts was done there to a large extent. He disposed of the 
business in 1887." 

The condition of the job printing business in Providence about 
1840 is described by B. W. Pearce, who came to the city from Fall 
River in 1837 to finish learning his trade. In a talk before the South- 
ern Rhode Island Press Club, September 2, 1895, he told of his impres- 
sions of that period ; 

" In August, 1837, I entered with Knowles & Vose, to ' finish my trade ' at $3 a week. 
That firm then had the contract for printing for the Rhode Island school fund lottery, 
and employed eight or ten hands in the work. Finding that I was handy at press work, 
doing my token and a half an hour, they decided to teach me that branch of the business, 
and kept me steady at it for six months, during which time I did not set a line of type 
or do anything else but swing the old hand-press. In an interview with Mr. Vose he told 
me the firm had no intention of teaching me any other part of the business, and I there- 
upon resigned my situation. 

" The office of Knowles & Vose was then the leading one in the town. It was 
located in the southeast corner of the Granite building, on Market square and North 
Main street, of which it occupied a portion of three stories. Aside from the work for 
the lottery its business was small. Mr. Knowles did about all the job printing that came 
in, and he did not half work at that. He occupied a room about 16x20, in which were 
some fonts of type, a stone and a hand-press. It was the first office in Rhode Island to 
introduce bronze printing the method of doing which was for a long time a secret with 
that firm. 

" The other job printing offices in the city were run by Barzillia Cranston, in the 
Granite building ; H. H. Brown, in an attic on the corner of South Main street and Market 
square ; the Republican Herald, 15 Market square, and B. T. Albro, on the corner of North 
Main and Meeting streets. Neither Mr. Brown nor Mr. Albro had facilities for printing 
anything more elaborate than an auction bill or a pamphlet. All the work, even to a 
single line visiting card, was done on hand presses. 

" About 1842 Knowles & Vose got the exclusive right for Rhode Island for ten years 
to use one of the new Ruggles' job presses, paying $1000 for the privilege. This press 
would print 800 to 1000 impressions an hour, while 200 to 250 was the usual rate of the 
hand-press. This monopoly was maintained for nine years, when Ruggles could stand it 
no longer, paid back the $1000 and left the press with the firm. 

" Benjamin F. Moore, an accomplished printer, about 1841, got together an establish- 
ment of entirely new material, embracing all the lastest styles of type, and opened an 
office on Westminster street, below the Arcade on the opposite side. He turned out some 
very handsome jobs, employing three or four hands." 

The What Cheer Printing office traces its origin to the business 
established in 1856 by Pierce & Berry (Robert A. Pierce and William H. 
Berry), at 36 Westminster street, in the second story of the building 
known as the Barton Block. Pierce & Budlong (Martin H. Budlong) 
succeeded them in 1860, and carried on the business at the same loca- 
tion until 1870, when Martin S. Budlong became agent, serving until 
1875. While under his management the office was removed to the 
Penholder Building, corner Dorrance and Friendship streets. Lester E. 
Ross was the proprietor from 1875 to 1877. Porthouse & Carleton 
purchased the office in March, 1877, removing it to No. 125 Broad 
street. It continued under this management until 1880, when 0. A. 
Carleton & Co. became proprietors. The entire second floor of the 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 



191 



Amasa Mason Block, No. 129 and 131 Eddy street, opposite the Narra- 
gansett Hotel, was then leased and fitted up expressly for the new 
establishment, which became the principal office for poster work in the 
city, although the business was not confined to that particular branch. 
The office again removed in 1892 to the building corner Pine and Eddy 
streets. Since the office was first established it has absorbed several 
smaller plants, among them, in 1864, William Maxfield's outfit ; in 1872, 
the "Weekly Review"; in 1873, the "The Voice of the Truth"; in 
1875, "The Sun"; in 1877, Porthouse & Carleton's job printing office; 
in 1880, Sweet & Porthouse's show printing office, and also W. N. Sher- 
man's job printing office in East Greenwich. 

James A. Reid, long a master 
printer of Providence, tells of the 
office of A. Crawford Greene, where 
he finished his apprenticeship, 
when he came from Bristol in 1862 : 

"The office was at that time located 
on Canal street, near Meeting, in a brick 
building partially occupied by the Gorham 
Manufacturing Company. It had in its 
equipment several of the famous old Adams' 
book presses, a number of jobbers, a little 
quarter-sheet, and a great big hand-press, 
which would take a sheet of 29x42 dimen- 
sions. There was a standing press of large 
size to do the dry pressing of the book work, 
a good assortment of wood type for posters 
and handbills, plenty of body type for book 
work, and a generous variety of display 
type for job work and the advertisements 
on the weekly papers of which the office 
made a specialty. 

"Of 'pi' there seemed to be no end 
at any time, and in discontinuing about 
this time The Daily Transcript, the impos- 
ing stones were almost covered with these 
evidences of its demise. My induction into 
the office was in the capacity of pi-dis- 
tributor and devil-in-general. Having an 
ambitious tendency and a fair capacity for 
picking up the points of the trade, I was 




A. CRAWFORD GREENE 



soon put to ' sticking ' type, and brought into personal contact with Colonel Greene, who 
' was all over the office,' showing the diversity of his trade knowledge and the versa- 
tility of his talent. 

" He had established the office in 1845, when he was 21 years old. When I joined 
the force in 1862, there were a number of pretty good men and women there, who have 
been more or less conspicuous in the typographical life of Providence. Among them 
were Major William Macpherson, Colonel James Moran, 'Mike' Mullaly (the foreman), 
George J. West, Alexander and Frederick Niger and Charles Burrill (three colored com- 
positors), Daniel and Joseph Farnham, occasionally 'Jim' Williamson, Henry Murray, 
' Steve ' Tillinghast, Alfred M. Pease and ' Pat ' Fanning. Oscar A. Carleton had charge 
in the counting room. 

" Colonel Greene would tackle anything which came along a three-sheet poster, 
the State printing, 20,000 or 100,000 circulars, a whole newspaper, or a visiting card of 
the daintiest style then in vogue quite a school for a young printer, and, with all its 
faults, a good office. 



192 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



" The establishment was removed to Railroad Hall, over the old station, in 1865. It 
was roomy, overlooked the old ' cove/ and made a fine home for the rejuvenated print 
shop." 

Alexander M. Robertson describes the composing of the Adjutant 
General's Report of 1865 in the book room of the Providence Press Co. : 

" It was in the spring of 1866, during the latter part of the administration of James 
Y. Smith, and General Burnside's administration was to follow. It was a race against 
time,, to complete the work during the Smith administration, so that it would have the 
credit for the important work, and Henri Crandall, the Adjutant General, from whose 
office it was issued, had an ambition to be its distributor. The main body of the work 

fills 832 pp.; introductory pp., 42; total, 874 pp. 
It consists of sketches of each regiment fol- 
lowed by the name of each officer and member 
and his military record in tabular form. The 
sketches are set in small pica size type and the 
tables, four columns, in brevier. In the first 
100 pages of the body of the work there are 
86 pp. of tabular matter to 14 pp. of sketch 
matter, and this was about the proportion 
throughout. It may be inferred that the whole 
book was no fool of a job to hurry out in a 
Providence printing office 40 years ago. 
During the latter part of the time, when we 
had got into full swing, six or seven men 
worked on it about 14 hours a day. The col- 
umns of tables were set with temporary leads 
or rules between by the compositor, and I had 
the full make-up to attend to, breaking the 
matter into pages and putting in the right- 
sized rules, and imposing and getting ready 
for the press, and giving out the copy. Two 
editions were printed, a small paper edition on 
white paper, printed eight pages and turned; 
and a larger page on tinted paper. Both of 
these were from the same size type-page the 
size of paper only varied. Halving the eight 
pages and printing and then backing with the 
other four." 

James A. Reid became a partner 
in the printing firm of Hammond, 
Angell & Co. in 1868. He tells of his 
impressions of the office at that 
time: 

"For many years 5 Washington Row was a noted place. It was the brick and 
stone block running along the western side of the river between Exchange place and 
Westminster street. Up the stairway at this entrance, many of the loyal adherents of 
the Providence Journal and Bulletin flocked morning and evening to get their papers 
from this famous counting-room. On the opposite side of the hallway, Doyle & Joslin, 
with Thomas A. Doyle at the fore, held forth as auctioneers, real estate dealers, and 
mayors of Providence. Upstairs, over the newspaper offices, was the home of the jobbing 
annex of Knowles & Anthony, out of which was born the firm of Hammond, Angell & to. 
In 1868 the shareholders were John N. Hammond, Albert N. Angell, Charles J. Wheeler, 
Joseph Knowles, Jeremiah N. Thomas, William H. Chenery and James A. Reid. In pre- 
vious years Edward L. Freeman and Alden S. Sibley, both now deceased, had been 
members. 

" As a connection of the Journal, the office had had a very successful career and had 
received the patronage of many of the leading concerns of the State and city. It made 
lottery tickets when they could be made, labels for the American Screw Co., cloth tickets 




JAMES A. REID 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 193 



for nearly every mill in 'Little Rhody,' manufacturers' labels by the million for the 
Fletcher Manufacturing Co., wrappers by the hundreds of thousands for Perry Davis' 
Pain Killer. Every week, for a number of years, it printed The General Advertiser. 
Occasionally it had the city contract, and it turned out a good catalogue annually and 
triennially for the college ' on the hill.' Besides, it did fair job work for everybody, and 
book work in a reasonably good style. 

"The office contained a number of cylinder presses, some Adams' platen presses, 
three or four hand-presses, on which the huge cloth tickets for the mills were printed, 
and a few small job presses. These last 'were run by steam which was furnished by a 
poor old engine which had used itself up in promoting the success of the firm. There 
was a fine array of book type and job letter, but the greater part of the whole establish- 
ment had seen better days. 

" John N. Hammond was manager at the time when I was invited to purchase of 
Albert N. Angell a share of the stock at $3000. William H. Smith was foreman of the 
job department, and Jeremiah N. Thomas was chief of the book department. Highly 
appreciating the honor of a connection with Mr. Knowles and The Journal, and not 
knowing much about what an office should be, I assumed the share enthusiastically and 
became assistant to Mr. Smith, with the prospect in view of succeeding Mr. Hammond as 
manager when he should lay aside the cares of the head man. 

" The working force of the establishment consisted of about 25 men and boys. In 
the counting-room was Mr. Hammond, a genial, pleasant-faced gentleman, who had the 
amiable, courteous manner essential for meeting successfully college professors, manu- 
facturers, stationers and booksellers, city and state officers, and a select class of custom- 
ers such as the office had fortunately drawn to it. To aid Mr. Hammond in waiting upon 
this clientage, Mr. Smith had an equally agreeable manner ; and that end of the business 
was certainly in good hands. Among the employes were Robert M. Pearse, Samuel S. 
Wilson and Frank Farrell, all pressmen ; Jonathan Helme, Jerry Thomas, William H. 
Chenery and Albert N. Angell, compositors. R. A. Reid, my brother, was one of the 
young job compositors. 

" Mr. Hammond soon retired by reason of an injury which he had received in falling 
from a car at East Greenwich, and I was selected to take his position as manager. This 
place I held for about 2 l /2 years, gaining considerable in experience but not much in hard cash, 
as the requirements for new material to put the office in condition to handle properly the 
demands for modern production were too imperative to allow of paying both the stock- 
holders and the type-founders. Then, satisfied that the place was a 'misfit' for me, I 
resigned the management and went ' back to the case.' 

" Some time after this the establishment was bought in by Albert N. Angell. Later 
still it came into the hands of the Ackerman Co., and is now known as the Standard 
Printing Co. Some of the best book work done in Providence has been produced in the 
office under the present management." 

John A. O'Neil, now an employe of the Boston Globe, describes his 
entry into the printing business and subsequent experiences in various 
job offices in Providence : 

" In February, 1872, a boy of 15, I went out to look for work, On Weybosset street, 
at No. 57, in the building now occupied by E. A. Johnson & Co., printers, I noticed a large 
sign, which read ' Millard & Harker, Steam Printers.' I applied there for work and imme- 
diately began my career in the printing business. Thomas M. Harker had just died and 
the firm was styled Millard, Gray & Simpson. Samuel Millard was quite an old man, and 
for many years previous had been connected with the Journal job office. Millard and 
Gray worked on the presses, Simpson at the case, together with Rhodes T. W. Collins, 
Alexander Niger, Henry Orme and occasionally George J. West. William Snow and John 
Sullivan, the latter better known as ' Yankee,' were also pressmen in the office. 

' " ' Yankee's ' great fault lay in his habit of swearing, and his vocabulary of ' cuss ' 
words was very strong and original. When Millard & Harker were doing business in the 
old Rubber Works building, at the corner of Dorrance and Dyer streets, ' Yankee ' had 
his hand crushed in a press. He was taken to a doctor's office, located where the Outlet 
building now stands. The doctor decided to amputate the hand. ' Yankee ' let loose ; 
the doctor could not stand the profanity and ordered 'Yankee's' friends to take him 
away, which they did, going to another physician in the vicinity, who dressed the wound 
and saved the hand. 



194 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



" The foreman of the office at that time was William H. Smith, who for many years 
after was connected with the Board of Public Works, The cases in the office had been 
labelled by the celebrated pedestrian printer, ' Jim ' Williamson, and quotations from past 
literary gems were used. I recall but two, and quote from memory : ' On yon Grampion 
hills my father feeds his flocks.' ' Down deep in hell the devil hurls bad type.' 

"Like all apprentice boys I was often sent out to 'borrow a line,' and by this means 
became quite well known and made many acquaintances in the other offices. Hammond 
& Angell's was then the largest and oldest in the city. It was a typographical museum 
in a way. There were many reverential-looking, white-bearded, old-school printers em- 
ployed there. I often saw one of them printing ' headings ' on a hand-press. The regis- 
ter could not be more perfect, and the impression was clear and distinct. One day the 
boys tied a turtle to the string holding the copy guide of one of these patriarchal-looking 
compositors, who, after making many 'outs' and vain attempts to keep his guide in 
place, declared the office to be haunted, and went home. Cornelius Jones published the 
General Advertiser there and set type on his own paper. There were Adams' book 
presses there, and a queer-looking job press that went 'ker-chunk' when taking an im- 
pression, and behind which you could stand and unlock the form on the platen. 

"Another office was run by Tourgee & Maxfield, located where the Bristol Hotel 
now stands. Charles C. Gray graduated from there. 

"Henry Tilden, a dignified gentleman in appearance and a Lord Chesterfield in 
deportment, conducted a job office just below 57, on Weybosset street. It had oil cloth 
on the floor and paintings on the wall, and was kept very neat. 'Jimmy' Bowen, a 
bright, red-headed boy, was ' devil ' there, and when Tilden was moving his residence 
from Fountain street to Broadway ' Jimmy ' was sent to help in the operation. Upon 
him devolved the duty of carrying the family pet, a parrot, to its new home. On the 
way the bird made some inquiries about ' Jimmy's ' nationality, which elicited a warm 
reply that was afterwards repeated by the parrot to Tilden. When ' Jimmy ' told me the 
story he was afraid that he was going to lose his job, but Tilden appreciated the joke too 
well to punish the boy for it. 

"About that time there was a small amateur office in the basement of a house on 
Carpenter street that I visited evenings in company with ' Bill ' Chadsey, who, together 
with E. A. Johnson, was interested in it. This was the Bethlehem of the E. A. Johnson 
Co., which has since assumed such large proportions. 

"Another office doing a large business at that time, paid its help in orders for 
groceries, clothing, etc. A compositor who was asked to take a couple of gallons of 
whiskey in part payment for money due him, refused for the reason that he ' did not 
propose to feed his family on that kind of poison,' but he had to go without his wages. 

" In the spring of 1873 Thomas Simpson withdrew from the firm of Millard, Gray & 
Simpson, and became United States consul at St. Thomas, San Domingo. On the after- 
noon of the day that he left Providence, J. C. Hall, of the firm of Bugbee & Hall, came to 
the office and had a long conversation with Gray. It was then that the R. I. Printing Co. 
was born. Negotiations for the formation of the company continued all summer. Dur- 
ing the progress of the negotiations I was informed by an outside party that they could 
not agree on a name. The office was then doing much work for the Rhode Island Insur- 
ance Association. I suggested the name, R. I. Printing Co. to my friend, who proposed 
it at a meeting and it was adopted. When the company began business 'Yankee,' 
Collins and your correspondent went with them. An hour or so after I went to work, 
Capt. George W. Barry put in an appearance and began his first day of over 30 years' em- 
ployment in that office. He is the only printer whom I ever saw wear a white vest at work. 
At the end of the week it was fit for a Westminster street Sunday afternoon parade. It 
was in this office that the pocket check book, now used all over the world, was first 
brought out. The firm of Bugbee & Hall then controlled it and paid a royalty to its 
inventor, the late Col. George E. Waring, then of Newport. 

" I would like to jog the memory of the ' old guard ' about our ball games on ' cold 
spring lot' and the many 'ways-goose' parties participated in, particularly the one on 
which John Belcher issued his famous order, ' Go below there, Horace,' to his son, Horace 
Greeley Belcher, (then a boy of ten years.) Those were happy days." 

For twenty years J. A. & R. A. Reid conducted a printing office in 
Providence. Its development, success and failure is told by J. A. Reid, 
now a resident of St. Louis, Mo. : 

" In September, 1874, James Allan Reid and Robert Allan Reid, two young printers, 
began at 87 Westminster street the career of a firm which was destined, by reason of its 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 



195 



productions, to make itself and the city of Providence more or less famous. J. A. Reid 
'served his time' on the Bristol (R. I.) Phoenix and with A. Crawford Greene in Provi- 
dence, afterwards holding positions as journeyman with the Providence Press Co. in the 
book and job department ; with the Hammond & Angell Co., as partner and manager ; a 
frame on the New York World from 1869 to 1872, and on the New York Daily Graphic, 
an illustrated newspaper, in the summer of 1874. R. A. Reid served his three years in 
the Journal job office, and had a good ' round ' in Chicago afterwards. Their practical 
experience gave them a very good capital to pit against the dollars which were furnished 
the new firm as balance of its working stock by Robert and Jean Allan Reid mother and 
father of the ' boys,' who came to Rhode Island from Dairy and Kilwinning, Ayrshire, 
Scotland, in 1842. 

"The new firm had very fair 
success in most of its ventures, their 
business grew quite rapidly, and soon 
required larger quarters, which 
caused the first move, to 56 Wey- 
bosset street, were they were located 
some years in the building owned 
by the late Judge Eli Aylesworth. 
Not content with the ordinary op- 
portunities for making money and 
reputation as book and job printers, 
the firm originated many publica- 
tions which gave them a larger field 
for the exercise of their talents. 

"After awhile, finding their 
headquarters on Weybosset street 
were not just what was wanted for 
a growing plant, the office was again 
moved, this time to No. 24 Custom 
House street, where it was located 
for ten years, and where most of the 
fame and reputation of the firm was 
made. In this commodious building 
they had one of the best plants, and 
produced some of the finest work 
turned out in New England. The 
pride of the firm was staked on pro- 
ducing the very best work in all 
their lines, and a laudable aspiration 
to excel was created in the minds of 
their apprentices, journeymen, ar- 
tists and solicitors. 

"While located here 'Pictur- 
esque Washington' a finely illus- 
trated book on the National Capitol, 

with the text written by Joseph West Moore, a Providence newspaper man, was pub- 
lished. It reached a sale of nearly 50,000 copies. 'Three Decades of Federal Legis- 
lation,' a volume projected as an offset to 'Elaine's Book,' and written by the Hon. 
S. S. ('Sunset') Cox, was also published during this period, and reached a sale 
of about 25,000 copies. 'Th.e Providence Plantations,' a large quarto, costing about 
$20,000 to produce, reached 7,500 in its various editions. Their lives of ' Burnside,' by 
Ben : Perley Poore, and ' Phil Sheridan,' by Colonels Hinton and Burr, were moderate 
successes. Some of their children's books reached up into nattering figures, and many 
of their lighter publications, like ' Christmas Bells,' reached annually into hundreds of 
thousands. Altogether the firm originated and printed nearly 100 independent publica- 
tions during its business career, probably surpassing the achievements of any other one 
house in its line up to 1894, the year of the accident to J. A. Reid, which was the over- 
powering reason for the final suspension of the firm. 

" During its occupancy of the Daniels building the firm experienced two serious 
fires, one of which was general in its scope and caused heavy loss to a large number of 
firms in the vicinity. The other was limited to this particular building. The firm was 
struggling from the effects of the second fire when, in 1894, Mr. J. A. Reid, who had 




ROBERT A. REID 



196 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



assumed the entire burden of the business, was thrown from an electric car and 'downed' 
completely through concussion of the brain. 

" The plant of J. A. & R. A. Reid was well supplied with modern presses a number of 
them from the famous manufacturers, C. B. Cottrell & Sons of Westerly and New York 
with the best and latest faces of job type, and a great variety of letter for fine book work, 
catalogues, newspapers, small poster work, railroad time tables, and the diversified orders 
which come to a well-equipped printing office in these days." 

William P. Bittman, of Denver, Col., gives his impressions of the 
office of the R. I. Printing Co. and its employes at an interesting period 
of its existence : 

" I went to work at the R. I. Printing Co. in the early part of 1882, as a temporary 
or emergency hand. It was a fine office, and turned out some of the finest work done in 
Providence, was abundantly supplied with all the latest and up-to-date creations of the 
different type foundries ; was kept in apple pie order a place for everything and every- 
thing in its place. All the type was nickel-plated. About six regulars and one or two 
apprentices were employed at the time. During working hours by way of deviation, 
social problems were solved, politics discussed, and Butler's 'Hudibras' quoted by the 
square yard. It was not necessary to resort to prison rules to keep the men in line, and 
the utmost latitude was extended to everyone. When a new comer received a job to do 
by the foreman, it was generally accompanied by the remark : ' Take your time ; we look 
to quality and not quantity in this office.' 

" John A. Belcher was the foreman. John was a master at the art, a good proof- 
reader, and an all-round clever fellow. Unfortunately, John possessed an ungovernable 
temper, and when he got his ' dander ' up, at some real or fancied ' outrage ' perpetrated 
on him or in violation of the established rules and regulations of the office, then you 
could look out for ' Das Donnerroetter,' to use a German cuss word. A Kansas cyclone 
or an eruption of Mount Vesuvius was nothing in comparison with it. These outbursts 
were infrequent, however, and were generally aimed at the innocent, harmless and much- 
abused Joseph, his brother, one of the neatest and most artistic job printers in the city 
of Providence ; among the rest of the typos they created considerable merriment. 

" Among the employes of the R. I. Printing Co. during my time were the following, 
who bore pompous and weighty names, to wit : John ' Hamilton Boyd ' Kidd, John 
'Adams' Belcher, Joseph 'Warren' Belcher, 'Zopher Randall' Cummings, and last, but 
not least, my esteemed, amiable and ancient friend, familiarly known as the ' Antiquated 
Captain,' George ' Wellington ' Barry, who, I learn, is still on deck, although he must 
have passed the four-score mile post of his life, and bids fair to rival in longevity the 
illustrious ' Iron Duke ' of Waterloo fame, whose name he bears, and who passed from 
time to eternity in his 83d year. Great Scott ! Captain, are you never going to say '30'? 
There you have it, comedy, tragedy, war, peace all the elements necessary, and right at 
hand, too ! 

" There is no doubt that the weight of their names was of tentime a mighty load, 
and their efforts at dignity were not always successful. Still, one might be sure of a 
warm heart beating under the waistcoat, covering the overwrought chest so often thrown 
out with either real or imaginary military ardor or literary pride. 

" I remained in Providence about two or three years, working at the Rhode Island 
and occasionally subbing on the Visitor, Sunday Dispatch, etc., and then went to 
Boston. In 1894 Boston Typographical Union sent me to the Union Printers' Home. The 
climate was so beneficial that I left the Home and settled in Denver. A generous 
increase in my pension from the United States Government enables me to live way up on 
the sunny side of Easy street, and spend the remaining few years of my life in the dolce 
far niente." 

His first day's experience in a Providence printing office as an 
apprentice is told by Albert P. E. Doyle, now of Washington, D. C. : 

" In 1889, E. A. Johnson, head of the firm bearing that name, offered the annual 
apprenticeship to me without further agreement than the admonition, ' If the job don't 
suit you, git ; if you don't suit the job, gitto ! ' I was informed that Mr. Joseph H. 
O'Verdine was to be my boss, but a few hours' labor in the book-room demonstrated that 
Miss Emma Ballou, Mr. John Henry Whalen, the Misses Cora B. Wilson, Katie Kiernan, 
Gracie Fisk, Messrs. George Washington Cutting, Charles Dickens Gardiner, A. B. C. D. 
Frost, Frank Fort Fuller, with many others to hear from, were also in command of the ship. 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 197 



"Naturally of a modest and retiring disposition I fell over myself in complying 
with the various orders of my numerous foremen and foreladies, everybody taking a 
whack except Mr. J. H. O'V., and by 10 o'clock occasional comments of satisfaction told 
me that I was solid, and that the office had at last secured a truly good boy. 

" At the expiration of that time, however, presuming that I had become sufficiently 
acquainted with the various sections of the office so as to receive and digest instruction 
in the ' art preservative,' Mr. William Wallace, the senior ' devil,' condescended to teach 
the ' young tree ' how to wash the ink-slab without soiling the instructor's hands, taking 
care meanwhile to impress upon him the fact that if those before mentioned were 
captains, he was commodore. Willie promptly initiated me into all those graces and 
virtues which made my presence so welcome to J. Henry Whalen and to J. Henry Dillon 
throughout the remainder of my apprenticeship. 

" To resume, while nearly a year's full residue was being soaked and scraped and 
scraped and soaked from the ink-slab, John Henry Baxter was laboriously, but fastidiously 
covering the tympan of the old Washington hand-press with new felt and packing. John 
was probably as proud of his handiwork when finished as was the new devil of the re- 
splendent ink-slab, which by this (and be it truly chronicled for the last) time, fairly 
glistened in immaculate purity. 

" John laid out an eight-page form on the now rejuvenated press, sullied the fair 
face of my ink-slab with a daub of ink which is on it yet, inked the form, pulled a proof, 
and I can yet see the look of intense satisfaction spreading o'er his features as he stepped 
back and surveyed the impression. He ordered Wallace to pull nine more proofs. Wal- 
lace ordered me to assist in pulling the lever over. With a thrill of pride I jointly 
grasped the handle with W., and learned by the time the lever reached its centre that 
instead of my assisting Wallace, Wallace was assisting me, and very feebly at that. 

" As the lever would very likely be on the far side of the press yet, had I not pulled 
it over, it looked to me like finding the nickle Wallace bet that I could not push it back 
alone. Two feet braced firmly against the well-filled and Will-filled ' hell-box,' and the 
almost superhuman shove on the lever ' did ' something. A quick glance at the debris 
and a quick glance at J. H. B. as quickly told me that something else would soon be 
' did.' As there was only three stories under us, I moved for the entry at about John's 
pace (no, gentle reader, John was not walking), for had I not noticed there were no fur- 
trimmed Juliets over his E-12 white socks, and heard him say, ' Water will rot the bottom 
of a ship,' and observed that he did not make a practice of praying during working hours, 
not to mention that he was the sole custodian of the filigree type? No, I was convinced 
that John was not a fit associate for me at that moment. I reasoned that if I stayed in 
the entry long enough to count ten billion ten times matters inside would shape them- 
selves so that at least I could get my hat and coat. I had hardly finished counting my 
seventy-fifth million when Mr. John Henry Whalen came out and invited me to return. 
The good lord knows that I was waiting for Wallace, but, J. Henry, why did you grin ? 

" When I finished with J. Hen. my promotion was rapid, for I was then and there 
installed admiral of the fleet, and remained in that capacity until ' Billy ' Donovan took 
me under his sheltering mantle just 365 days afterward, but first informing me that he 
was the pilot of the craft and if I desired to reach my destination I would have to ship as 
a common land-lubber. As I received able-seaman's papers right after leaving his care, 
it seems needless to mention that the pilot's orders were sacredly obeyed." 

The John F. Greene office is probably the oldest in the city, having 
been started in 1828, by John S. Greene at 7 North Main street. Wil- 
liam Simons, Jr., purchased it the next year and it was moved to 15 
Market square. It was the home of the Republican Herald, the leading 
Democratic semi-weekly newspaper, until 1853, when a consolidation 
with the Daily Post was accomplished, which continued until 1867. In 
that year John F. Greene became its owner, it was separated from the 
newspaper, and moved to 56 Canal street. In 1886 John F. Minchin 
and Elias S. Nickerson purchased the office and it was moved to 81 
Dyer street. When Mr. Minchin died in 1906, John A. Belcher took 
his place in the firm. 



198 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



Snow & Farnham's book and job office, now located at 63 Wash- 
ington street, was originally connected with the Evening Press news- 
paper, started in 1859. From 1861 to 1900 the office was in the 
building at the northwest corner of Dyer and Custom House streets. 
The printing for the State was done there for many years, and also the 
city printing. In September, 1884, the book and job department was 
separated from the newspapers, and shortly after came into possession 
of its present owners, Edwin M. Snow and Joseph E. C. Farnham. 
Twice the plant was almost completely destroyed by fire, the last one 
causing removal to the present location. A very large and successful 
business has been done by the firm. 

In 1882, Frank D. Livermore and Richard D. Knight formed a 
partnership under the name of Livermore & Knight. Both partners 
had been conducting printing offices for a few years previously. Their 
first location was at 18 Custom House street. In a few years the in- 
crease of business caused a removal to 74 Weybosset street, which 
location was occupied for about ten years. The Lauderdale building 
on Westminster street next accommodated their growing business for 
about seven years, when another removal was made to Pine street, cor- 
ner Hay street, their present home. Printing is but a small part of the 
product of this firm, but the quality is first class and their field of 
operations very extensive. 

The Remington Printing Co. was started in 1891 by P. S. Reming- 
ton at 43 Weybosset street in a modest way. Two years later it was 
located at 153 Dorrance street and F. M. Mason and John E. Hurley 
became members of the firm. The growth of the business compelled 
another moving in 1895. This time the present ample quarters in the 
Hanley building, 63 Washington street, were occupied. In 1900 B. P. 
Moulton purchased P. S. Remington's interest. 

The Franklin Press, now located at 63 Washington street, is the 
successor of J. L. & E. N. Casey, who opened an office at 7 College 
street in 1892. The Caseys were students at Brown University and 
their first venture in Providence was as editors and publishers of the 
Brown Daily Herald, still issued regularly during the College terms 
from the Franklin Press. J. L. & E. N. Casey were succeeded in 1893 
by Casey, Murch & Co., in 1894 by Casey Brothers, and in 1896, when 
the plant was moved to its present location, by the Franklin Press. 
The latter has changed hands but not its name several times, the pres- 
ent officers, Charles A. Dalton, President, and Thomas J. Griffin, Treas- 
urer, having taken charge in 1901. The plant is splendidly equipped 
for first-class work of all kinds, and the largest force of Union job com- 
positors in the city is employed at the Franklin. The veteran Fred- 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 199 

erick B. Amsden has set the type for the Brown Daily Herald so many 
years that he has come to be regarded as an indispensable adjunct to 
its publication. The Franklin Press granted the eight-hour day Jan. 1, 
1906, without friction of any sort. It has profited by the label cam- 
paign incident to the strike, having doubled its force of compositors to 
meet the requirements of new business. 

One of the best-known Union shops in the city is that conducted at 
33 Washington street by the William R. Brown Company, A. W. Wood- 
cock, proprietor. William R. Brown's first venture as a master printer 
was located on Dorrance street, removal being made to 47 Eddy street, 
and later to the present location. Mr. Woodcock was admitted to the 
firm just previous to Mr. Brown's death, which occurred in 1903, and 
he has since conducted the business. The William R. Brown Company 
makes a specialty of badge work, and does more printing for secret and 
fraternal societies, perhaps, than any other office in the city. It is, 
however, well equipped for other work, and conducts a profitable busi- 
ness. The eight-hour day went into effect there Jan. 1, 1906, and the 
shop is thoroughly Union. 

In 1889 James H. Mathews bought out a printing partnership 
which he had entered at 1052 High street less than a fortnight pre- 
vious, and moved the plant to 1851 Westminster street, where he has 
been in business continuously since then, in later years as partner' with 
his younger brother, Thomas J. Mathews, under the firm name of J. H. 
& T. J. Mathews. James H. Mathews learned his trade in Westerly, 
R. I., and was foreman of the Westerly Sun previous to coming to 
Providence. The plant is very well equipped for all classes of work, 
and has been enlarged several times, a new press having been installed 
in October, 1907. This firm was the first in the city to carry a Union 
label. The Mathews brothers are staunch Union men, both carrying 
cards, James H. as a pressman, and Thomas J. as a member of Provi- 
dence Typographical Union. 

In 1898 Charles Manshell opened a small printing office at 19 Mill 
street, moving in 1899 to 339 North Main street, and in 1901 to 115-119 
Pine street, where the business is still continued under the name of the 
Sun Printing Company, in quarters several times enlarged since the 
moving to Pine street. The plant is an extensive one, including 
the largest cylinder press in the city and a new model ticket machine, 
which is the first of its kind to be installed here. Mr. Manshell is one 
of the most enterprising and energetic master printers in the city, 
and the large and increasing business of the Sun Printing Company is 
ample evidence of his keen sagacity and sound business sense. To Mr. 
Manshell principally is due credit for the demand for the Union label 



200 PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 

among the large Hebrew population of the city. The Sun invariably 
advertises as a Union printing house; it granted the eight-hour day 
Jan. 1, 1906, and Mr. Manshell still carries a card, although doing very 
little work at the case in recent years. 

The Loose Leaf Manufacturing Company was reorganized early in 
1907, a combination being made with H. M. Coombs, a famous Providence 
binder, who was then conducting a bindery at 63 Washington street, 
to which the plant of the L. L. Manufacturing Company was moved 
from Sabin street. The older L. L. Company had moved its plant to 
IrfOuisville, Ky., in 1905, but reopened toward the close of that year in 
this city. A change of management brought Irvin B. Stites into con- 
trol, and he consummated the combination with H. M. Coombs. Mr. 
Coombs retired from the reorganized company in October, 1907, open- 
ing a new bindery across the street. The Loose Leaf Company has 
one of the finest equipped plants in the city, and has facilities for turn- 
ing out the finest quality of work of any description, from a simple 
dodger to a bound volume, including ruling and blank book work of 
all kinds. Quality is the watchword at the Loose Leaf. A slight un- 
pleasantness in 1906, when the Loose Leaf Company returned to a 
nine-hour schedule, was settled early in 1907, and the Loose Leaf Com- 
pany has since then carried the Union label. 

The Alpine Printing Co., George L. Hammond, proprietor, was 
started in 1892. It is located at 94 Snow street and does a large and 
profitable business. 

Bushman & Co., 290 Eddy street, moved its plant in June, 1907, 
from 489 Westminster street, to the present more commodious quarters. 
The proprietors are enterprising young men and are building up a good 
plant and a large business. 

James R. Day, at 37 Weybosset street, has a well established busi- 
ness, begun in 1888. Mr. Day is a badge specialist, but his patronage 
among the commercial houses and banks of the city is large. He is re- 
liable, punctual in fulfilling promises and well liked by those who are 
his customers. 

Holland & Son, John and Oscar, conduct a small commercial plant 
at 131 Washington street, the father as pressman and the son as com- 
positor. They have a wide circle of friends and their business is 
profitable. 

The Ideal Printing Company, 45 Eddy street, George H. Webb, 
proprietor, is well equipped for good work. 

The Industrial Printing Company, 43 South Main street, is con- 
ducted by another hustling and enterprising young man, George H. 
Brown. Mr. Brown's business has grown by leaps and bounds in recent 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 201 

years, removal to more commodious quarters two years ago, promising 
duplication by simple necessity within the near future. 

The Oxford Linotype Composition Company was organized in 
August, 1907, by Henry W. and John F. O'Hara. One machine was 
installed at 24 North Main street. In September the printing plant of 
the Visitor was absorbed and the Oxford Company moved across the 
street to the old Visitor office, at 27 North Main street. 

The Providence Printing Company, at 24 North Main street, was 
established early in 1907, by Hugh F. Carroll, who has more than once 
in recent months demonstrated the possibilities of a small plant. 
"Printers and Printing in Providence" is from the press of the Provi- 
dence Printing Co. 

George W. Hope conducts the Star Printing Co. at 910 Westmin- 
ster street, well known as a Union house. 

The Whitney Press, at 45 Waldo street, has a well-equipped 
plant. 

H. Beck & Co., 191 North Main street, are new comers in Provi- 
dence. 

Carl C. Robb, a popular member of No. 33, in October, 1907, opened 
an office at 211 Indiana avenue, where he prints. 

Ralph Freeman, in June, 1907, became manager of a small printing 
plant owned by the Boys' Club, at Eddy and Weybosset streets. 

The Capitol Printing Company, 95 Westminster street, was organ- 
ized in 1907, John F. Keenan, Richard D. Lacy and Frank G. Sullivan, 
employes of the Journal and Bulletin, being the proprietors. The 
Capitol is almost the first enterprise in Providence conducted by print- 
ers who are not directly connected with its mechanical department. 

An imprint about 1800 reads " Printed by Nathaniel and Benjamin 
Heaton for Joseph J. Todd, Providence, at the sign of the Bible and 
Anchor." One of these Heatons was in partnership with Samuel J. 
Williams in 1804. No other mention of the Heatons has been found. 

Some of the book and job offices not otherwise referred to are 
included in the following list : 

1824-36 Henry Trumbull at 26 and 34 1833 Edward and J. W. Cory at 9 

High st. Market sq. 

1826 Barzillai Cranston at 10 North 1833 James S. Ham and S. R. Weeden 

Main st. 1828 Cranston & Marshall at at 9 Market sq. 

4 Market sq. 1830 Cranston & Ham- 1840 Benjamin T. Albro at 9 Market 
mond at 1 Union buildings. 1832 Bar- sq. 1844 at 2 Canal st. 1847-50 at 5 
zillai Cranston at 4 Market sq. 1836 at Canal st. 1853-56 at 11 Market sq. 
14 Market sq. 1838 and later at 1 Mar- 1841 Benjamin F. Moore at 19 Mar- 
ket sq., where he also conducted a book ket sq. 1844 at 12 South Main st. 
store. 1852 Marcus B. Young at 24 West- 

1826-28 Smith & Parmenter at 9 Mar- minster st. 1859 at 33 Westminster st. 

ket sq. 1870 A. S. Reynolds. 1873 Reynolds 

1828 William Marshall at 4 Union (M. M.), Mackinnon (G. F. ) & Trumpler 

buildings. 1830 at 12 Market sq. 1836 at (P. J.) at 9 Calender st. Christian Union 

19 Market sq. and Daily Chronicle were published from 



202 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



the office while at this location. 1875 at 

5 Washington row. Sunday Dispatch 
printed in the office. 1878 Moved to 
East Greenwich. 

1854 Henry Tilden at 32 Westminster 
st. 1871 at 29 Weybosset st. 1880 at 4 
Westminster st. 

1857 Henry L. Tillinghast at 9 and 
12 Market sq. 

1865 George H. Whitney at 7 Market 
sq. 1871 Logee (W. K.), Maxfield (W. 
B.) & Co. 1873 Valpey, Angell Co. & 
Maxfield. 1877-1907 E. L. Freeman & 
Co. at 3 Westminster st. 

1867 Millard (S. M.) & Harker (T. 
M. ) at 131 Dorrance st. 1869 S. M. Mil- 
lard at 57 Weybosset st. 1870 Millard, 
Gray (C. C.) & Simpson (T.). 1874 S. 
M. Millard. 1877 Millard, Morris (J. F.) 

6 Co. (E. W. Woodley) at 111 Broad st. 
1878 J. Frank Briggs instead of Wood- 
ley. 1879 Peter H. Massie. 1882 at Slade 
building, Washington st. 

1871 James J. Easton at 14 Westmin- 
ster st. 

1871 M. A. Walsh at 16 North Main st. 

1873 Trumpler (P. J. ) & Burchfield 
(C. E.) at 98 Westminster st. 

1873 Thomas A. Carpenter & Co. at 
125 Broad st. 

1873-4 Hutchinson (A. S.) & Trenn 
(W. H.) at 156 Westminster st. 

1873 Joseph F. Morris at 20 Westmin- 
ster st. 1874 at 9 Calender st. 

1874 Edward K. Aldrich at 243 West- 
minster st. 1875 E. K. & Thomas W. 
Aldrich. 1878 E. K. Aldrich at 217 West- 
minster st. 

1875 Star Printing Co. at 256 Public st. 

1875 John Francis Smith. 1880 at 49 
Peck st. 1881 at 21 Friendship st. 1885 
at 235 Westminster st. 1891 at 123 Dor- 
rance st. 1893 at 154 Dorrance st. 

1875 William H. Tilley at 5 Marshall 
st. 1879 at 444 High st. 1880-86 at 606 
High st. 

1875 Frank E. Nickerson at 5 Wash- 
ington row. 

1876 Charles Atwood at 2 Major st. 

1878 at 9 Winter st. 

1876 Andrew P. Martin at 359 North 
Main st. 

1876 Dow B. Talbot at 18 Cranston st. 

1878 Thomas S. Hammond at 49 Wey- 
bosset st. 1882-1907 at 98 Weybosset st. 
1907 at 26 Custom House st. 

1878 George B. Arnold at 135 South 
Main st. 

1878 Henry N. Leader & Co. at 87 
Westminster st. 

1878 Mylon C. Merriam at 81 West- 
minster st. 

1878 John S. Kellogg at 7 Market sq. 

1879 at 19 Westminster st. 1881 at 5 
Washington row. 1883-89 Kellogg Print- 
ing Co. 

1878 Noah D. Payne at 12 Page st. 
1879 at 25 Potter st. 1880 at 82 Academy 
av. 1883 Yankee Notion Printing Co. at 
202 Westminster st. 1888 Marion Print- 
ing Co. at 129 Westminster st. 1893 at 
157 Westminster st. 1899 at 25 North 



Main st. 1900 at 108 Eddy st. 1904 at 
37 Weybosset st. 1905-7 at 19 Page st. 

1879 W. Ward Fuller at 98 Weybos- 
set. 1880 Fuller, Upham & Co. at 91 
Westminster st. and 31 Exchange place. 
1881 W. Ward Fuller. 1882 at ' 109 
Orange st. 

1879 Farmer, Livermore & Co. at 27 
Custom House st. ; Richard D. Knight at 
24 Custom House st. 1880 at 18 Custom 
House st. 1881 Knight & Remington (R. 
D. Knight and C. R. Remington, Jr.). 
1883 Livermore & Knight. 

1880 H. L. Thompson & Co. at 75 
Westminster st. 

1880 J. C. Hall & Co. at 62 Weybos- 
set st. 1891 at 60 Weybosset st. 1899- 
1907 The J. C. Hall Co. at 68 West 
Exchange st. 

1881 A. C. Beaman at 3 Weybosset st. 

1881 Chadsey (W. N.) & Clarke (E. 
M. ) at 97 Weybosset st. 1882 at 23 Wey- 
bosset st. 1888 at 9 Custom House st. 
1893 W. N. Chadsey at 44 Custom 
House st. 

1881 H. A. Townsend & Bro. at 98 
Weybosset st. 1882 at 188 Eddy st. 1883 
F. H. Townsend. 1897-1907 at 95 
Pine st. 

1881 Charles C. Bigelow at 97 Wey- 
bosset st. 1882 at 26 Washington st. 1884 
Bigelow Printing Co. 1888 at 45 Eddy 
st. 1889 at 21 Eddy st. While located 
here the presswork for the Evening Call, 
the daily newspaper issued by Providence 
Typographical Union, was done by this 
company. In July a Scott perfecting press 
was used. 

1882 Myron R. Briggs at 30 Admiral 
st. 1884 at 348 North Main st. 

1883 F. E. Capron at 13 Market sq. 

1883 Charles W. Littell & Co. at 243 
Westminster st. 1891 at 267 Westminster 
st. 1893 at 333 Westminster st. 1895 at 
206 Weybosset st. 1896-1907 at 333 West- 
minster st. 

1883 Crandall (W. C.) & Tucker (H. 
W.) at 243 Westminster st. 

1883 Whittemore (D. H.) & Thompson 
(H. L.) at 54 North Main st. 1886-1907 
Whittemore & Colburn (J. G.). 

1883 Edwin B. Evans at 18 Hammond 
st. 1886 at Cranston st. 1890 at 292 
Westminster st. 

1884 George E. Crandall, Jr., at 7 Mar- 
ket sq. 

1884 J. T. R. Proctor at 174 Westmin- 
ster st. 

1884-88 George M. Webb at 208 Pine st. 

1884-86 R. D. Gerrish at 1 Irons Block, 
Olneyville. 

1884 Almon B. Hart at 235 Westmin- 
ster st. 

1885 Francis (R.) & Walker (G. F.) 
at 19 Fenner st. 

1885 John H. Schofield at 5 Washing- 
ton row. 

1885 George F. Chapman & Co. at 27 
Pine st. and 62 Weybosset st. 1894 Perry 
Printing Co. 1895 William H. Walton, 
Supt., at 25 Pine st. 1899-1907 at 57 Wey- 
bosset st. 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 



203 



1885 A. H. Field & Co. at 57 Weybos- 
set st. 1899 at 186 Mathewson st. 1903 at 
180 Mathewson st. 1905 at 124 Washing- 
ton st. 1907 at 775 Westminster st. 

1886 Farmer (E. G.), Girsch (C. W.) 
& Co. at 18 Custom House st. 1887 E. G. 
Farmer & Co. 

1887 A. H. Cary at 255 High st. 1889 
at 33 Snow st. 

1887 O. T. R. Greene at 11 Washing- 
ton st. 1893 at 21 Washington st. 1907 at 
5 Washington row. 

1887-8 N. L. McCausland & Co. at 21 
South Main st. 

1887-91 Avondale Printing Co., Her- 
man L. Calder, manager, at 258 Westmin- 
ster st. 

1888 Ideal Card and Printing Co. at 
65 Dorrance st. (P. W. Rounds and F. 
W. Smith). 

1888 .E. W. Kenyon at 235 Westmin- 
ster st. 

1888 Cummings (M. J.) & Dow (J. C.) 
at 77% Dorrance st. 1889 M. J. Cum- 
mings. 1892 at 112 Dorrance st. 

1888 Edward H. Morrissey at 235 
Westminster st. 

1888 R. I. Label Works at 33 Beverly 
st. 1895 at 91 Sabin st. 

1888 T. W. Schurman at 254 Westmin- 
ster st. 1889 at 262 Westminster st. 

1888 Star Printing Co. at 255 West- 
minster st. David Seide, manager. 

1888-9 Frederick B. Wood at 45 Eddy 
st. 

1889 George D. Niven & Co. at 998 
Broad st. 

1889 H. I. Gould & Co. at 282 West- 
minster st. 1893-1901 at 400 Westmin- 
ster st. 

1890-92 W. E. Burbank at 227 Eddy st. 

1890 Ryder (James J.) & Dearth 
(Henry B.) at 146 Westminster st. 1892 
J. J. Ryder Co. 1898-1907 at 47 Wash- 
ington st. 

1890-92 Sholes (W. F.) & Searle (E. 
W.) at 33 Snow st. 1895 at Hoppin Home- 
stead Building. 1898-1905 at 189 Mathew- 
son st. 

1890-1907 Standard Printing Co. at 5 
Washington row. B. F. Briggs, manager. 

1890 James N. Arnold at 30 Eddy st. 

1890 Louis Basinet at 255 High st. 
1891 at 376 High st. 1893 at 890 West- 
minster st. 1901-7 at 35 Cranston st. 

1890 George A. Wilson & Co. at 21 
Eddy st. 1895 at 101 Sabin st. 1897 
Journal of Commerce Co. 

1891 Standard Steam Printing and Pub- 
lishing Co. at 39 Snow st. 

1891-2 Walter J. Ellis at 269 West- 
minster st. 

1891 Charles H. Heptonstall & Bro. at 
1076 High st. 1893 at 1962 Westminster st. 

1891-3 E. A. Risley & Co. at 24 Cus- 
tom House st. 

1891 Sibley (Edward F.) & Johnson 
(Clarence P.) at 1078 High st. 1892 
Edward F. Sibley. 1893 at 1964 Westmin- 
ster st. 1899-1907 at 1 Olneyville sq. 

1891 Buker Publishing Co. at 19 West- 
minster st. 1894-9 at 21 Westminster st. 



1891 F. S. Bowen at 282 Dyer st. 

1892-3 Claude Gardiner at 366 High st. 
1893 Providence Printing and Publishing 
Co at 874 Westminster st. 

1892 R. I. Publishing Co., B. F. Evans, 
manager, at 9 Calender st. 

1892 Taylor Card and Printing Co. at 
4 Mathewson st. 1893 at 186 Mathewson 
st. 1900 at 179 Richmond st. 1904 at 257 
West Exchange st. 

1893-5 Chace (Robert A.) & Young 
(Richard A.) at 47 Sprague st. 

1893 Providence Albertype Co. at 80 
East George st. 1900-2 Platt Albertype 
Co. at 35 North Main st. 

1893 E. M. Clarke at 41 Dorrance st. 
1894 at 44 Custom House st. 1899-1907 at 
332 Prairie av. 

1893-1903 Eagle Printing Co. at 12 
Moulton st. 

1893 Ellis Printing Co. at 28 North 
Main st. 

1893-1901 Elmwood Printing Co. at 76 
Fifield av. C. E. Bailey, Jr., Manager. 

1893 Herald Printing Co. at 75 West- 
minster st. 1897 at 49 Westminster st. 

1893 Madden (F. C.), Bell (J. D.) 
Co. at 76 Dorrance st. 

1894 American Press Co. at 216 Wey- 
bosset st. Henry Lindsay, proprietor. 

1894 Diamond Printing Co. at 24 North 
Main st. (James D. O'Hern and Albert 
P. Doyle.) 1901 James D O'Hern. 

1894 Pond (W. H.) & Raymond (G.) 
at 75 Clifford st. 1899 William H. Pond 
& Son (L. G.) at 83 Page st. 1900 at 110 
. Richmond st. 

1894 Charles H. Ross at 121 Weybos- 
set st. 

1895 Bannon & Co. at 64 North Main 
st. (John L. Bannon). 1896 at 43 North 
Main st. 1897 at 874 Westminster st. 
1900 H. W. Goodnow & Co. 1901 Rapid 
Printing Co. at 63 Washington st. 

1895-7 Continental Printing Co. at 97 
Dyer st. James C. Gregg, secretary. 

1895 John Cray, Olneyville sq. 1899 
at 34 Plainfield st. 1902 at 16 Plainfield 
st. 1907 at 65 Plainfield st. 

1895 Narragansett Printing Co. at 99 
Friendship st. 1898 at 155 Orange st. 
1900 at 9 Calender st. 1901 at 21 Eddy 
st. 1905-7 at 45 Eddy st. 

1896 Herbert Barnett at 926 Man- 
ton av. 

1896-1907 P. W. Card at 741 West- 
minster st. 

1896 David Evans at 767 Westminster 
st. 1897 Evans Printing and Regalia 
House at 141 Weybosset st. 

1896 Fox (C. J.) & Saunders (H. L.) 
at 12 Market sq. 1897 at 137 Weybosset 
st. 1907 at 236 Aborn st. 

1896 Globe Printing Co. at 37 Wey- 
bosset st. 

1896 Gunn & Wilcox at 87 Weybosset 
st. (Harry E. Gunn.) 

1896 J. D. Hall & Co. at 101 Sabin st. 

1896 Charles E. Littlefield at 206 
Weybosset st. 

1896 F. C. Madden at 10 West Ex- 
change st. 



204 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



1897 Bacon (James G.) & Graham 
(Thomas) Printing Co. at 348 Westmin- 
ster St. 

1897 John D. Bradshaw at 74 Bog- 
man st. 1898 at 890 Westminster st. 1899 
at 7 Trask st. 

1897 Cashman (Asa) & Rollinson 
(John) at 47 Washington st. 1898 John 
Rollinson & Co. 1899 at 97 Dyer st. 
1906-7 Rollinson & Hey. 

1897-1902 The Robinson Press at 151 
Pine st. (Thomas C. Robinson.) 

1897 Edward E. Zulegan at 612 Doug- 
lass av. 

1898 Chaff ee-McIndoe Co. at 7 Eddy st. 

1898-1907 H. T. Hammond at 74 Wey- 
bosset st. 

1898 Edwin S. Godfrey at 207 West- 
minster st. 

1899 Williams & Co. at 45 Eddy st. 
(David H. Williams). 1903 at 96 Math- 
ewson st. 

1899 Williams (Charles W.) & Fricker 
(Alexander) at 141 Weybosset st. 1901- 
5 Williams, Fricker & Co. 

1899 Thompson & Thompson (Fred D. 
and Henry L. ) at 163 Pine st. 1905 at 
52 Richmond st. 1906-7 at 33 Broad st. 

1900 Columbian Job Print at 687 Man- 
ton av. 1904-7 Sander P. Wilson. 

1900-2 Frost Bros. (W. L. and H. B.) 
at 233 Ohio av. 

1900-1 German- American Printing" Co. 
at 125 Snow st. 1902 at 69 Richmond st. 

1900 Pentecostal Printing Co. at 877 
Eddy st. 1904-7 at 212 Oxford st. 

1900-4 Place & Wells Co. at 8 Niantic 
av. Emory L. Place, manager. 

1901-7 Brandt Printing Co. at 297 
Canal st. (Soloman S. Brandt.) 

1901 F. Curzio & Co. at 84 Spruce 
st. 1904-5 at 32 Spruce st. 

1901 Excelsior Printing Co. at 15 Dor- 
ranee st. (Frank S. Bowen, manager.) 
1903 at 121 North Main st. 1905 at 124 
Washington st. 1907 at 775 Westmin- 
ster st. 

1901 New York Printing Co. at 21 
Washington st. 1902 at 9 Washington 
row. 1907 at 15 Exchange place. (E. L. 
Meyers. ) 



1901 Walford B. Read at 1 Olney- 
ville sq. 

1901-7 Benoni Sweet at 862 Broad st. 

1902 Robert F. Belcher at 400 West- 
minster st. 1904 at 124 Washington st. 

1902 John H. Donahue at 348 West- 
minster st. 1903 Empire Mfg. and Print- 
ing Co. at 131 Washington st. (William 
Leach, J. H. Donahue and T. P. Davis.) 

1902-4 E. B. Evans & Co. at 936 Man- 
ton av. 

1902 Keystone Press at 77 Dyer st. 

1902 H. K. Phillips at 15 Dorarnce st. 

1902 George E. Williams at 110 Rich- 
mond st. 

1903-7 Acme Printing Co. at 35 West- 
minster st. 

1903-5 Joseph G. Haunch at 15 Dor- 
ranee st. 

1903 Maine Printing Co. at 43 Cran- 
ston st. 

1904-7 W. H. Leland & Co. at 144 
Westminster st. 

1904-7 Charles S. Reynolds & Co. at 
37 Weybosset st 

1904 Fred Smith at 31 Broad st. 

1904-6 Vendome Mfg. Co. at 45 Eddy 
st. 

1904-7 Weybosset Printing Co. at 141 
Weybosset st. 

1904 O. P. Clarke at 98 Weybosset st. 
1905-7 at 97 Dyer st. 

1904 La Liberta Publishing Co. at 155 
Atwell's av. 

1904-7 Colorgraph Printing Co. at 49 
Weybosset st. 

1905 Edgewood Press at 120 Washing- 
ton st. ; 1907 at 390 New York av. 

1905-7 Providence Linotype Co. at 26 
Custom House st. 

1905-7 E. C. Spencer at 8 Niantic av. 

1906 Gideon Carlstrom at 279 Wey- 
bosset st. ; 1907 at 13 Burrell st. 

1906 C. M. Cunha at 55 Arcade. 

1907 Aronson & Gustafson at 186% 
Prairie ave. 

1907 Samuel P. Harris at 95 Pine st. 

1907 L. M. Phelps & Co. at 95 West- 
minster st. 

1907 International Printing Co. at 155 
Atwell's av. 



From 1772 until 1793, " the sign Shakespeare's Head was erected 
upon a pole eight or ten feet high on the sidewalk in front of what is 
now No. 21 Meeting street." The sign was first mentioned in connec- 
tion with the Gazette, July 9, 1763, when the paper was published at 
Judge Jenckes's book shop, at the sign of Shakespeare's Head. 

The Gazette was moved " to the building at the southeast corner 
of the Market House, directly opposite the street leading to Brown Uni- 
versity," in 1812. The building with Hugh H. Brown's sign is the one. 
It was torn down to widen College street. 

In 1827 Market square was a veritable printing house square, as 
the Patriot, Journal, Microcosm, Cadet, Christian Telescope, Religious 
Messenger, Pawtucket Chronicle, Anti-Universalist and Rhode Island 



Early Printing Houses 




"SHAKESPEARE'S HEAD" 
Providence Gazette, 1772-1793 




"THE COFFEE HOUSE" 

Providence Gazette, 1793-1812 

Rhode Island American, 1813-1826 

Providence Journal, 1820-1823 




"ABBOTT 'STILL' HOUSE' 

Providence Gazette, 1812-1825 

H. H. Brown, 1856-1863 




"THE GRANITE BUILDING" 

Providence Journal, 1824-1833 
Centre of Printing Industry in 1827 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 



205 



Register, together with numerous printing offices, were located there. 
The buildings in which they were located were the Granite building 
and the Old Coffee House. 

The great gale of 1815 occurred on September 23. In a diary kept 
by Bennett H. Wheeler, now in possession of Mrs. Frederick R. Hoard, 
is a vivid account of the terrific storm of wind and water, and of his 
efforts to rescue his family and others from the flood. Mr. Wheeler and 
Capt. Josiah Jones were at that time publishers of the Patriot. Their 
printing house was at the corner of Market square and North Main 
street. From this point Capt. Jones witnessed the carrying away of the 
bridge. The first vessel that dashed 
against it brought up, but the 
second one made a clean sweep 
through, and the bridge was gone. 

Barzillai Cranston was at work 
at the time of the gale in the office 
of the Rhode Island American, then 
located in the third story of the 
Old Coffee House, corner Market 
square and North Water street, 
(now Canal street.) About 10 
o'clock the hurricane drove in two 
or three of the windows, and the 
printers accepted that demonstra- 
tion as a notice to quit. 

The Providence Directory was 
first printed in 1824 by Brown & 
Danforth, (H. H. Brown and Walter 
R. Danforth); in 1826 by Carlile 
& Brown, (Francis Y. Carlile); in 
1828, '30, '32, '36, '38, '41, '44, '47, '50, 

'53 and thereafter annually until 1860 by H. H. Brown. June 1, 1860, 
Brown sold his interest in the Directory to Adams, Sampson & Co., of 
Boston, who have continued to publish it since. Some changes in the 
name of the firm have occurred. 

Providence has had several weekly newspapers that depended upon 
the revenue received from advertisements for their expenses, and were 
distributed free to the public. The most notable one was the General 
Advertiser, started in 1847 by Cornelius S. Jones, son of Josiah Jones. 
It had an existence of more than 40 years. 

Comparatively few books have been produced in Providence print- 
ing offices. The publications of the city and state governments have 




JOSIAH JONES 



206 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



been the most important and also the most profitable. Few of the 
periodicals issued have had either a healthy or extended existence. 
The following is an incomplete list of the latter : 



Liberty's Centinel. S. J. Williams. 1803. 
Rhode Island Farmer. Weekly. David 
Heaton and Benoni Williams. 1804-05. 
Providence Centinel and War Chronicle. 
Weekly. Herman B. and Daniel Man. 
121-.. 

Rhode Island Literary Repository. Month- 
ly. Isaac Bailey, editor. 1814. 
Juvenile Gazette. Origen Bachelor. Wil- 
liam H. Smith, successive editors. 1818. 
Rhode Island Register. H. H. Brown. 

1819. 

Religious Intelligencer. Weekly. James D. . 
Knowles, editor. May 13, 1820, to Nov. 
4, 1820. Barber Badger. May 26, 
1821-24. 

Rhode Island Baptist. Allen Brown. 1823. 
The Beacon. William S. Spear. 1823-26. 
The Ladies' Magazine. Monthly. 1823. 
Hopkinsian Magazine. Otis Thompson. 

1824-40. 

Christian Telescope. Rev. David Picker- 
ing. Jacob Frieze. 1824-29. (Univer- 
salist). 

Town and Country. 1825. (Temperance). 
The Ladies' Museum. Eaton W. Maxcy. 

1825. 

Religious Messenger. Weekly. Origen 
Bachelor. 1825. James N. Seaman. 
1826. William Goodell. 1827-28. 
Literary Museum. Eaton W. Maxcy. 1826. 
Literary Cadet and Saturday Evening Bul- 
letin. Weekly. Smith & Parmenter. 
1826. Semi-weekly. 1827-29. 
Free Will Baptist Magazine. Quarterly. 
Zalmon Tobey. 1826. Monthly. 1828-30. 
Anti-Universalist. Origen Bachelor. 1827. 
The Investigator and General Intelli- 
gencer. James B. Yerrington. 1827-28. 
Removed to Boston. 
Gospel Preacher. David Pickering. 1827. 

(Universalist.) 

Juvenile Gazette. Weekly. Oliver Ken- 
dall, Jr. 1828. 

The Toilet or Ladies' Cabinet of Litera- 
ture. Weekly. Owen G. Warren, Samuel 
M. Fowler, successive editors. 1828-29. 
The Original. Monthly. Frances H. Whip- 
pie, editor. 1829. 

Beacon Light. W. A. Brown. 1829. 
The Brunonian. Monthly during college 
year. 1829-31. Revived in 1868. Con- 
ducted by the undergraduates. 
The Little Genius. W. A. Brown. 1829. 
Literary Subaltern. Semi-weekly. S. S. 
Southworth, editor. William Marshall 
and John S. Hammond, printers. Jan. 
1, 1829. Weekly. June 30, 1829. J. W. 
D. Hall and Brown Simmons. Oct. 2, 
1829. Brown Simmons. Oct. 15, 1830-32. 
The Olla Podrida. John Bisbee. 1830. 
Juvenile Repository. Samuel S. Wilson. 

1830. 
Providence Free Press. Stearns & Whea- 

ton. 1830. (Anti-Masonic.) 
Chronicle of the Times. Semi-weekly. 
Bennett H. Wheeler. 1831. 



R. I. Journal and Sunday School and Bible 
Class Advocate. Rev. David Benedict. 
1831. 

R. I. Temperance Advocate. Fortnightly. 
Jos. A. Whitmarsh. 1833. 

Literary Journal and Weekly Register of 
Science and Fine Arts. Albert G. Greene, 
editor. 1833-34. 

City Gazette. Weekly. 1834. 

The Constitutionalist. 1834. (Suffrage 
extension). 

New England Family Visitor and Literary 
Journal. Weekly. Knowles & Bur- 
roughs, publishers. 1834. 

The Voice of the People. Mr. Doyle. 1834. 

The Pupil's Monitor. Fortnightly. Silas 
Weston. 1834. 

Free Will Baptist Quarterly. 1835-56. 
Removed to Dover, N. H. 

The Light. Joseph A. Whitmarsh. 1835. 

More Light. Jacob Frieze. 1835. 

The Penny Post. Weekly. Samuel S. 
Wilson. 1835. 

The Weekly Visitor. Samuel S. Wilson. 
1835. 

Rhode Island Temperance Herald. Week- 
ly. Charles Jewett, L. D. Johnson, Abel 
Stevens, successive editors. 1838-40. 

Providence Temperance Herald. 1838-39. 

The Cradle of Liberty. Monthly. 1839. 
(Anti-slavery.) 

John the Baptist. John Tillinghast, edi- 
tor. 1840-43. (Six Principle Baptist.) 

Gospel Messenger. Weekly. Zephaniah 
Baker, S. P. Landers, A. A. Davis, Har- 
vey Bacon and Dunbar B. Harris were 
at different times editors. 1840-43. 
(Universalist.) 

Gaspee Torchlight. Weekly. William R. 
Watson, editor. 1840. (Campaign 
paper Whig. ) 

The Extinguisher. Weekly. Jacob Frieze, 
editor. 1840. (Campaign paper Demo- 
crat. ) 

Cold Water Gazette. Wyllis Ames. 1840. 
(Temperance campaign paper.) 

The Samaritan. Samuel S. Ashley, Thomas 
Tew, editors. Weekly and later fort- 
nightly. 1841. 

Narragansett Chief. Weekly. Joseph M. 
Church. 1842. 

The Suffrage Examiner. 1841. (Anti- 
slavery. ) 

Christian Soldier. Fortnightly. J. Whit- 
temore, T. H. Bachelor, editors. 1842- 
43. (Free Will Baptist.) 

Independent Weekly. W. S. Sherman. 1844. 

Tribune -of the People. 1846. 

R. I. Temperance Pledge. Amsbury & 
Lincoln. 1847. 

The Day Star. 1849-50. 

Constellation. E. S. Hill, John Murphy, 
Henry L. Tillinghast. 1850. 

R. I. Educational Magazine. E. R. Potter, 

editor. 1852-54. 

Una. Monthly. Mrs. Paulina Wright. 
1853-54. In the interest of women. 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 



207 



R. I. Freeman. Dunbar B. Harris. 1854- 
57. (Anti-slavery.) 

The Schoolmaster. Monthly. Rev. Robert 
Allyn, editor. 1856. W. A. Mowry. 
editor. 1857-74. Thomas W. Bicknell, 
editor. 1874-75. Merged with N. E. 
Journal of Education. 

The Gleaner. 1855. High school students. 

Bangs' Trumpet. Weekly. N. Bangs 
Williams. 1857-58. 

High School Magazine. 1858. 

Providence Preacher. Monthly. Rev. 
Thomas Williams. 1858-59. 

Delphic Oracle. High school students. 1862. 

Voice of the Truth. Monthly. J. H. Lons- 
dale. 1864-73. (Religious.) 

The Bibliomanias. S. S. Rider. 1867. 

New World. Weekly. T. A. Carpenter. 
1869-71. 

R. I. Lantern. Weekly. 1870. 

Three Links. G. T. Bradley, John C. Kerr. 
1870. 

Temple of Honor. Monthly. Ferrin & 
Hammond. 1871-76. In the interest of 
temperance. 

New England Register. T. A. Carpenter. 
1871. In the interest of mill operatives, 
who were striving to obtain a 10-hour 
day. 

Freemasons' Repository. Weekly. Fer- 
rin & Hammond. 1871. Monthly. E. 
L. Freeman & Sons. 1882-1907. 

Ours Illustrated. Monthly. Webb Broth- 
ers & Co. 1872-73. 

Yours. Weekly. Trumpler & Burchfleld. 
1873. 

Living Christian. Weekly. D. Schindler, 
editor. 1873. 

Herald of the Centennial. Monthly. By 
Providence women in the interest of the 
Centennial Exhibition. 1875. 

Church Union. Edward E. Nickerson. 
1875. 

Town and Country. Weekly. S. B. Keach. 
1875-79. 

The Record. Weekly. Rev. W. G. Corn- 
stock. 1875. 

Weekly Visitor. (Catholic.) 1875. Dr. 
Michael T. Walsh, editor. 1876. Provi- 
dence Visitor. Incorporated 1881. Wil- 
liam F. Kennefick. manager. 1897. James 
I. Conway, manager. 1905-07. 

Weekly Visitor. 1876. Removed to Cen- 
tral Falls. 

Providence Anzeiger. F. Rueckert. 1876. 
Gustav Saacke. 1890-1997. 

Odd Fellows' Register. Reynolds & Mac- 
kinnon. 1877. 

The Jeweler. Monthly. W. J. Pettis. 1877. 

High School Budget. 1877. 

Deutscher Anseiger. Weekly. Karl Peter- 
man. 1878. 

Providence Times. Weekly. W. H. Goffe. 
1878. 

The Cosmopolitan. Weekly. 1878-79. 

The Parrott. Monthly. Porthouse, Carle- 
ton & Goffe. 1878. 

The Echo. 1879. 

Providence Herald. Weekly. Brown & 
Corbett (E. A.) 1879. A. D. Sawin. 
1887. Now Corbett's Herald. 

Confidential Reporter. Monthly. J. C. 
Gooding. 1880. 



Providence Indicator. Weekly. Claude 

DeHaven. 1881-88. 
The People. John F. Smith. 1881. 
2V. E. Anseiger. C. C. Hentzmann. 1881. 
Narragansett Historical Register. Monthly. 

James N. Arnold. 1882-1891. 
Household Magazine. Monthly. D. P. 

Buker, Jr. 1882-86. 
The Hypophet. Hiah school students. 

1882-83. 
R. I. Wochenblatt. Weekly. W. Alden- 

kircher. 1883. 
The Comet. 1883. 

Art Folio. J. A. & R. A. Reid. 1883. 
Book Notes. Sidney S. Rider. 1883-1907. 
The Manufacturing Jeweler. Monthly. Al- 
bert Ullman, John A. McCloy. 1883. 

Fortnightly. Walter B. Frost. 1884- 

90. Weekly. 1890-1907. 
Buker's Illustrated Monthly. D. P. Buker, 

Jr. 1884-94. 

The Rhode Islander. Weekly. 1884-94. 
The Helper. D. P. Buker. 1885. 
R. I. Citizen. Benj. F. Evans. 1884-85. 
The Outlook. Mary A. Babcock. 1885- 

1905. 
Missionary Helper. Mrs. M. M. Brewster. 

1885-86. 
Short Hand and Type Writing. Monthly. 

1885. 
R. I. Farmer. Weekly. F. E. Carbett. 

1886-87. 
Commercial Bulletin. Weekly. D. P. 

Buker, Jr. 1886-90. 
Black Board and Crayon. Quarterly. 1879- 

81. Sunday School Superintendent. 

Monthly. 1881. E. G. Taylor, editor. 

1879-87. Miss L. O. Ordway, editor. 

1887. 
The Times. Robert Grieve. 1887-88. 

(Railroad and steamboat guide.) 
The Paper. Weekly. Charles G. Wilkins, 

editor. 1888. 
Rhode Island Republican. E. A. Corbett. 

1887. 
Foresters' Repository. Fortnightly. F. N. 

Shaw. 1888. 
Beulah Items. Monthly. Rev. F. A. Hil- 

lery. 1888. Beulah Christian. 1892- 

1904. Weekly. 1905. 
Olneyville Times.. Weekly. Sibley & 

Johnson. 1888-93. Edward F. Sibley. 

1894-1907. 
R. I. Military Journal. Monthly. Cqle- 

man Wells. 1889. 
Independent Citizen. Weekly. John H. 

Larry, editor. 1889-98. 

Board of Trade Journal. Little & Bos- 
worth. 1889-93. Providence Journal of 

Commerce. J. D. Hall, Jr., George A. 

Wilson, Robert Grieve. 1893-98. Jour- 
nal of Commerce and Board of Trade 

Journal. 1899-1907. 
Rental Guide. Lake, Shibley & Co. 1888. 

B. S. Lake & Co. 1889-1907. 
Tiden. Weekly. Dr. J. F. Haller. 1889. 

William Hallender. 1891. (Swedish.) 
Brown Magazine. Monthly. 1890. Con- 
solidated with The Brunonian 1898. 
The Critic. Weekly. E. A. Risley & Co. 

1890. 
Providence Ledger. Weekly. J. D. Hall, 

Jr. 1890-91. 



208 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



R. I. Military Journal. 1890-94. 

The Watchman. Weekly. John Water- 
man. 1890. 

N. E. Torchlight. J. W. Henderson. 1890- 
1907. 

N. E. Wine Merchant and Brewers' Ga- 
zette. F. E. Corbett. 1890-92. 

Financial News. H. K. Stokes. 1890. 

Church Messenger. Monthly. . Miss Cora 
A. Wells, editor. 1891. (Y. P. S. C. E.) 

Pomona Herald. A. S. Fitz. 1891. (Ag- 
riculture.) 

Home Guard. Monthly. Mrs. E. T. 
Smith. 1891-1900. 

The World. Louis G. Phillips. 1891. 
(Daily and Sunday.) 

Brown Daily Herald. 1891-1907. Con- 
ducted by the undergraduates. 

About Town. Weekly. W. W. Spencer 
1892-93. 

R. I. Republican. Weekly. E. A. Cor- 
bett. 1892-1907. 

Roger Williams Herald. 1892. 

R. I. Anti-Cruelty Journal. Monthly. 
J. D. Hall, Jr. 1892. 

Courrier du Rhode Island. Weekly. J. B. 
de Vicq de Cumptich. 1892. (French.) 

Providence Allehander. Weekly. 1892. 

Framat. Weekly. M. Hulting & Co. 1893. 

Le Philanthrope. Monthly. 1893. (French.) 

The Church Bells. 1893. 

Greater Providence Magazine. P. W. 
Lovell. 1893. 

Olneyville Tribune. Weekly. David E. 
Parmenter. 1893-94. 

Atlantic Medical Weekly. Frederick T. 
Rogers. 1893-98. 

R. I. Medical Science. Monthly. 1893-95. 

Dimes and Dollars. Monthly. G. A. 
Millay. 1893. 

Providence Commercial Bulletin. J. D. 
Hall & Co. 1894. 

R. I. Israelite. Samuel Mason. 1894. 

Narragansett Observer. H. E. Lewis. 
1894. 

Jewelry Magazine. Monthly. W. F. Teft. 
1895. 

Folket's Rost. Weekly. John Charholm. 
1895-96. 

The Pointer. John H. Larry. 1895-97. 

German Evangelical Church Messenger. 
Monthly. Rev. F. B. Cunz. 1895-96. 

Faith and Works. Weekly. G G Fraser 
1896-1900. 

Weekly Messenger. C. E. Littlefield. 1896. 

L'Aurora Novella. Weekly. Collano & 
Evans. 1896. 

N. 'E. Brewers' and Liquor Dealers' Jour- 
nal. 1896. 

Nursing World. Monthly. Harry O. 
Brown, M. D. 1896. 

L'Eco Del Rhode Island. Weekly. Fred- 
erico Curzio. 1897. (Italian.) 



Skandinavia. Thorsten Berzelius. 1897. 

Arvid Janson. 1898. C. J. Ljangstrom. 
1900-07. 
Providence Triangle. Fortnightly. 1897- 

98. 
Jewelers' Herald. Weekly. Claflin & 

Angell. 1898-99. 
Manufacturers' Gazette. Albert Chaffee. 

1898. 
Club Life. Quarterly. A. A. Fraser. 

1898-1907. 
Providence Despatch. Weekly. E. A. 

Corbett. 1898-1907. 
Providence Herold. Weekly. W. Brend. 

1898-99. (German.) 
American Historical Register. 1899. 
Providence Weekly Guide. W. E. Clark. 

1899-1903. 
Brown Alumni Monthly. Henry R. 

Palmer, editor. 1900. 
R. /. Picket. Monthly. F. E. Carpenter, 

editor. 1900. (Sons of Veterans.) 
Providence Medical Journal. Quarterly. 

1900. 

Providence Watchman. Rev. W. S. Hol- 
land. 1900-03. (In the interest of col- 
ored people.) 
Svea. Weekly. Arvid Janson. 1900. 

John S. Osterberg. 1901. Aron Matt- 
son. 1902-07. 
New England Woodman. Monthly. M. M. 

Pierce. 1900-01. 
The Sepiad. Monthly. 1901. (Women 

students at Brown University.) Now a 

quarterly. 
Association Notes. Weekly. Alfred Ar- 

mitage. 1901-07. (Y. M. C. A.) 
Publicity. Monthly. 1902-03. 
R. I. Advertiser. Monthly. J. S. Grisin- 

ger. 1899-1906. F. R. Jelleff. 1907. 
La Liberia. Weekly. F. Moracci. 1902. 

Alfred Pisco. 1903-04. Vittorio Tala- 

mini. 1905-07. 
Providence Weekly Official Guide. 1904- 

07. 
Providence Anzeiger. Weekly. Dr. Felix 

Hamburger. 1904-07. 
The Bowler. Weekly. C. P. Shattuck. 

1905. 
Le Petit Journal. Weekly. J. S. Bowdon. 

1905. 

The State. Weekly. 1905-07. 
N. E. Automobile Journal. Fortnightly. 

1906-07. 

Standard Weekly. Louis Blumenthal. 1906. 
The Advance. 1907. 
Le Courrier. Weekly. 1907. 
Daily Trade Record. 1907. 
The Union Man's Reference Guide. J. S. 

Houle, editor. 1907. 
The Union Worker Magazine. Clarence 

Spooner. 1907. 
R. I. Label League Bulletin. P. L. Murtha, 

Charles H. Lee. 1907. 



REMINISCENT 

THE ORIGINAL NIGHT LUNCH MAN. 
Walter Scott. 

Walter Scott, newspaper pressman, veteran fireman and originator of the night 
lunch wagon business, was born in Cumberland, R. I., Nov. 28, 1841. The family re- 
moved to Providence when Walter was very young. At the age of eleven he left school 
to go to work, as his father had become blind. Scott peddled candy, fruit and news- 
papers, going into the jewelry and machine shops, foundries and printing offices. News 
was brought from Europe by ships in those days, and the Crimean war and Indian mutiny 
caused the newspapers to issue extras, which the boys would sell, crying three or five 
days later from Europe, as the case might be. Gradually Scott added little pies, sand- 
wiches and coffee to his bill of fare, until in 1858, the morning newspaper printers in- 
duced him to visit the composing rooms at midnight and serve lunch. 

He learned to run the printing presses, and all through the Civil War he was depended 
upon for work when some pressman was sick or extra work was to be done. He had been 
rejected by the army doctors because of defective eyesight. In the early days of the 
war an extra Journal, half -sheet, was issued four times a day, but when George W. Dan- 
ielson came to the paper, in 1863, the Evening Bulletin took its place. Scott worked on 
it more or less, and in July, 1863, had his left hand caught in the gear of the double 
cylinder press and badly mangled. The power was not on, but his assistant, Abel Head, 
threw the press off the centre when Scott had his hand in it, setting an ink roller. With 
presence of mind he calmly said, "Abe, turn that press back a little," so that Abe would 
not get rattled and turn the wrong way. When free, Scott walked around to where Dan- 
ielson was making up a "form," the blood spouting from the severed artery. The sight 
was too much for Danielson and he fainted. Scott would soon have fainted, too, but Fred 
Ryder, the mail clerk, grabbed his arm as hard as he could, pressed his thumbs on the 
broken artery, and stopped the bleeding as much as possible until a surgeon arrived. Al- 
though the wound took four months to heal, Scott was back at work in three days with 
one arm in a sling. 

At this time Scott was a member of hand engine Union 3, housed on Page street, 
and when that company was disbanded to put in a steamer, he joined Ocean 7, on Rich- 
mond street, remaining a member while that company existed. 

When important war news came on Sunday, Scott would arrange with Danielson to 
get out an extra at his own risk, paying a certain sum per hundred for the papers and 
doing the press work himself. He would then distribute them to the newsboys, some- 
times on shares, and when the city was supplied, he would hire a carriage and go through 
the towns of the Blackstone Valley. When Lee surrendered, he tried to sell a big edition 
and got stuck on 1400 copies. 

When the Morning Star was started Scott took a regular situation as pressman on 
it. At this time he was an active member of Providence Typographical Union, of which 
he is now an honorary member. He stopped working as a pressman when he bought his 
first lunch wagon. At the beginning he had not intended to sell from the wagon, but to 
use it to carry his baskets and coffee from place to ploce. After a while he would find a 
few persons waiting to get a lunch from him when he came out. Restaurants were not 
open after 8 p. m. at that time. Finally he found it most profitable to have his wagon (a 
covered express) stand in one place, with a boy to attend it while he visited other cus- 
tomers. It stood in front of the Barton block for 16 years, when the Journal occupied 
that building. Danielson usually left the office at 2 a. m. He preferred to ride to his 
home on Broadway in Scott's wagon than to walk or to take one of the night hacks, and 
for seven years, until within four weeks of his death, he rode home in Scott's lunch 
wagon. Danielson had great sympathy for his employes and knew them all intimately. 
But he was very much shocked at one time, when one whom he trusted greatly went on 
a spree and came to him with a story that his wife was dead and borrowed $50. Next 
day the wife came to the office in search of her husband. 

Night lunch wagons increased faster than the business warranted. The demand 
caused one firm in Worcester, Mass., to go into the business of building. A wagon that 
customers could go into was produced, and then the business spread all over the country. 
But the beginning was with Scott's old covered express wagon. 



210 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



THE BIRTH OF THE LINOTYPE. 
John Burger. 

In the year 1886 there was shipped from Baltimore to the office of the New York 
Tribune the first Mergenthaler linotype machine that was ever built. It was the inven- 
tion of Ottmar Mergenthaler, a watchmaker by trade and a mechanical genius of great 
ability. It had been on exhibition in Baltimore. The machine was different in construc- 
tion but not in principle from the linotype of to-day. It had a vertical single magazine, 
not interchangeable ; a mold which would cast but one size of body and up to 22 ems 

measure; only one-letter matrices, largest 
face 11 point, delivered by an air-blown at- 
tachment. The first 12 machines built were 
installed in the offices of the New York 
Tribune and Louisville Courier-Journal. 
These were followed by the manufacture 
of a second lot of 100, which were distri- 
buted between the Chicago Daily News, 
Washington Post, New York Tribune and 
Louisville Courier-Journal to the number 
of 65, leaving 35 on hand at the factory. 
Up to this point it certainly could not be 
claimed that the machine had proved either 
a pecuniary or practical success. But sev- 
eral of the larger stockholders were also 
influential newspaper proprietors and they 
were determined to fully test the labor-sav- 
ing device. It was at a time when the suc- 
cess of the machine looked very dubious 
that the management of the Providence 
Journal decided to install a battery. The 
shipping, setting up and initial operation 
was looked after by one of the stockholders 
of the Mergenthaler Company in person 
and no expense was spared in the effort to 
make a good showing. Up to this time all 
machines manufactured had been installed 
in offices of stockholders, and the Provi- 
dence Journal was the first disinterested 
newspaper to experiment with them. The 

first few months' operation of the machines in Providence was neither encouraging to 
the Mergenthaler Company nor satisfactory to the management of the Journal. It was 
realized that the discarding of the machines by the Journal, on account of impracti- 
cability, would mean at least temporary failure and heavy financial loss to the stock- 
holders. Changes were instituted in the Journal composing room with gratifying results, 
and in a short time the Providence Journal was credited with being the pioneer establish- 
ment to demonstrate the success of the Mergenthaler typesetting machine as a substitute 
for the old method of hand composition. From that time dates the now almost universal 
use of the Mergenthaler linotype machine, those now in operation being known as the 
second model, the first model being discarded. 

UNACCEPTABLE APPRECIATION. 
Joseph W. Belcher. 

A picturesque old printer who used to work occasionally for the R. I. Printing Co. 
was William Bittman. The last heard of him he was enjoying a pension, having been a 
soldier in the Civil War, and was spending his winters at Los Angeles, Cal., and his sum- 
mers at Denver, Col. Bittman would occasionally imbibe too much. On one of these 
occasions he was unable to work for several days, and the foreman, John A. Belcher, sent 
John E. Hurley (then apprentice) to Bittman's house to see what the matter was, as 
every man was needed to get out some hurried work. On his return, Hurley said he 
found the old man in bed and pretty sick from the effects of his intemperance. He tried, 
but ineffectually, to conceal the cause of his sickness. Then, dropping all reserve, he 
pleaded with Hurley to deceive the foreman, evidently feeling afraid he would lose his 
job if the truth were known. " Don't give me away, John," whined the old man. " Tell 
him a big lie, John ; you can do it ! " 




THE FIRST LINOTYPE 



THE BOOK AND JOB SECTION 211 

A WESTERNER'S VISIT IN 1885. 
Franklin Heimbach. 

I worked in Providence in the spring of 1885. Charles P. Stiles, Charley Ayres, Daniel 
Wilson and William A. Orahood (killed by cars) were there together. We all worked on 
the Evening Telegram. Its compositors were a fine lot of gentlemen case-holders. 
Richard J. Faulkner was chairman, and in handing out copy mornings, if the regular was 
not there when time was called, he would hand the "take" to the nearest "sub." This 
beat anything I had ever seen. If the regular came up the stairs at that moment, he was 
lost and had to go back again, and the chances are he would go right across the street to 
the old Englishman's and get himself a glass of ale to drown his bad luck. We were all 
Western printers, and it was some time before we could get used to drinking ale, with 
scarcely a six-point foam to it. 

They used to play policy there then, and have the numbers telegraphed from Louis- 
ville, Ky. Well, one morning we were in the old Englishman's retreat, and I suggested 
that three of us subs put in 10 cents apiece and each play the number of the " slug " he 
worked for the day previous, as we had all worked. I worked on 5, Stiles on 19 and a 
gentleman whose name I forget on 26. That evening we were all sitting in the afore- 
said Englishman's when another printer came and wanted to look at our ticket, saying 
that he thought we had won. He had been there in the morning and heard us making 
up the "gig." I had the ticket and hurried around to the policy shop (as we were about 
out of change then, ) and what do you think ? Our three numbers were in the first five 
numbers on the blackboard. We got a dollar for every cent invested, so I came back to 
the saloon with $30. The third party to the investment was asleep in a chair, and we 
could not wake him up. So we had several rounds of drinks immediately, and I told the 
old Englishman that the sleeper had won $5 (instead of $10), and when he woke up to 
give it to him. We had use for the money, and I did not see how a man asleep could 
appreciate more than $5, because he could not buy fast enough. 

WHEN BASEBALL WAS EPIDEMIC. 
John J. Dillon. 

In the very early 80's the press work for the Evening Telegram was done by E. A. 
Johnson & Co., while the type was set in an adjoining room. "Billy" Barbour was fore- 
man, about eight compositors were employed, and for furniture there was the regulation 
ink roller, a marble slab and the stands, cases and type. The noon hour in those days 
was not so short as it is at present in evening newspaper composing rooms, and Johnson's 
typos and those of the Telegram spent part of their nooning in playing ball in the com- 
posing room of E. A. Johnson & Co. The ball field was a space not more than 20 square 
feet in area, with the upright boiler of a Baxter engine at short stop, while the first base- 
man was perched on a stove, but a few feet away from the home plate. Almost every one 
had the baseball craze at that time, Providence was in the National League and its team 
was well up among the leaders. One would think that the old office sponge with the water 
squeezed out would have served for the ball ; but no, nothing less than a $1.25 league ball 
would do. The bat was a piece of gas pipe one inch in diameter and about 2 y 2 feet 
long. The players generally, with the exception of Jim Russell, were careful in batting 
and throwing the ball. It was not necessary, nor was it allowable, to bat the ball very hard. 
But when it was Jim's turn to bat, ye gods, he would lunge at the ball as if he were in a 
10-acre lot, notwithstanding the wild protestations of Johnson (who was as big a crank 
on baseball as the rest, forgetting his dinner in order to be in the game) to "for 
heaven's sake, Jim, bat light." Sometimes Jim would " bat light," but would soon forget 
and let loose again, and then biff, bang, the ball would go against the boiler or wall with 
everybody ducking. One day Jim had an unusual batting fever on. He swung at the 
ball, fouled, and the ball went bounding along the floor towards Weybosset street and out 
the window onto the street. It struck a pedestrian squarely on top of the head, and by 
the time the bewildered man became aware of how it happened, a number of heads were 
poked out of the windows, four stories above, and the voice of Jim rang out with, " Hey, 
mister, hold that ball until I come down." 

Business in Reids' was rather dull one summer, especially in the press room. Some, 
body had to be laid off in turn a day at a time. This was a duty Fred Vinal, the foreman- 
did not like. One day he went up to Bill M. and said : 

" Bill, have you a clam rake ? " 

" No, by gosh ! " says Bill, " but I can get one." 

"Well," says Vinal, "get it, take a day off to-morrow and go clamming." 



212 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



THE DOCTOR'S STORIES. 
E. B. Rose. 

On a Sunday when the Morning Herald was printed in the Aylesworth building on 
North Main street, on looking over his force, the Doctor (E. B. Rose), found that every 
regular had a "sub" on, and that every "sub" was drunk, except the "Big Injun" (James 
Ryan). The Roger Williams Hotel was located across the street, and was then a noted 
Sunday resort for those in search of liquid refreshments. Regulars were sent for and the 
"subs" were discharged. The latter immediately started to "frog" it out of town. Al- 
though sober, the anticipation of pleasures in store for the "subs" was too much for the 
"Injun," and about 5 in the afternoon he came to the Doctor and said: "I believe I will 
'frog' it, too, Doctor," and he quit, although it meant permanent disbarment from the 

office. In the evening some gentlemen who 
had been conducting a temperance meeting 
in East Greenwich came to the office with 
a two-column report of the meeting. The 
Doctor was exasperated with the day's ex- 
periences, and said to one of the temper- 
ance men, "Pretty thing to be going down 
to East Greenwich to talk temperance, when 
all my men have been made drunk in 
Providence." Inquiry led to a disclosure 
of conditions at the Roger Williams Hotel 
and thereafter printers were turned from 
its doors on the Sabbath. 

On another occasion when the Herald 
was printed in the same place there were 
two or three men off without "subs." 
Billy Barbour was one of the delinquents. 
He was reported as having lost part of a 
finger. About 10 o'clock Nelson Boyle came 
in on a friendly visit. He was then ticket 
agent for the Bristol Railroad and stationed 
at Fox Point. He had a funny story : "Billy 
Barbour and Tom Allen were having a great 
game of 'peek-a-boo' around the Phenix 
building." When he heard Doctor's side he 
wanted to take it back. It was too late. 
Barbour would have to find a new job. 
Boyle was induced to work the balance of 
the night, although he had $700 of the rail- 
road company's money in his pockets, and 
was in fear of being robbed. 

When the Herald was printed in the Crabb building, junction Peck and Dyer streets, 
Francis E. Kelly, now of Woonsocket, at one time held a "frame" there. One day there 
was a lot of profanity in the direction of Kelly's "frame" and Doctor went there to in- 
vestigate. "Doctor, I have been trying to read this copy for 15 minutes and I can't get 
started." It was copy written by Mr. Bowers, afterwards City Editor of the N. Y. Trib- 
une, and was very blind. Not a word could be deciphered. " Frank, put your coat on 
and take a walk around the block for 15 minutes, including something warm, and then 
come back," was Doctor's advice. It was followed. The copy was taken to Mr. Bowers, 
who fixed it so it could be read, and Frank set it when he got back from his walk. 

George W. Danielson had occasion to send a telegram. In the telegraph office it 
could not be read and was sent around the room until it reached the manager, Mr. Brad- 
ford. He failed to decipher it and sent it back to Danielson, with the comment, "that 
the writer should take a course at night school and study penmanship." When Danielson 
was told this he remaked: "There is a night school around the corner on North Main 
street where reading is taught." 




E. B. ROSE 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



CHARLES H. ABBOTT Born Salem, 
Mass., Nov. 2, 1867 ; learned printing- in 
Boston ; came to Providence in 1895 as 
foreman for Snow & Farnum, which posi- 
tion he now holds. 

JAMES ABBOTT Born Woburn, Mass., 
Sept. 12, 1866 ; learned printing- in Lynn, 
Mass. ; admitted by card to Providence 
Union October, 1889 ; since transferred to 
Pressmen's Union. 

ARUNAH SHEPHERDSON ABELL 
Founder of the Baltimore Sun, died April 
19, 1888, at Baltimore, in the 82d year of 
his age. His death was the result of 
gradual decay of the vital powers, due to 
advanced age, though he was confined to 
his room only two weeks during- his last 




ARUNAH SHEPHERDSON ABELL 



illness. Mr. Abell was born in Rehoboth, 
Mass., now East Providence, R. I., Aug. 
10, 1806. He received the elements of a 
plain education, and at the age of 14 
years began life as a clerk. He subse- 
quently learned the printing trade in the 
office of the Providence Patriot. He after- 
ward went to Boston, where he worked at 
his trade, and then to New York city, 
where he formed a business connection 
with William M. Swain and A. H. Sim- 
mons, both practical printers like him- 
self, with the view of establishing a daily 
newspaper. They entered into articles of 
agreement Feb. 29, 1836, and decided to 
start their business in Philadelphia. It 



was at first intended to call the new 
paper The Times, but on the suggestion of 
Mr. Abell the name of The Public Ledger 
was substituted. The first number of The 
Public Ledger appeared Friday, March 
25, 1836. When the success of this ven- 
ture seemed to be assured, Mr. Abell, 
with the assent of his partners, went to 
Baltimore, where on the 17th of May. 
1837, he founded The Sun, which was also 
successful from the start. Mr. Abell iden- 
tified himself with the conduct and man- 
agement of The Sun. He sold his interest 
in The Public Ledger in 1864, and four 
years later became the sole owner of The 
Sun. 

In the management of The Sun and 
carrying out its objects, he concentrated 
his personal ambitions. It was his life 
work the work in which he saw the 
fulfillment of the ideas which he had 
announced in the beginning as controlling 
its policy the furtherance of the com- 
mon good. No other occupation, dignity 
or honor had any attraction for him. 
During his long and honorable career in 
Baltimore he contributed greatly to the 
growth and beautifying of the city. He 
was an intelligent and earnest promoter 
of many important mechanical inventions 
by which the art of printing has been so 
much advanced and the field of news- 
paper enterprise widened. The Sun was 
printed on the first rotary printing 
machine, the invention of Hoe. Mr. Abell 
personally and in his paper took the lead 
in supporting and promoting that marvel 
of modern times, the electric telegraph. 
The first document of any length trans- 
mitted over the experimental telegraph 
line between Washington and Baltimore 
was the President's Message, which was 
telegraphed to and published in The Sun 
with an accuracy that established all the 
claims which had been made for the 
wonderful invention of Morse. 

Mr. Abell married in 1838 Mary, the 
daughter of John Fox. of Peekskill, N. Y. 
Mrs. Abell died in 1859, leaving a large 
family of children. On May 17. 1887. 
when he celebrated the semi-centennial 
of The Sun, he associated his sons 
Edwin F. Abell, George W. Abell and 
Walter R. Abell with himself as co- 
partners. 

The sons are now all dead. Edwin F.. 
the eldest, died a few days after the great 
fire which destroyed The Sun's iron build- 
ing, which was the first iron building- 
erected in the world. 

Arunah S. Abell left an estate valued 
at many millions. He was buried in 
Greenmount Cemetery, Baltimore, April 
21. 1888. 

The Sun is now conducted by his grand- 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



sons, Walter W. Abell, Arunah S. Abell 
and Charles S. Abell. 

The Abell family is mentioned in Reho- 
both (Mass.) history as early as 1654, 
when Robert Abell kept an "ordinary" in 
that town. Capt. Robert Abell, grand- 
father of A. S. Abell, was a Revolution- 
ary soldier, and the latter's father, Capt. 
Caleb Abell, was in the War of 1812. 
The Captain was elected Town Clerk of 
Rehoboth in 1801, and held the office 
until 1812, when the town of Seekonk was 
set off from Rehoboth, and he fell within 
the limits of the former place. Seekonk 
continued him in the office until his death, 
and his son, Thompson, followed him in 
the position. The old Abell homestead is 
located in East Providence Centre. The 
Abell burial lot is in tue old Rumford 
Cemetery. 

Mr. Abell was always a friend of the 
Typographical Union ; and from the time 
of the first issue of The Sun to the day 
of his death, no non-union printer was 
ever employed in either the composing 
room of the paper or the job office oper- 
ated in connection with it. His successors 
have followed his example and the Bal- 
timore Sun is the oldest continuous em- 
ployer of union printers in the United 
States. 

Baltimore Typographical Union was 
organized in 1831. One of the old-timers 
tells of an interview which he had with 
Mr. Abell while the Civil War was raging 
in regard to an increase in the rate 
for composition. The Sun was inclined to 
favor the South, and its columns were 
closely scrutinized daily by the military 
authorities of the United States Govern- 
ment for some evidences of treason, and 
the proprietor was frequently threatened 
with suppression. It appears that the 
committeeman from the Union entered the 
sanctum just as the Provost Marshal took 
his departure. The committeeman made 
known his business at once, and Mr. 
Abell replied : "Between the Provost 
Marshal and the Baltimore Typographi- 
cal Union it is hard to tell who does own 
the Sun. However, you may tell the men 
up-stairs to go to work at the advanced 
rate and A. S. Abell will see that they 
are paid off on Saturday." 

Mr. Abell never refused to pay an ad- 
vance in the scale of wages established 
by the Typographical Union nor made a 
request for a reduction in wages. 

WILLIAM ABELL Born Huntington 
county, N. J., Nov. 12, 1836; learned 
printing at Flemington, N. J., beginning 
in 1851 ; came to Providence June 1, 1870, 
first working for A. Crawford Greene and 
later on the Journal, and losing his situa- 
tion by the strike of 1875. In October, 
1876, he became foreman of the Taunton 
Gazette, holding the position until May, 
1878. He then returned to Providence 
and was foreman of the Rhode Island 
Democrat and of the Mail, and worked 
on the Press and for eight years on the 



Weekly Visitor. Before coming to Provi- 
dence he published a weekly paper in 
Clinton, N. J., 1858-1862, and in Hack- 
ettstown, N. J., 1862-1867. He also pub- 
lished a weekly paper in East Providence 
for a short time in 1903. Mr. Abell joined 
Providence Union by card Dec. 9, 1871. 
He was financial secretary in 1874, and 
again from 1895 to 1903, and in 1905 until 
Nov. 26 of that year; delegate in 1898; 
President in 1894. He is a resident of 
this city and active in union work. 

JOSEPH Z. A. ADAM Learned print- 
ing in Manchester, N. H. ; initiated into 
Providence Union April 29, 1900 ; has 
worked in Woonsocket and Pawtucket. 

ROBERT A. ADAMS Born St. Bos- 
wells, Roxburghshire, Scotland, November, 
1870 ; served apprenticeship of seven 
years at Hawick, Roxburghshire, Scot- 
land, beginning August, 1883; initiated 
into Scottish Typographical Association 
March, 1890; admitted to Providence 
Union October, 1906, and has worked in 
this city since. 

SAMUEL ADAMS Died New York 
city, Oct. 17, 1841, the victim of a sensa- 
tional murder. He was born in Providence 
about 1811, learned printing here in the 
office of Smith & Parmenter, and at the 
time of the murder was in business in 
New York city as a book publisher. In 
attempting to collect a debt from John 
C. Colt, the latter killed Adams. Colt was 
convicted of the crime and sentenced to 
be hanged, but committed suicide a short 
time before the hour appointed for execu- 
tion. 

JOSHUA ADDY Born England, May 
9, 1863 ; learned printing at Knight & 
Howland's, New Bedford, Mass., begin- 
ning in 1880; initiated into Providence 
Union Jan. 25, 1885, and worked here 
until 1890; at present located in New 
Bedford. 

EDWIN ADYE Printer, died Warwick, 
R. I., Oct. 2, 1817, aged 22 years. Provi- 
dence Patriot. 

BENJAMIN T. ALBRO Born Provi- 
dence May 23, 1812; died South Scituate 
Nov. 30, 1873. His ancestors owned a 
farm on what is now called Federal Hill, 
He learned the printing trade. In 1836 
Mr. Albro lived on Atwell's avenue ; in 
1840 he was in business for himself at 
No. 9 Market square, from which office 
the first number of the Dorrite paper, the 
New Age and Constitutional Advocate, was 
issued; in 1844 his office was at No. 2 
Canal street; and from 1847 to 1850 at 
No. 5 Canal street, on the present site of 
the Central Hotel. It was while he was at 
this latter stand that he had as a "devil" 
a lad who later became one of the best 
known* printers and newspaper men in 
the city, Henry B. Ladd, the famous 
"Pica." In 1857 he engaged in the boot 
and shoe business at No. 119 North Main 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



street, and after the Civil War he re- 
moved to South Scituate, where he owned 
a farm adjoining the . large Thomas W. 
Field estate. Hare he was killed by being 
thrown from his wagon by the sudden 
starting up of a vicious horse he was driv- 
ing. He was buried in the North Burial 
Ground, Providence. 

ELI ALFORD Born Manchester, Eng- 
land, Nov. 21, 1870 ; learned printing at 
office of George Falkner & Sons of that 
place, beginning in 1884 ; worked in sev- 
eral printing offices in Manchester and 
other places in England ; deposited travel- 
ling card with Providence Union 1896, and 
has worked in Providence at Snow & 
Farnham's, Remington Printing Co., Jour- 
nal of Commerce, E. A. Johnson, J. C. 
Hall and Providence News ; has also 
worked in Boston ; at present employed in 
the "make-up" department of the Evening 
Bulletin. Elected recording secretary of 
No. 33 for the years 1904, '05, '06 and '07 ; 
I. T. U. delegate in 1906 ; N. E. A. P. T. 
delegate 1901. 

F. L. ALLEN Born 1879 ; learned 
printing in Providence and was initiated 
into No. 33 May 27, 1900. 

JOHN W. ALLEN Born Lewiston, Me., 
March 12, 1866 ; learned printing at Port- 
land, Me., beginning in 1878; admitted to 
Providence Union by card at July meet- 
ing, 1905 ; participated in the effort for 
eight-hour day in 1906 ; now night ad man 
on Journal. 

ISRAEL AMSBURY Died Feb. 15, 
1887, in his 73d year, in Poland, N. Y., 
where he had resided for the last three or 
four years of his life. He had occupied 
a very prominent part in the printing 
trade of Providence, beginning in 1842 as 
partner in the firm of Church & Amsbury, 
publishers of the Evening Chronicle ; in 
1844 he was interested in the publication 
of the Daily Transcript; in 1847 member 
of the firm of Amsbury & Lincoln, which 
published the R. I. Temperance Pledge ; 
in 1853 partner in firm of Greene, Ams- 
bury & Co., publishers of the Daily Trib- 
une ; in 1855 he worked at 24 Westmin- 
ster street; in 1856 and 1857 was foreman 
of the Tribune, and for about 20 years 
before he retired from business was fore- 
man of the book and job office of Hiram 
H. Thomas & Co., afterward the Provi- 
dence Press Co. He was secretary of the 
first organization of printers in this city 
in 1854 ; initiated into Providence Union 
Sept. 8, 1860 ; vice president in 1860 and 
1861 ; President and also delegate in 1862. 

WILLIAM N. AMSBURY Died Provi- 
dence Aug. 10, 1849, in his 45th year. In 
1844 he was employed at the Transcript 
office. 

FREDERICK B. AMSDEN Born Chico- 
pee, Mass., Jan. 31, 1850; learned printing 
in book room of Springfield Republican, 
beginning 1866; worked at Knoxville, 



Tenn., Chicago, 111., Adrian, Mich., Toledo, 
O., Boston, Mass. ; on Providence Journal 
for about 18 years; became a member of 
Providence Union by card Jan. 10, 1874 ; 
was initiated into the reorganized Union 
Feb. 28, 1886 ; at present employed at 
Franklin Press. 

LAWRENCE ANDERSON Born Jul- 
land, Denmark, Aug. 11, 1885 ; came to the 
United States in 1890 ; learned printing at 
J. C. Hall's and Perry Printing Co., be- 
ginning in 1901 ; came out of the Perry 
Printing Co. in the eight-hour strike and 
was initiated into Providence Union in 
January, 1906. 

LINDSAY ANDERSON Born Glasgow, 
Scotland, Dec. 19, 1839 ; learned printing 
in office of Paterson (N. J. ) Guardian, 
beginning in 1854 ; came to Providence in 
1859 and worked for Hammond & Angell 
and at Greene's on the Pendulum until he 
enlisted in the Civil War ; after the war he 
returned to printing at Greene's, but in 
1865 went into the restaurant business and 
for more than thirty years conducted one 
of the best restaurants in the city. 

CHARLES E. ANDREWS Admitted to 
Providence Union by card Feb. 27, 1884 ; 
worked on Journal until 1889, when he 
went to Boston, where he is at present 
employed on the Transcript. 

ALBERT N. ANGELL Born Olney- 
ville, then known as "The Hollow," Dec. 
21, 1822 ; died Providence April 17, 1901. 
He began to learn printing in the Journal 
job office April 3, 1839, and finished his 
apprenticeship in the newspaper office, 
where he continued to work 29 years; he 
had been gradually purchasing shares in 
the Journal job office until in 1868 he was 
sole proprietor, when he assumed the man- 
agement of that office and continued in 
that position until 1887. He then sold the 
job office and returned to work at the 
case. He was treasurer of the first print- 
ers' society known to exist in this city, in 
1854. 

EDWARD T. ANGELL This is his own 
story as told to a Journal reporter Sept. 
3, 1906, the 40th anniversary of his begin- 
ning work on the paper : 

"The 26th of next March I will be 67, 
and I have lived all the time in this 
State. I went to school in this city and in 
the country to the Scituate Seminary, a 
boarding school. 

"When I was 18 I started in to learn 
the printing trade, and began at the Jour- 
nal job office on Washington row. After 
serving my time I went to Newport and 
then came back to this city and worked 
on the Post. Next I tried the New Eng- 
land Diadem, a weekly temperance paper. 
I set type in B. N. Sherman's office in 
Pawtucket, on the Morning Mirror in this 
city, the Kent County Atlas and the Provi- 
dence Tribune. 

"About the time I first began the trade 



IV 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



I joined the fire department, almost as 
soon as it was started. I used to run 
with the boys and stayed with them until 
pay was received for services, when I left, 
as that was the time when I came on the 
Journal and I couldn't attend to it. 

"The first piece of work the foreman of 
the Journal gave me was an article from 
the London Times. It was about the great 
race for the America's cup. (This was in 
1852, whan he subbed for a regular.) It 
was nearly a column in length and I got 
it all. In those days the man at the case 
set the entire article, big or little, just 
as it happened to run. If he needed as- 
sistance, whan some of the other men 
were through with their work they would 
set some of the last end of the copy for 
him." 

Sept. 3, 1896, the employes in the Jour- 
nal composing room presented Ned with a 
large and handsomely decorated meer- 
schaum pipe, with a yard or more of plug 
tobacco. Everybody gathered about the 
old man as he curiously looked around on 
the circle of his fellow workers. This 
speech was read by one of the men : 

"In view of the fact that you have been 
employed on the Journal for a period of 
two score years, and to commemorate the 
occasion, your fellow employes have dele- 
gated me to present to you on their behalf 
this beautiful meerschaum pipe, with the 
hope that the only smoking you do will be 
done in this world. We also hope that you 
will be very careful of it, as the best 
medical authorities, including Drs. Rose 
and Eddy, say that 'hitting the pipe' is 
very injurious to the health. In conclusion 
we wish you many years of happiness." 

Ned was initiated into Providence Union 
Dec. 9, 1891. He died June 26, 1902, in 
his 73d year. Interment was at the North 
Burial Ground. 

JOHN W. ANGELL Born Smithfield, 
R. I., Sept. 17, 1823; died Central Falls 
April 7, 1890 ; learned printing in the office 
of Wheeler, Jones & Co., Providence, and 
worked in this city at the Journal job 
office until 1863, when he went to Central 
Falls, with E. L. Freeman, remaining with 
Mr. Freeman until his death. The latter 
wrote of Mr. Angell as follows : "John W. 
Angell was as good an all-round job printer 
as I ever met with and as likely a man as 
ever walked." 

B. E. APPLEBEE Died Hartford, 
Conn., March 12, 1897. He was admitted 
to Providence Union by card at the July 
meeting, 1887. 

GEORGE ARENSBERG Born Pitts- 
burg, Pa., and in his early boyhood earned 
his living as a newsboy. He learned print- 
ing on the Dispatch and at the age of 
fifteen he made application for member- 
ship in Pittsburg Union and was rejected 
on account of his youth. A year later he 
was admitted and soon after began his 
travels. His first stopping place was New 
Orleans, where the Union would not admit 



him, deeming him illegally a member by 
reason of his youthful appearance. Failing 
to get employment, he worked his passage 
to Memphis as a cabin boy, where he 
obtained employment on the Bulletin. He 
next turned up in Louisville, where he 
remained 18 months. He returned to his 
native city and worked on the Commer- 
cial, and afterward on The Paper until 
the latter suspended publication. In Wash- 
ington, D. C., we find him next working 
on the Patriot until its suspension. He 
went to New York in 1869, where he ob- 
tained a situation on the New York Times. 
He had at this time secured a widespread 
notoriety for fast typesetting, and Mr. 
George Howe, at that time employed on 
the Times, soon after his arrival chris- 
tened him "The Velocipede," and he was 
never afterward able to part company with 
the title. While employed on the Times 
he set the match against time which made 
him famous 2064 ems in one hour. 

From New York he went to Philadel- 
phia ; then he returned to Pittsburg. He 
then visited Cleveland, Toledo and Cin- 
cinnati. He held a situation as copy-cutter 
on the Cincinnati Enquirer and was one of 
that office's "Big Ten" who challenged any 
number of printers from one to ten from 
any office in the United States to a match 
at typesetting. From Cincinnati he went 
to Louisville and Chicago, thence to Cin- 
cinnati again. He then took an extended 
tour through the East, visiting all the 
principal cities and towns, receiving flat- 
tering notices of typesetting ability. 

He visited Providence in 1882 and also 
in 1884. Aug. 27 of the latter year he 
deposited his card with Providence Union ; 
returned to New York city in 1885, where 
he worked on the Times and resided until 
the time of his death, which occurred at 
Bellevue Hospital, New York city, on 
Wednesday, July 28, 1888. 

His best public records are as follows : 
New York Times office, Feb. 19, 1870, 2064 
ems, minion, 17 ems to lower case alpha- 
bet, 23 2-3 ems to line (allowed to count 
24), break line to each stick, not empty- 
ing sticks. New York Sun office, a few 
weeks later, 1800 ems minion, very lean, 
in 59 minutes 30 seconds. Philadelphia, 
March 27, 1870, time 1 hour, type nonpa- 
reil, 15 ems to lower case alphabet, meas- 
ure 36 ems wide, five break lines, equalling 
two full lines of blank; 49 lines by 36 
ems, 1764 ems. Philadelphia, May 10, 
1871, he won the solid silver stick offered 
by R. S. Menamin in the international 
contest, setting in one hour 1822 ems of 
solid nonpareil, 16 ems to lower case al- 
phabet, 27 ems measure. 

HENRY A. ARMINGTON Died Provi- 
dence June 18, 1895 ; learned printing in 
the office of the Rumford Chemical Works, 
beginning in 1868, and worked there until 
his death. 

ARTHUR ARMSTRONG Born Salem, 
N. J., Dec. 27, 1870; learned printing in 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



office of National Standard, Salem, N. J., 
came to Providence 1893; joined No. 33 
Feb. 24, 1901 ; now on Tribune. 

FRANK W. ARMSTRONG Born Provi- 
dence Aug. 22, 1869 ; learned printing in 
office of the Providence Press and worked 
in this city from 1889 to 1894; now 
located in New York city. 

JOHN W. ARMSTRONG Born Wheel- 
ing, W. Va., Aug. 12, 1852 ; learned print- 
ing on Wheeling Intelligencer, beginning 
in 1868; admitted to Providence Union by 
card January, 1887 ; has left printing and 
is now a member of the International 
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, lo- 
cated in New York city. 

ALVIN S. ARNOLD Died Providence 
Dec. 30, 1862, in his 62d ysar ; he began 
work on the Journal in September, 1848, 
and continued in that office for a number 
of years. 

ALVIN S. ARNOLD, JR. Died Provi- 
dence Nov. 3, 1865, in his 38th year; he 
learned printing on the Republican Her- 
ald ; initiated into Providence Union Aug. 
8, 1857 ; had worked on the Journal for a 
score of years before his death. His father 
was Alvin S. Arnold, also a printer. 

GEORGE O. ARNOLD Died Provi- 
dence Oct. 29, 1885, aged 64 years; his 
name appears in the 1850 Directory as a 
printer, and until 1856, when he kept a 
periodical depot at 178 North Main street. 

GEORGE TAFT ARNOLD Died Provi- 
dence March 8, 1874, aged 49 years; h3 
began work on the Journal in August, 
1846, and continued there, with occasional 
absences, until his death. He was a chas- 
ter member of Providence Typographical 
Union in 1857. 

LEWIS L. M. ARNOLD (Deacon) 
Born Providence in March, 1833 ; began 
to learn printing in the office of the Daily 
Post, but left to go to sea. After spending 
several years In the coasting trade he 
returned to printing, working in the job 
office of Henry Tillinghast, on Market 
square, and also on the Norwich Bulletin. 
He served in the Navy during the Civil 
War ; was a petty officer on the Hartford 
when that vessel was Farragut's flagship, 
and was in her during the passage of 
Forts Jackson and St. Philip on the Mis- 
sissippi, below New Orleans. He returned 
to printing again in 1864 in the Journal 
composing room, remaining there the bal- 
ance of his life. The sobriquet of '"Dea- 
con," by which he was known to hundreds 
of the craft, was given to him by George 
T. Arnold for the quiet, sober way in 
which he went about his duties. In emer- 
gencies he often acted as foreman of the 
Journal. He was initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Feb. 11, 1871. He died at the 
Rhode Island Hospital Jan. 12, 1885, in 
the Henry B. Anthony free bad. 



CHARLES L. F. ATKINSON Born 
Newport, R. L, Jan. 15, 1833; learned 
printing with James Atkinson in that city ; 
worked in Providence in 1869 ; died in 
Newport Feb. 7, 1892. 

JAMES H. ATKINSON Died at the 
R. I. Hospital Sept. 22, 1904, aged 78 
years. He was the oldest son of Hon. 
James Atkinson, for several years Mayor, 
and at one time Postmaster of Newport. 
On his mother's side he was related to 
Gov. Wanton, and was a cousin of Mrs. 
Sarah Helen Whitman, the poetess. He 
was a lineal descendant of Gov. Walter 
Clarke of Newport, who held office in 
1676. At one time his father was pub- 
lisher of the Newport Advertiser. The 
first record of him as a printer in this city 
is in the 1850 Directory, and since that 
year hs worked in the book and job offices 
here until a few years before his death. 
He was initiated into Providence Union 
Sept. 11, 1869. 

JOHN B. ATKINSON Born Newport, 
R. I., Feb. 27, 1831 ; learned printing in 
that city with his father, James Atkinson, 
beginning in 1847 ; worked on the Daily 
Post in Providence in 1850; died in 
Lowell, Mass., June 10, 1852. James 
Atkinson, father of James H., John B. and 
Oliver M., was a famous Newport printer. 

OLIVER M. ATKINSON Born New- 
port, R. L, July 28, 1838; learned printing 
in his father's (James Atkinson) office in 
that city, beginning in 1847 ; initiated into 
Providence Union March 11, 1865 ; died in 
Newport June 2, 1880. 

VOLNEY AUSTIN Born England in 
1840 and died in Pawtucket Dec. 15, 1875, 
aged 34 years, 4 months and 5 days. 
With his parents he came to this country 
in 1848. They settled in Woonsocket, 
R. I., where the elder Austin found em- 
ployment as a weaver. In 1851, when 11% 
years old, Volney was apprenticed to Mr. 
Foss, publisher of the Woonsocket Patriot. 
Volney continued in the Patriot office 
about five years and then came to Provi- 
dence. He was initiated into No. 33 April 
18, 1857, and his name appears on the 
Journal pay roll for the first time May 
1, 1858. He represented Providence Union 
in the Montreal convention of 1873 and 
took a prominent part in its proceedings. 
For a number of years he collected com- 
mercial news for ths Evening Press and 
also "set" it, besides editing the telegraph 
copy. 

SAMUEL AVERY (of Boston, Mass.) 
Was foreman of Miller & Hutchens' print- 
ing office when the Manufacturers and 
Farmers Journal was started in 1820. A 
letter from Charles H. Phinney (May 15, 
1905) says: "On Aug. 2, 1805, 'The 
Society of Printers of Boston and Vicin- 
ity' was formed, and three years later, in 
April, 1808, the name was changed to 
'Faustus Society.' Samuel Avery's name 



VI 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



appears as a signer of the constitution. 
* * * Joseph T. Buckingham, a well- 
known biographer of early Boston master 
printers, mentioned him as alive in 1859." 

JOHN AYLESWORTH Died Providence 
April 9, 1861, in his 78th year. From 1830 
to 1836, according to the Directory, he was 
a printer. 

CHARLES E. AYRES Born Dayton, 
O., Aug. 19, 1853 ; learned printing in 
office of Cincinnati Gazette ; joined Typo- 
graphical Union in 1874 at Indianapolis, 
Ind. ; deposited a card in Providence Union 
jJec. 27, 1885 ; worked in Providence on 
the Telegram, Star, Sunday Dispatch and 
The Paper ; at present located in Worces- 
ter, Mass. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Dates Named: 

JAMES ALLEN, April 13, 1861 (The 
Aeronaut). 

THOMAS ALLEN, March 11, 1865. 

THOMAS E. ASH, March 13, 1869. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named: 
GEORGE ADAMSON, May 29, 1904. 
W. R. ANDERSON, June 30, 1901. 
JOHN L. AHERNS, August, 1888. 
A. C. ALGER, May 31, 1891. 
ALFRED ARCHER, Dec. 18, 1892. 
GEORGE ARMITAGE, Feb. 24, 1901. 
FRANK ARNOLD, Feb. 27, 1884. 
F. S. ARTHUR, December, 1884. 
JOHN ATZBACK, August, 1888. 

CHARLES W. BABCOCK Applied for 
membership in New Bedford Union Feb- 
ruary, 1898; had worked in Providence 
and Boston. 

JAMES G. BACON Born Foxboro, 
Mass., Nov. 21, 1846; began to learn 
printing in Foxboro in 1863 ; initiated 
into Providence Union March 9, 1867 ; 
worked in this city 1866-67 and 1872-76 
on the Journal and in book and job 
offices ; President of Hartford Union 
three years ; delegate to Washington in 
1903, and has held many other positions 
in that Union ; at present located in 
Hartford. 

BARBOUR BADGER Worked in this 
city in 1819; May 30, 1821, he started 
The Religious Intelligencer and had it 
printed at the American office. In 1824 
he lived in Boston, Mass. 

A. C. BALLOU Born Burrillville, 
R. I., April 10, 1876 ; began to learn 
printing at Pascoag, R. I., in 1891 ; 
worked in New York and Providence. 

BELLE J. BALLOU Born Norton, 

Mass., June 1, 1852; learned printing at 
Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
worked in Providence from 1872 to 1892 
on the Herald, Press and in some of the 
book offices ; initiated into No. 33 Jan. 
31, 1886; is sister of Emily J. (Ballou) 
Pilling; at present (1904) with Ginn & 
Co., East Cambridge, Mass. 



EMILY J. PILLING, nee BALLOU 
Born Norton, Mass., Sept. 27, 1854 ; 
learned printing at Riverside Press, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. ; worked in Providence 
from 1872 to 1892 on the Herald, Press 
and in some of the job offices ; initiated 
into No. 33 Jan. 31, 1886; at present 
(1904) employed in a job office in Brock- 
ton, Mass. 

WRIGHT BARBER Born Ashton- 
under-Lyne, England, Sept. 22, 1868 ; 
learned printing in his native town in the 
Reporter office, beginning in 1882, serv- 
ing seven years. He came to the United 
States in 1900, depositing a card in 
Providence Union at the November meet- 
ing of that year ; participated in the 
effort for eight hours in 1906 ; now 
located in Boston. 

FRANK A. BARBOUR (Son of Wil- 
liam H. Barbour) ; born Providence Nov. 
21, 1861 ; learned printing at What Cheer 
Print, beginning in 1876 ; initiated into 
Providence Union Nov. 28, 1883, and 
worked in this city until 1893, when he 
removed to Boston, where he is at pres- 
ent located. 

WILLIAM H. BARBOUR Born near 
St. Clairsville, Belmont county, Ohio, 
April 1, 1836 ; learned printing in Ohio, 
coming to Providence in 1855 ; was a 
charter member of Providence Union in 
1857, delegate to Philadelphia in 1865, 
and held many offices in No. 33 up to 
1878, when the charter was surrendered. 
In 1864, when Ben C. Truman was Pro- 
vost Marshal of Nashville, Tenn., after 
the Confederates had evacuated the city, 
he sent for Mr. Barbour to take the fore- 
manship of a newspaper that was issued 
from the remains of two Nashville news- 
paper offices ; Mr. Barbour accepted the 
position, but soon returned to this city. 
In 1873 he was foreman of the Journal. 
His card was received in the reorganized 
Providence Union July 1, 1883. He died 
in January, 1892. 

JOSEPH C. BARKER Born Halifax, 
N. S., May 4, 1851 ; learned printing on 
British Colonist in that city, beginning in 
1863 ; initiated into Hartford Typographi- 
cal Union in 1869 ; member of Providence 
Union in 1883 and later; worked on Jour- 
nal and Star ; was proofreader on Tribune 
in 1906, but has since left the city. 

ANDREW J. BARNES. JR. Born at 
Rockport, Mass., April 17, 1874 ; learned 
printing in New Haven, Conn. ; worked 
in Providence in 1899 on the Telegram; 
in 1904 was living in Hartford, Conn. 

H. CORNELIUS BARNES Born Provi- 
dence Feb. 8, 1864 ; learned trade at office 
of Providence Press, beginning in 1880; 
worked as compositor on Press, Mail, 
Telegram, Bulletin ; as operator on Tele- 
gram and office of Snow & Farnham ; at 
present employed on Bulletin in the "ad" 
department ; became a member of Provi- 
dence Union May 30, 1886. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



VII 



HENRY A. BARNES Died Providence 
May 28, 1903. He was a native of 
Southington, Conn., and first came to this 
city in July, 1862, working in the Journal 
job office. He left shortly after to work 
in New London and Norwich, Conn., re- 
turning here in May, 1863. Hearing of 
opportunity for work in New York in 
1864 he went there, but found a strike in 
progress on the Times, and came back 
to Providence the next day. He began 
work in the composing room of the Jour- 
nal, later going to the Evening Press, of 
which paper he became foreman in 1871, 
holding that position until 1876, when he 
took the commercial "sit." When the 
Press died he worked for a short time on 
the Mail, and Jan. 8, 1885, accepted the 
position of Instructor in Printing at the 
Sockanosset School for Boys, holding it 
until he died. Under his administration 
the Howard Times was started as an 
institution paper. Mr. Barnes was initi- 
ated into Providence Union Nov. 14, 1863, 
its secretary from 1865 to 1870, and dele- 
gate to I. T. U. in 1871. Before coming 
to Providence he travelled extensively on 
the Pacific Coast, going as far south as 
Valparaiso, where he worked at his trade. 
Mr. Barnes was a private in Company D, 
Sixth N. Y. Cavalry, from August, 1861, 
to June 28, 1862, when he was honorably 
discharged for disability. He was a mem- 
ber of What Cheer Lodge, No. 21, A. F. 
and A. M. ; of Providence Chapter, Order 
of the Eastern Star ; of Roger Williams 
Lodge, I. O. O. F., and of Rachel Lodge, 
Daughters of Rebekah. Mrs. Barnes, his 
wife, fed to the press the first Evening 
Bulletin, printed Jan. 26, 1863, through 
the pressure of war news. 

SIMEON E. BARNES Died Provi- 
dence May 26, 1903. He had worked for 
the R. I. Printing Co. as a compositor. 

WILLIAM C. BARNES Born London, 
Can., March 24, 1844 ; learned printing 
on the Tilsonburg (Ont. ) Observer and 
the Woodstock (Ont.) Sentinel; in the 
summer of 1883 he worked in this city on 
the Journal ; his reputation as a fast 
compositor was national. He took first 
prize in local trials of speed at Hartford, 
Conn., and Montreal, Can. On Sept. 10, 
1885, in the office of the New York Times, 
for a money wager, he set 2001 ems in 
55m. 30s., and 2160 ems in one hour, 
which stands as his best record. He won 
the first prize in the Chicago tournament 
held in 1886. In this contest Barnes's 
best gross time was 3011 ems in 1% 
hours; best time (after deduction for 
time consumed in correcting), 2954% ems 
in iy 2 hours. Total for 21 hours, gross, 
40,675; time correcting, 58 minutes; 
total net, 21 hours, 39, 225 14. In the 
Philadelphia tournament, held March 16- 
27, 1886, his best gross time for l l / 2 
hours was 3220 ems ; best net time, 
3174% ems; total for 33 hours, 66,783 
ems ; time correcting total amount, 
42%m. ; total net amount, 65, 714% ems. 
Mr. Barnes made two records on work 



never before attempted by any other 
compositor. At Chicago, during the first 
national tournament, in one hour he set 
1822 ems with the lower case reversed; 
also in one hour 1005 ems blindfolded, 
with but one error in spacing and one 
typographical error. At Philadelphia, 
during the second national tournament, he 
set in l 1 ^ hours 2744 ems with the lower 
case reversed, occupying but 30 seconds 
correcting the same, and in 1% hours 
1635 ems, blindfolded, with but six 
errors. Mr. Barnes, with the assistance 
of Joseph W. McCann and Alexander 
Duguid, edited and compiled a book rela- 
tive to fast typesetting, which they pub- 
lished in 1887. Mr. Barnes was "make- 
up" on the New York Evening World in 
1905. 

THOMAS HARRY BARNETT (Rev.) 
Born Frome, Somertshire, England ; 
learned printing with Butler & Tanner 
at Frome ; initiated into Providence Union 
Nov. 9, 1873, and worked in the book 
room of the Providence Press Co. until 
1877, when he returned to England. He 
then entered Rawdon College, was or- 
dained and is now a missionary in India 
in connection with the London Baptist 
Missionary Society. 

EDWARD P. BARRY Born Evans- 
ville, Ind., March 16, 1862; learned print- 
ing in that city, beginning in 1879 ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card at 
the June meeting, 1888, and worked here 
that summer ; joined Evansville Union, 
No. 35, in 1882, and served as its Presi- 
dent and also as its secretary ; delegate to 
Detroit in 1899 (I. T. U.) ; delegate from 
Indianapolis, No. 1, to State Federation 
five times ; also to Central Labor Union 
of Indianapolis seven years and its Presi- 
dent four terms and its secretary one 
term ; now foreman machine department 
Indiana Newspaper Union. 

GEORGE W. BARRY Born Ticonder- 
oga, N. Y., Feb. 27, 1835 ; began to learn 
printing in Brattleboro, Vt., in 1841, and 
finished apprenticeship in the Phoenix job 
office, Bellows Falls, Vt. His indentures 
stipulated for $20 the first and second 
years, $25 the third year and $30 the 
fourth year, with board, but he received 
$25 the first year, $30 the second, $35 
the third and $50 the fourth, with board. 
He went to Worcester in 1856 ; was fore- 
man of the Woonsocket Patriot from 
1857 to 1859. The latter year Capt. 
Barry came to Providence. He was initi- 
ated into No. 33 Aug. 13, 1859. He 
worked in the newspaper offices until the 
Press job office was started, when he 
went there, staying until 1861, and then 
going to the war. After his service in 
the Army he came back to the Press job 
office ; was foreman of Maxfield's, then 
located where the Bristol Hotel now is ; 
went to Boston to work on the Post, and 
in 1873, when the Rhode Island Printing 
Co. was organized, came again to Provi- 
dence to work in that office, where he has 



VIII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



remained until the present time. He was 
President of Providence Union in 1871. 
Capt. Barry was in the Navy for about 
one year before the war, having enlisted 
in Boston for a cruise on the U. S. 
frigate Merrimac, afterward the famous 
Confederate ironclad. 

WILLIAM F. BARRY Was elected an 
honorary member of Providence Union 
at the February meeting in 1887. He 
was then district recording secretary of 
the Knights of Labor. Afterward he prac- 
ticed law in this city and in 1904 went 
to one of the Southern cities to reside. 

JAMES W. BARTON Died Warren, 
R. I., Aug. 14, 1877, aged 68 years. He 
learned printing in the office of the 
Rhode Island American, but immediately 
went to sea after finishing his apprentice- 
ship. He continued to follow the sea for 
about 30 years, mostly as a whaleman, 
rising to the position of captain. In 1866 
he established the Warren Gazette and 
conducted it about 11 years, until a few 
months before his death. 

LOUIS A. BASINET Born Durham, 
Quebec, Can., May 18, 1860; learned 
printing at Cowensville, Quebec, begin- 
ning in 1877 ; worked in Providence since 
1882, with the exception of five years, 
1884-89 ; initiated into No. 33 Oct. 31, 
1897 ; at present conducting a printing 
office at 35 Cranston strset, this city. 

F. W. BAXTER Born 1877; learned 
trade at Philadelphia, Pa. ; worked at 
Remington Printing Co., this city, in 
1902 ; applied for admission to No. 33 
Nov. 30, 1902. 

JOHN BAXTER Born Ireland June 
24, 1844 ; came to the United States 
when two years old ; learned printing 
with A. Crawford Greene, beginning in 
18.56; initiated into Providence Union 
May 12, 1866. In the Civil War Mr. 
Baxter served with the llth R. I. 

EDGAR O. BEACHAM Born Ravan- 
na, Mo., in 1865 ; learned printing at 
Trenton in that State, starting at the 
trade in 1879. He was initiated into 
Providence Union Dec. 18, 1892 ; served 
as its President in 1906, during the first 
year of the eight-hour struggle ; at pres- 
ent assistant foreman on Tribune. 

ISAAC A. BEALS Born Halifax, N. S., 
where he learned the printing trade ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card Sept. 
30, 1900, and was foreman of the Evening 
News the same year ; for a time he 
worked in Hartford and was President of 
the Union in that city. Now located in 
Boston. 

JOHN E. BEATTIE Born Scotland 
Nov. 27, 1861 ; learned printing at 
Hawick, Scotland, beginning in 1876 ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card at the 
July meeting, 1889 ; worked in Providence 
about seven years in nearly all the prin- 



cipal shops and at E. L. Freeman & 
Son's, Central Falls, about eight years ; 
at present in Boston, Mass. 

WILLIAM F. BEEBE Initiated into 
Providence Typographical Union Dec. 10. 
1870. He worked in the job office of 
M. B. Young in 1871. 

ADELBERT M. BEERS Born Spen- 
cer, Mass., March 5, 1848; learned print- 
ing trade in Hartford, Conn., beginning in 
1867 ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card Aug. 27, 1884 ; worked in this city 
on the Journal, Telegram, Press and 
Star ; was in the United States Navy 
during the Civil War ; at present located 
in Providence. 

HORACE G. BELCHER Born Pater- 
son, N. J., Sept. 21, 1872; learned print- 
ing with R. I. Printing Co., beginning in 
1888; at present editor of Sunday Trib- 
une. 

JOHN A. BELCHER Born Eagje 
Valley, Orange county, N. Y., Sept. 11, 
1850 ; learned printing trade in Paterson, 
N. J., and New York city, beginning in 
1863; worked in this city from 1874 to 
1905 (31 years) at R. I. Printing Co.; in 
1905 became partner with Elias S. Nick- 
erson in firm of John F. Greene Co. ; 
resident of Lakewood and Tax Assessor 
of Warwick, R. I. 

JOSEPH W. BELCHER Born Eagle 
Valley, Orange county, N. Y., March 31, 
1853; learned printing on the Paterson 
Daily Press, beginning in 1868; worked 
in Providence for Chapman & Carter, 
1873; R. I. Printing Co., 1873-1884; John 
F. Greene, 1884 ; George F. Chapman & 
Co., 1884-85 ; R. I. Printing Co., 1885-87, 
1889-1903; in Boston for L. Barta & Co., 
1887-89 ; initiated into Boston Typo- 
graphical Union in 1887 and into No. 33 
Feb. 22, 1903 ; at present employed in 
Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D. C. 

JAMES M. BELL Born Mt. Sterling. 
111., June 16, 1858 ; learned printing in 
Quincy, 111., beginning in 1870 ; admitted 
by card into Providence Union at the 
April meeting, 1888; at present located 
in New York city. Mr. Bell is best 
known to the craft as "Park Row" in old 
Union Printer and other typographical 
publications. He is the author of many 
humorous stories and poems. 

JOHN D. BELL Born 1870; learned 
printing in office of Canadian Champion 
at Melton, Ont. ; worked in Fall River, 
Westerly and at Snow & Farnham's. 
Providence, in 1901 ; joined Providence 
Union March 27, 1901. 

BENJAMIN I. BENNETT Born Paw- 
tucket, R. I., Jan. 31, 1874 ; learned 
printing on Pawtucket Times, beginning 
in 1888; admitted to Providence Union 
by card June 28, 1903, and worked in 
this city until March 23, 1904 ; now lo- 
cated in Boston, Mass. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



IX 



GEORGE BENNETT Born Maysham, 
Lancashire, England, Nov. 24, 1871; 
learned printing in Visitor office, More- 
cambe, Lancashire, working there about 
12 years in all, "and on leaving previous 
to coming to America was the recipient of 
a handsome travelling bag as a token of 
regard from the companionship." He was 
a member of the English Typographical 
Association more than 10 years. He came 
to Providence in 1903, depositing a card 
Sept. 28 of that year. 

JOATHAM BENSON Born 1871; 
learned printing at Biddeford, Me., be- 
ginning in 1889 ; initiated into Providence 
Union July 28, 1901 ; participated in the 
eight-hour strike in 1906 ; left Providence 
in March, 1906. 

WILLIAM H. BERRY Name in 1853 
Directory; in 1856, in company with 
Robert A. Pierce, he started the Franklin 
printing office at 36 Westminster street ; 
in 1858 his application for membership 
in Providence Union was rejected, proba- 
bly because he was a proprietor ; name 
does not appear in Directory after 1861. 

PRANK N. BERTHERMAN Born 
Ottawa, Can., in 1870 ; learned printing 
at Bay City, Mich., beginning in 1885 ; 
initiated into Providence Union Nov. 25, 
1900 ; participated in the effort for the 
eight-hour day in 1906 ; at present em- 
ployed on Evening Bulletin. 

HENRY BERTRAND Born St. Johns, 
P. Q. ; learned printing in Lowell, Mass. ; 
admitted to Providence Union by card at 
the November meeting, 1886, and worked 
on the Telegram ; in 1905 located in 
Brockton, Mass. 

JAMES L. BICKNELL Born John- 
ston, R. I., Feb. 20, 1839. He was taken 
West when a small boy, and in 1850, in 
Evansville, Ind., on the Morning Journal, 
he began to learn the printing trade. 
After finishing his apprenticeship he 
worked on the Pittsburg Dispatch, Cin- 
cinnati Enquirer, Louisville Journal, Mem- 
phis Appeal, New Orleans Bee, Norwich 
Bulletin and on the Providence Herald, 
Press, Journal, Telegram and News. He 
served three years in the Fifth Regiment, 
R. I. Heavy Artillery, in the Civil War. 
Mr. Bicknell was initiated into Provi- 
dence Union March 11, 1865. He died in 
Providence April 28, 1906. 

WALTER S. BINGHAM Born Spen- 
cer, Mass., Feb. 21, 1863 ; learned print- 
ing in office of J. E. Farwell & Co., Bos- 
ton, beginning in 1879 ; initiated into 
Boston Typographical Union in 1894 ; 
worked in Providence at E. A. Johnson & 
Co.'s in 1900-01 ; located in Brockton, 
Mass., in 1905. 

WILLARD MILTON BISHOP Born 
Kentville, N. S., Dec. 26, 1863 ; started 
in 1879 to learn printing on the Western 
Chronicle of that town, continuing one 



year on the Wollville Star, and finished 
at Rand & Avery's, Boston ; was with 
the latter firm until 1888 ; admitted to 
Providence Union by card Sept. 28, 1903 ; 
was employed at Remington Printing Co. 
until December, 1905, when he left Provi- 
dence ; worked in Boston early in 1907. 

WILLIAM P. BITTMAN Born Cin- 
cinnati, O., Sept. 7, 1833 ; learned print- 
ing in that city, beginning in 1847 ; 
worked in Providence 1882-92 ; Civil Wai- 
veteran ; at present rotates between Los 
Angeles, Cal., and Colorado Springs, Col. 

RICHARD BLACK Born County 
Cavan, Ireland, in 1860; learned printing 
at Mohill, county Leitrim, and at Glas- 
gow, Scotland ; joined the Union in Ayr. 
Scotland, March 1, 1881 ; came to America 
in June, 1889, and deposited card that 
month in Providence Union ; worked for 
J. A. & R. A. Reid six months, and then 
for E. L. Freeman & Son, Central Falls, 
two years; in 1891 entered the office of 
J. S. Gushing & Co., Boston ; moved to 
Norwood with that firm ; charter member 
of Norwood Union. 

F. W. BLAKE Deposited Boston card 
with No. 33 October, 1906 ; withdrew card 
March, 1907 ; worked on Tribune as 
machinist. 

FRANCIS BLIVEN Printer ; died in 
Providence, April 3, 1816, aged 22 years. 
Patriot. 

CHARLES H. BLOUNT Born Lisbon, 
N. Y., in 1865 ; learned printing in 
Ogdensburg, N. Y., beginning in 1881 ; 
admitted to Providence Union by card 
October, 1888 ; at present on the Boston 
Globe. 

HENRY H. BOARDMAN Born Nor- 
wich, Vt., April 14, 1827 ; learned printing 
in Windsor, Vt., beginning Jan. 26, 1842 ; 
worked on the Boston Journal 37 years, 
from 1848 to 1885; on the Providence 
Evening Bulletin from 1886 to 1890; was 
one time publisher of the Newton (Mass.) 
Graphic ; always interested in chess and 
checkers ; represented Boston in the 
National Convention of 1851 ; initiated 
into Providence Union Aug. 28, 1887 ; 
resided in Jewett City, Conn., in 1904. 

GEORGE A. BOLTON Born South- 
bridge, Mass., in 1853 ; learned printing 
in that town, beginning in 1870 ; worked 
in Providence since 1902 ; at present with 
the R. I. Printing Co. 

GEORGE E. BOOMER Came to Provi- 
dence from Madison, Me., where he had 
learned printing ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union at the first meeting when it 
w r as reorganized, April 8, 1883 ; worked 
on Journal and Telegram ; editor of Jus- 
tice from April 7, 1894, to Nov. 30, 1895 ; 
went to the Pacific Coast States. 

STEPHEN BOOTH Born England 
Nov. 30, 1840 ; learned printing in Woon- 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



socket, R. I., 1857-61 ; worked in Provi- 
dence from November, 1864, to March, 
1872; joined No. 33 March 11, 1865; was 
its President in 1866, treasurer in 1869 
and secretary in 1871. The contest for 
the latter position was the "most hotly 
contested" the Union had ever witnessed. 
The opposing candidate was Henry A. 
Barnes (Brown), then secretary and also 
foreman of the Press. Before his term 
expired Mr. Booth removed to Boston, to 
work on the Globe, where he has been 
ever since, with the exception of the 
year 1883, spent in the West. He was 
President of Boston Union in 1882. 

ROBERT P. BOSS Born Newport, 
R. I., Jan. 11, 1840; learned printing on 
the Newport Mercury; in 1861 he enlisted 
in the Navy and served until 1864 as 
master's mate ; participated in the cap- 
ture of Roanoke Island, the smashing of 
the rebel fleet at Elizabethport, the cap- 
ture of Newberne and seige of Washing- 
ton, N. C., the battle of the Blackwater 
at Franklin Bridge, etc. In 1865 Mr. 
Boss came to Providence, working first 
on the Journal. From there he went to 
the Evening Press and was elected fore- 
man of that paper by the compositors 
and confirmed in that position by the 
management, holding it for two years. 
Thence he went to the Herald for one 
year and then back to the Press, where 
he was again made foreman through a 
change in management. He held his sec- 
ond foremanship on the Press about three 
months. Mr. Boss's name was proposed 
in Providence Union in 1860. On account 
of his absence in the war he was not 
initiated until Oct. 14, 1865. In 1871 Mr. 
Boss went to Boston, and in March, 1872, 
was made night foreman of the Globe. 
In August, 1873, he was made Superin- 
tendent, and held that position until his 
health failed. Mr. Boss is a member of 
St. John's Lodge. No. 1. F. and A. M., 
of this city ; Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, Kearsarge Association of Naval Vet- 
erans, Boston Typographical Union, An- 
cient and Honorable Artillery of Boston, 
Royal Society of Good Fellows and 
Knights and Ladies of Honor. He repre- 
sented Boston Union in the I. T. U. con- 
vention of 1882. 

MAXIME S. BOU RET Learned print- 
ing in the office of the Woonsocket 
Reporter ; initiated into Providence Union 
July 29, 1883; worked on the Star and 
Journal ; published a Sunday paper in 
Woonsocket for four weeks, beginning 
May 3, 1885, in company with Edward B. 
Condon ; learned to operate a linotype on 
the Journal ; has been with the Boston 
Globe since leaving Providence; in 1898 
delegate to I. T. U. from Boston. 

CHARLES RUSSELL BOUTELLE 
Born Providence in 1875 ; learned print- 
ing at Snow & Farnham's, beginning in 
1890, and is now employed in that office. 
He was initiated into Providence Union 
June 24, 1900. 



JAMES P. BOWDITCH Born Berk- 
shire, Vt., March 2, 1877 ; learned printing 
in Providence, beginning in 1891 ; initi- 
ated into No. 33 March 31, 1905 ; at pres- 
ent employed on the Evening Tribune. 

JOSIAH B. BOWDITCH Born July 31, 
1842, in Fairfield, Vt. ; learned the print- 
ing trade in St. Albans and Richford, Vt., 
beginning in 1858. April 20, 1861, he 
enlisted, serving through the Civil War, 
and was mustered out June 24, 1865. He 
owned a weekly paper and general print- 
ing office in Richford from October, 1866, 
until March, 1875. Was a reporter and 
editorial writer on St. Albans and Rut- 
land papers in 1875 to 1879, editor, col- 
lector and advertising solicitor on Paw- 
tuxet Valley Gleaner from October, 1881, 
to July, 1886 ; editorial writer, telegraphic 
editor and proofreader on Providence 
Telegram from August, 1886, to July, 
1887, and editorial writer on same paper 
in 1889. Mr. Bowditch owned the East 
Greenwich Pendulum from January, 1888, 
to December, 1889; was a proofreader 
and compositor for the Continental Print- 
ing Co. in 1896, and has been a contribu- 
tor to the Providence Journal since 1890. 
At various times Mr. Bowditch has been 
a compositor in Springfield, Boston and 
Quincy, Mass. 

THOMAS F. BOWEN Born Provi- 
dence Oct. 31, 1876 ; learned printing at 
Reids', beginning in 1892 ; initiated into 
No. 33 Feb. 25, 1900 ; at present employed 
on Evening Bulletin. 

JAMES P. BOWES Born Sackville, 
N. B. ; died in this city March 6, 1894. 
For many years was employed as a com- 
positor on the Journal, and on the intro- 
duction of machines here went to the 
New York Herald. He was delegate to 
the I. T. U. convention at Buffalo from 
No. 33. He was obligated at the first 
meeting of the reorganized Union in 1883. 

NELSON BOYLE Born Albion, R. I., 
Dec. 19, 1829, and died while on a visit 
to his parents in Jewett City, Conn., 
Dec. 28, 1872. He began to learn printing 
about 1849 with Samuel Foss "in Woon- 
socket. In 1850 he was employed on the 
Providence Post, and in 1857 was a char- 
ter member of No. 33. He was station 
agent for the Warren and Bristol Rail- 
road at Fox Point, Providence, for sev- 
eral years before his death. He is buried 
in Pawtucket. 

LESLIE BOYNTON Born Woonsocket, 
R. I., Jan. 2, 1876 ; learned printing on 
the Providence Telegram and worked 
there six years ; located in New York 
city in 1904. 

JOSEPH H. BRACKETT Born Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Aug. 25, 1871 ; learned 
printing at Hitchcock Musical Publishing 
Co., New York city, beginning in 1886 ; 
admitted to Providence Union by card at 
September meeting, 1905. Left printing in 
1906, taking up the show business. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XI 



ARTHUR BRADBURY Born Bury, 
Lancashire, Eng., Feb. 14, 1884 ; learned 
printing on the Bury Guardian ; admitted 
to Providence Union at October meeting, 
1905 ; came out of John F. Greens's on 
the strike for eight hours in 1906. Left 
Providence in October, 1906, and worked 
in New Bedford in 1907. 

JOHN BRADY Born Providence in 
1854 and died here Aug. 10,1902; learned 
printing in the Journal office, finishing 
his apprenticeship in 1870 ; initiated into 
Providence Union Nov. 11, 1871 ; worked 
for about 10 years on the Evening Press 
and then established a retail shoe busi- 
ness, which he carried on until a short 
time before his death. 

JOHN W. BRAMWOOD Secretary- 
Treasurer of the International Typo- 
graphical Union; born Sept. 27, 1856, 
in Fall River, Mass., where in his early 
youth he was employed in a cotton mill. 
At the age of 12 he entered the office of 
the Fall River News to learn printing. 
Shortly afterward he movBd West with 
his parents. He became a member of 
Denver Union, No. 49, in May, 1872, 
being at the time less than 16 years of 
age. Mr. Bramwood has worked on all 
the dailies and magazines of note in the 
larger cities of the United States and 
Canada. He finally settled down in Den- 
ver, and during his residence there filled 
every official position within the province 
of the local Union, serving two terms as 
its President. He was also an active 
worker in the Central Labor Union of 
Denver, and for two years its presiding 
officer. At the Louisville convention of 
the International in 1894 he represented 
Denver Union, and was elected as one of 
the International delegates to the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor. That office was 
occupied two years, during which he at- 
tended the sessions of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor in Denver and New 
York city. As an appreciation of his ser- 
vices Denver again selected him to rep- 
resent it at the Colorado Springs meeting 
of ths International Union, held in 1896. 
He was there elected secretary-treasurer 
of the International Typographical Union. 
He was re-elected to his present office by 
a referendum vote in 1898, 1900, 1902, 
1904 and 1906. Besides being secretary- 
treasurer of the International, Mr. Bram- 
wood is secretary of the executive council, 
a member of the board of trustees of the 
Union Printers' Home and secretary- 
treasurer of the Union Printers' Home 
Corporation. He is also editor of the 
Typographical Journal, the official maga- 
zine of the craft. He is regarded as one 
of the most conservative men in the labor 
movement and has a host of friends 
throughout the country. He was admit- 
ted by card to Providence Union Dec. 
26, 1884. 

SOL. L. BRANDT Born 1873 ; began 
to learn printing in 1890 ; elected a mem- 
ber of Providence Union Sept. 28, 1903. 



ROBERT BRANNAN Born Fred- 
erickton, N. B., Oct. 24, 1882 ; he learned 
printing there and in 1865 moved to 
Boston ; he remained in that city less 
than a year, beginning work in the Provi- 
dence Journal composing room in 1866. 
From that time until two weeks before 
his death he continued with the Journal. 
He died in the harness, having stood to 
his work until he was carried from the 
composing room to the Rhode Island 
Hospital, where he died Aug. 15, 1886, in 
his 65th year, succumbing to the wear 
and tear of years and work. At his 
funeral representatives of every depart- 
ment of the Journal were present. Messrs. 
H. C. Barnes, William Elsbree and John 
H. Hurley of the composing room sang 
the hymn, "Nearer, My God, to Thee." 
His remains lie in the North Burial 
Ground. Mr. Brannan was initiated into 
Providence Union Nov. 14, 1868. 

GEORGE A. BREEN Born Webster. 
Mass., Sept. 10, 1872; learned printing at 
office of Webster Times ; worked in Provi- 
dence in 1891 at Remington's and Snow 
& Farnham's ; admitted to Providence 
Union Dec. 30, 1900, by card; located in 
New Bedford in 1904. 

JAMES H. BREHAUT Born Sum- 
merside, P. E. I., March 12, 1864 ; learned 
printing on the Summerside Journal ; 
worked in Providence on the Telegram 
from February to November, 1891 ; ad- 
mitted by card to Providence Union Feb. 
22, 1891 ; at present employed on the 
Boston Post. 

WILLIAM ALBERT BREHAUT Born 
Summerside, P. E. L, Oct. 5, 1868; died 
Boston, Mass., Jan. 24, 1904, at the 
Massachusetts General Hospital ; learned 
printing at Summerside, starting in 1880 ; 
was initiated Into Providence Union at 
the January meeting, 1887 ; worked on 
the Star until it stopped, in March of 
that year, then went to Boston and 
worked on the Post until the lockout in 
1891 ; then returned to this city for a few 
weeks' work on the Evening Telegram ; 
returning to Boston, he labored there 
mostly on the Post until stricken with 
his last sickness in the fall of 1904. He 
was a brother of James H. Brehaut. He 
is buried at Forest Hills, Mass. 

FRANCIS J. BRENNAN Born 1874 ; 
learned printing with Buker Publishing 
Co., Providence ; worked in various job 
offices in this city ; applied for admission 
to No. 33 in 1906. 

JOHN P. BRENNAN Born Ireland. 
1877 ; initiated into Providence Union Aug. 
27, 1906 ; admitted to Rhode Island bar 
1906 ; now attorney-at-law in this city. 

CHARLES A. BRIGGS Born Cromp- 
ton, R. I., Aug. 31, 1856; learned printing 
with G. B. & J. H. Utter, Westerly, 
R. L, beginning in 1871 ; initiated into 
New London Union ; admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card Sept. 28, 1902 ; 



XII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



worked in various book and job offices 
here ; was a charter member of War- 
wick Typographical Union, and was in 
Providence for a short time in 1906; 
now resides at Phenix, R. I. 

JETHRO TILLING HAST BRIGGS 
Born Fall River, Mass., 1825; came to 
this city in 1840, and in 1845 was an 
apprentice on the Journal, where he 
learned the printing trade. He was a 
charter member of Providence Typo- 
graphical Union ; worked in about every 
printing office of any note in the city 
during his time at the business. He died 
Feb. 11, 1888. 

WILLIAM F. BRIGGS Born Attle- 
boro, Mass., Dec. 1, 1869 ; learned print- 
ing at E. L. Freeman's, beginning in 
1887 ; participated in the effort for the 
eight-hour day in 1906 ; worked in Provi- 
dence since 1903 ; lost left hand in 1897. 

THOMAS BROUGHTON Born Kent, 
England, July, 1876 ; learned printing in 
the Mercury job office, New Bedford, 
Mass. ; admitted by card to Providence 
Union Oct. 27, 1901 ; worked at J. J. 
Ryder's and at Standard Printing Co. ; 
also on the Pawtucket Times and Attle- 
boro Sun ; employed on the New Bedford 
Sunday Times in 1904. 

LAUCHLAN W. BROW Born Taun- 
ton, Mass., March 14, 1863 ; learned 
printing in the office of the Bristol County 
Republican, beginning in 1880; worked in 
Providence at J. A. & R. A. Reid's for 
a short time in 1885, and from June of 
that year until December, 1894, in the 
Journal office, where he learned to 
operate' a linotype ; initiated into No. 33 
Nov. 30, 1885 ; since leaving Providence 
he has been employed on the Boston 
Globe, but resides in Taunton. 

ASAHEL P. BROWN Died Aug. 3, 
1898, after suffering four years from a 
shock of paralysis. He was born in New- 
port, R. I., in 1847 ; learned the printing 
trade in the job office of Knowles, 
Anthony & Co., whence he went to the 
Evening Press; from 1872 to 1886 he 
was foreman of the Morning Star ; then 
he went to the Journal, where he learned 
to operate a linotype ; his last work was 
copy-holding. Mr. Brown was initiated 
into Providence Union Dec. 15, 1867 ; 
President in 1873 and 1874, and delegate 
to the I. T. U. in 1875 and 1876. 

GEORGE H. BROWN Born Provi- 
dence Feb. 10, 1879; learned printing at 
office of William R. Brown & Co., begin- 
ning in 1896 ; became a member of Provi- 
dence Union pet. 29, 1899; was foreman 
of Brown's, and is now proprietor of the 
Industrial Printing Co. 

HENRY A. BROWN Initiated into 
Providence Union Jan. 27, 1901. He was 
born in 1858 and learned printing in the 
office of the Calais (Me.) Advertiser, 
beginning in 1891. 



HUGH HALE BROWN Born Provi- 
dence May 16, 1792 ; died Brooklyn, 
N. Y., at the residence of his son-in-law, 
Prof. S. S. Cutting, Oct. 4, 1863, aged 71 
years. His father was Capt. Jeremiah 
Brown, a descendant of Chad Brown, 
and his mother Susannah Welch, daugh- 
ter of John Welch, who carved the 
sacred codfish for the State House in 
Boston, Mass. In a journey from Boston 
to Providence, made in a vehicle without 
springs, and resembling a prairie schooner, 
his mother brought on her knees an oval 
mirror with carved frame and eagle, 
"cousin to the sacred codfish." This mir- 
ror was owned by Samuel W. Brown, 
nephew to Hugh, until his death. Hugh 
learned printing with John Carter. When 
the latter sold his business, Hugh Brown 
and W. H. Wilson, who had both learned 
the trade with Carter, were the pur- 
chasers. Two years later Brown was 
sole owner, and continued so until 1820, 
when Walter R. Danforth became a 
partner. This firm dissolved in 1825, and 
from that date until 1863 Brown was sole 
proprietor. The Directory was first printed 
in that office in 1824 and until 1860; 
the Tax Book from 1834 to 1860. The 
Rhode Island Register was also issued 
from there for a number of years. Mr. 
Brown was clerk of the Warren Baptist 
Association for 30 years and never missed 
a meeting. He is buried in this city. The 
funeral services were held at the First 
Baptist Meeting House. The Providence 
Journal said at the time of his death: 
"The infirmities of age compelled him 
several months ago to give up the busi- 
ness of printing, in which he had passed 
his long, upright and useful life. He 
then left this city and went to the home 
of his son-in-law. ' 

NATHANIEL T. BROWN Born Bos- 
ton, Mass., Feb. 16, 1847 ; learned print- 
ing in Smith & Potter's of that city ; 
worked in Providence for Press Co. for 
about 16 years; at present with E. L. 
Freeman & Sons, Central Falls. 

SAMUEL WELCH BROWN Born 
Providence January, 1824. His first in- 
troduction to printing was as carrier for 
S. S. Wilson's Penny Post. He also was 
a carrier for the Morning Courier in 
1838 and for the Journal when it ab- 
sorbed the Courier. In 1840 he began an 
apprenticeship with his uncle, Hugh H. 
Brown, continuing at the business until 
1843. Mr. Brown was a bookseller from 
1844 to 1857. In the latter year he became 
connected with the Municipal Court, and 
in 1860 became City Clerk, continuing in 
that position until 1879, when he retired 
from active business. He died Jan. 30, 
1907. 

DAVID JAMES BROWNE Born 1883 ; 
learned machinist trade at Belfast, Ire- 
land ; worked on Evening Tribune in 
Providence from June to December, 1906 ; 
withdrew I. T. U. card April, 1907. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XIII 



EDWIN A. BROWNE Was a member 
of Providence Union before 1865 ; his 
card was received again on April 11, 
1868, and May 14, 1870. 

WILLIAM E. BROWNE Died New 
London, Conn., Nov. 12, 1888, aged 63 
years. He learned printing in the office 
of the Pawtucket Gazette and Chronicle, 
but most of his life was a writer, work- 
ing for the Providence Journal nearly 25 
years. 

CHARLES R. BROWNELL Born 
Providence July 8, 1871 ; learned printing 
at Standard Printing Co., beginning in 
1888; initiated into Providence Union 
July 27, 1902 ; worked in the Journal and 
other offices in Providence ; participated 
in eight-hour strike in 1906 ; at present 
with Economical Printing Co. 

RICHARD M. BROWNING Born 
Mallow, Ireland, Jan. 7, 1867 ; learned 
printing at Chronicle Printing Co., Paw- 
tucket ; worked in Providence on News 
in 1898 ; now employed in tax assessor's 
office, Pawtucket. 

ROBERT B. BUCHANAN Born Bris- 
tol, R. I., in 1849; learned printing at 
Hammond, Angell & Co.'s, beginning in 
1869 ; worked in this city more than 35 
years, mostly in book and job offices ; 
initiated into No. 33 Sept. 28, 1890; par- 
ticipated in the effort for eight-hour day 
in 1906. 

NICHOLAS W. BUCKLEY Born New 
York city, on Eighth avenue, Aug. 31, 
1844 ; learned printing in Dunkirk, N. Y., 
beginning in 1858 ; admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card June 11, 1870; "in 
1874 'Little Joe' Oakiey, John Tiger, Her- 
man I. Wolfers and myself worked on 
the Journal, having walked from Worcesr 
ter, Mass. ;" treasurer of Bradford (Pa.) 
Union in 1904. 

STEPHEN J. BUCKLEY Born New- 
port, R. I., Dec. 26, 1870 ; learned print- 
ing in office of Pawtuxet Valley Gleaner 
at Phenix ; admitted to Providence Union 
Feb. 26, 1893 ; employed in office of New- 
port Herald in 1904. 

MARTIN S. BUDLONG Died Provi- 
dence Sept. 22, 1900, aged 71 years. He 
learned printing in the office of the 
Republican Herald ; was one of the 
founders of Providence Typographical 
Union in 1857 ; member of the job print- 
ing firm of Pierce & Budlong (Franklin 
office) ; worked on the Journal and Tele- 
gram, holding the "ad" situation on the 
latter paper for several years ; as a vol- 
unteer hreman Mr. Budlong was captain 
of the Sevens and in the paid department 
he was captain of a steamer ; he was also 
a member of the United Train of Artil- 
lery. 

CHARLES E. BURCHFIELD Born 
Meadville. Pa., in 1842, and died in Taun- 
ton, Mass., in 1876 ; he began to learn 



printing at a very early age, and in 1858 
went to California to join two older 
brothers ; he worked two years in the 
office of the Grass Valley Gazette and 
then crossed the mountains into northern 
Nevada ; the writer first met Burchfield 
in a mining camp in that State in 1862 ; 
he was foreman of a daily paper ; we 
were shopmates and became fast friends, 
and were scarcely ever separated there- 
after until his death; in 1869 Mr. Burch- 
field came East, first visiting his parents 
in Pennsylvania, and then to Providence ; 
he worked on the Journal, was foreman 
of the Directory in the office of A. Craw- 
ford Greene, foreman of the Morning 
Star, worked for a while on the Woon- 
socket Patriot and was foreman of the 
Taunton Gazette, holding the latter posi- 
tion at time of death ; he was initiated 
into Providence Union Dec. 11, 1869, and 
was its President in 1872. F. E. Kelly. 

JOHN BURGER Born Wurtemberg, 
Germany, May 15, 1862 ; learned machin- 
ist trade in Basel, Switzerland, beginning 
in 1877 ; began to work for Mergenthaler 
Co. under Ottmar Mergenthaler in Balti- 
more, Md., in 1886; helped build the first 
linotype machine that was put on the 
market ; came to Providence in 1890 to 
care for the linotypes in the Journal 
composing room, and was the principal 
factor in their successful operation ; has 
remained in the position since ; initiated 
into Providence Union in 1903 ; visited his 
native country in 1907. 

JOSEPH R. SURGES Died Provi- 
dence Feb. 14, 1883, aged 67 years; he 
had been a member of the printing firm 
of Paine & Surges. 

MICHAEL, F. BURKE Born Holdem, 
England, Feb. 14, 1879 ; learned printing 
in the office of the Providence Telegram, 
beginning in 1896; located in Fall River 
on the Herald in 1904. 

WILLIAM BURKE Died Providence 
Nov. 25, 1888; he was initiated into 
Providence Union Jan. 29, 1888. 

CHARLES T. BURLINGHAM Born 
Harris, R. I., Sept. 23, 1868 ; learned 
printing in the office of the Pawtuxet 
Valley Gleaner, beginning in 1885; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Jan. 31, 1892 ; 
worked at Snow & Farnham's and on the 
News ; participated in the effort for the 
eight-hour day in 1906 ; now proprietor 
of a job printing office in Phenix, R. I. 

HENRY W. BURNS Born Taunton, 
Mass., April 2, 1865 ; learned printing in 
office of Providence Journal, beginning in 
1884, and worked in this city until 1889, 
when he went to Boston ; initiated into 
No. 33 Oct. 29, 1889 ; at present employed 
on the Boston Globe. 

RICHARD H. BURNS Born Clinton, 
Mass., March 22, 1868 ; learned machinist 
trade with J. B. Parker Machinery Co., 



XIV 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



beginning in 1887. Mr. Burns is one of 
the best known linotype machinists in 
the business, having begun to care for the 
machines when they were first intro- 
duced ; from the factory he first went to 
the Bridgeport Standard and stayed there 
six years ; then back to New York to 
the Tribune for three years and to the 
New York Herald until he came to Provi- 
dence in 1907 ; he joined the I. A. M. in 
1892, and stayed with that organization 
until the linotype machinists were affili- 
ated with the International Typographi- 
cal Union ; he served on the executive 
board of No. 6, on ball committees, and 
was elected delegate from that Union to 
Colorado Springs I. T. U. convention in 
1906, the first machinist that ever repre- 
sented "Big Six" in that body ; he was 
admitted by card to Providence Union in 
1907 and is now employed on the Evening 
Tribune. 

HENRY N. BURRETT Born Lowell, 
Mass., Nov. 30, 1868; began to learn 
printing at West Union, Iowa, in 1883 ; 
came to Providence Sept. 23, 1885, and 
finished trade on East Providence Record 
and The People ; initiated into Providence 
Union July 25, 1886 ; worked on Dispatch, 
Telegram, Star and at E. A. Johnson's ; 
since June 3, 1888, has been employed on 
the Journal and Bulletin, where he learned 
to operate a linotype. 

CHARLES WHEELER BURROUGHS 
(Son of Joseph L.) ; born in Provi- 
dence Dec. 27, 1853 ; learned printing on 
the Providence Journal, beginning in 
1867; initiated into Providence Union 
March 11, 1871 ; up to that time was the 
youngest man ever admitted to No. 33 ; 
worked in Boston, Springfield, Worces- 
ter, West Brookfield and other places ; 
gave up printing in 1886 ; worked as a 
stationary engineer seven years, then be- 
came a farmer, at Bridgewater, Mass., 
where he died March 13, 1907. 

FRANK E. BURROUGHS (Son of 
Joseph L.) ; born May 23, 1847, in Mid- 
dleboro, Mass ; attended school in the old 
Arnold street grammar school in Provi- 
dence until 1863, when he began to learn 
printing on the Journal ; initiated into 
Providence Union April 9, 1870 ; 1868 to 
1870 had ship news "sit" on the Journal; 
1870-72 worked on Star and Press and 
Herald; May, 1872, went to Woonsocket 
Patriot for a couple of weeks and then 
went to the Boston Herald; 1873 went 
with O. Scott Pond, as foreman, Sam K. 
Head and others, to Worcester to work 
on the Press, a new paper just starting ; 
remained thsre six weeks, and then went 
back to the Boston Herald, remaining 
there until September, 1894 ; stayed on 
his brother's farm in Bridgewater until 
Feb. 5, 1895, when the Brockton Times 
was started, and worked until June, 1896, 
on that paper ; tried farming again until 
August, 1897, when he started in with 
the Talman Job Print in Brockton, where 
he was employed in 1905. 



GEORGE H. BURROUGHS Born 
Worcester, Mass., Nov. 16, 1860; learned 
printing in office of Windham County 
(Conn.) Transcript, beginning in 1879 ; 
worked in office of Providence Press Co. 
1886 ; at present partner Pawtucket 
(R. I.) Chroncle Printing Co. 

JOHN A. BURROUGHS Born Lynn, 
Mass., June 2, 1880; learned printing in 
Boston, beginning 1898 ; worked in Provi- 
dence 1906-07 ; participated in the effort 
for the eight-hour day ; now located in 
this city. 

JOSEPH L. BURROUGHS Born New- 
port, R. I., Feb. 12, 1818; died Middle- 
boro, Mass., July 23, 1889. Oct. 6, 1831. 
he left Newport for New Bedford to learn 




JOSEPH L. BURROUGHS. 

the trade of printer. He entered the 
office of the New Bedford Gazette, pub- 
lished by his brother, William L. Bur- 
roughs, and John Thornton, under the 
firm name of Thornton & Burroughs. In 
the latter part of 1833 the Gazette was 
sold to the Democratic party, and J. G. 
Harris became ostensible proprietor, and 
P. W. Leland editor. He remained with 
his brother in New Bedford until March, 
1834, to settle the business of the concern. 
In May, 1834, they left New Bedford for 
Providence, and Joseph began work for 
the firm of Knowles & Burroughs, in 
which William L. had bought an interest. 
This firm, in August, 1834, became the 
printers of the Providence Journal, and 
in July, 1838, bought the paper. In 
March, 1842, Joseph L. Burroughs was 
foreman of the Journal and retained that 
position until 1867. From that time until 
he removed from Providence, Aug. 19, 
1873, he was employed on the Bulletin. 
He then took up farming in Middleboro, 
Mass., and spent the remainder of his 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XV 



life in that town. It is said of Mr. Bur- 
roughs that, during his career on the 
Journal, at one stretch he worked 11 
years with a vacation of but one day, and 
that was to attend a funeral. He was 
one of the swiftest compositors and most 
expert foremen of his time. Mr. Bur- 
roughs was wounded accidentally during 
the Dorr War excitement. The Journal 
of July 2, 1842, said: "Joseph L. Bur- 
roughs of this office was wounded Satur- 
day by the accidental discharge of a 
pistol, which fell from a member of one 
of the companies. The blow discharged 
the pistol and the ball entered the leg 
of Mr. Burroughs. It fell out a few 
hours afterwards." 

WILLIAM L. BURROUGHS Died 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 6, 1858. He was 
born in Newport, R. L, and was a brother 
of Joseph L. Burroughs. In 1830 he was 
a printer in Providence ; the next year 
and until 1833 he was publisher of the 
New Bedford Gazette in partnership with 
John Thornton. Coming to Providence in 
1834, he entered into partnership with 
Joseph Knowles. Aug. 2 of that year 
they became printers of the Journal, and 
July 1, 1838, they bought the paper from 
George W. Jackson. While interested in 
the Journal, Mr. Burroughs was also a 
partner in a book and job office at 113 
Fulton street, New York city, afterwards 
sold to Wynkoop, Hallenbeck & Thomas. 
In this office was set the New York, 
Southern and Western news of the day 
and shipped to Providence by the Ston- 
ingtoh Line, arriving here in type as 
soon as the New York newspapers, from 
which all such news had been clipped. 
The Journal forms were held for this 
matter, and the paper gained 24 hours 
thereby. This was before the telegraph 
was invented. Feb. 1, 1839, Mr. Bur- 
roughs sold his interest in the Journal to 
John W. Vose. About the year 1844 he 
made two whaling voyages from New 
Bedford in the brig Acton, for the benefit 
of his health. He went the first voyage 
to learn and the second to command. His 
death was sudden and unexpected. 

LEWIS E. BURTNETT Born Ohio 
March 19, 1858; began to learn printing 
in 1871 at Sedalia, Mo. ; was admitted to 
Providence Union Jan. 30, 1884, by card, 
and again in July, 1887, when he re- 
mained until 1889. At the time of the 
strike on Charles Corbett's Dispatch he 
went to Hartford, Conn. At present he 
is editor of the Labor News of Greens- 
boro, N. C. 

CLARENCE E. BURTWELL Born 
Fall River (Tiverton), then a part of 
Rhode Island, July 27, 1851 ; he learned 
printing in the office of the Fall River 
Daily News ; came to Providence in 
November, 1868. and secured employment 
in the office of the Providence Press Co., 
remaining there 18 years, until Novem- 
ber, 1886, when he went to the Journal, 



where he was employed at the time of 
his death, on the night copy desk. Mr. 
Burtwell was working on the Evening 
Press Dec. 31, 1868, when fire destroyed 
the office, and he was one of the men who 
came down on the chain. He witnessed 
the September gale of 1869, when the tide 
rose to such a height that it covered tha 
streets in the vicinity of the Press build- 
ing and its occupants were transferred 
from it to the Post Office in boats. Mr. 
Burtwell was initiated into Providence 
Typographical Union Jan. 9, 1869, and 
was treasurer in 1878, when it disbanded. 
He was initiated again June 28, 1885. In 
1904 he wrote: "There are very few con- 
nected with the Union now that were 
members in 1869. The success of an 
organization depends upon the conserva- 
tism of its officers and members. Provi- 
dence Union has been just to its mem- 
bers and to the master printers, with the 
result that friction has been avoided." 
Mr. Burtwell died Dec. 10, 1904, of pneu- 
monia. 

WILLIAM A. BUSHMAN Born 1876 ; 
learned printing in office of J. E. Peters 
& Son, Burlington, Vt. ; worked in Provi- 
dence for Providence Publishing Co., 
J. A. & R. A. Reid and Fox & Saunders ; 
initiated into No. 33 Dec. 29, 1901 ; now 
of the firm of Bushman & Co., printers. 

WILLIS H. BUSSEY Born Hope. 
R. I., Jan. 12, 1854 ; learned printing at 
Chronicle office, Pawtucket ; initiated into 
Providence Union April 29, 1888; worked 
at Remington's and J. C. Hall's ; with- 
drew from No. 33 to become a charter 
member of Pawtucket Union, No. 212 ; 
participated in the effort for the eight- 
hour day in 1906 in Pawtucket; now sec- 
retary of Pawtucket Union. 

JOHN W. BUTLER Born Birming- 
ham, Eng., 1881; participated in the effort 
for the eight-hour day in Providence in 
1906 ; now employed at Franklin Press Co. 

GEORGE V. BUTTERFIELD Died 
Boston Dec. 21, 1900, aged about 65 
years. He was admitted to Providence 
Union May 21, 1864, and was elected sec- 
retary that year in June and December. 
He went to Boston in the early 70's and 
in his later years was a proofreader on 
the Boston Globe and Herald. 

JAMES BYRNES Born Bristol, R. I., 
March 28, 1883; learned printing trade 
in office of Bristol Phoenix ; initiated into 
Providence Union Sept. 28, 1903 ; worked 
on Tribune and Bulletin. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Dates Named: 

FRED BAINTON, April 29, 1888. 
WILLIAM S. BAKER, Sapt. 8, 1866. 
JOHN L. BANNON, March 29, 1896. 
CHARLES BARDENS, Jan. 9, 1864. 
EZRA A. BAXTER, April 5, 1888. 
THOMAS E. BENNETT, Feb. 26, 1893. 
C. E. BIDWELL, Oct. 12, 1861. 



XVI 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



FRANK BODWELL, July 13, 1872. 
DOVER H. BOST, Oct. 10, 1868. 
NORVAL B. BOWERS, Aug. 8, 1868. 
SAMUEL, M. BOWER, April 15, 1883. 
GEORGE F. BRADLEY, Jan. 15, 1870. 
ELMO G. BRADLEY ; withdrew I. T. U. 
card Dec. 8, 1906. 

GEORGE F. BRANNON, Dec. 12, 1868.- 
JOHN D. BRIDGES, Dec. 11, 1869. 
GEORGE N. BROOKS, July 30, 1899. 
GEORGE W. BROWN, May 17, 1888. 
HENRY BROWN, March 30, 1889. 

B. C. BUFFUM, Jan. 31, 1897; also by 
card April 29, 1900. 

WILLIAM F. BURKE, Dec. 30, 1888. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named: 

MICHAEL BACHMAN, Jan. 30, 1J884. 

MAURICE BAIN, May, 1885. 

CHARLES BAKER, July 25, 1897. 

WILLIAM BAKER, Jan. 30, 1898. 

LOUIS BALLIN; deposited I. T. U. 
card April 19, 1907 ; withdrew same April 
30, 1907. 

ALEXANDER H. BARKER, June 26, 
1892. 

WILLIAM C. BARRINGER, July 13, 
1872. 

JOHN A. BARWOOD, June 24, 1900. 

MORRIS S. BEANE, November, 1888. 

F. P. BENNETT, Boston card, May 11, 
1872. 

W. D. BENT, JR., Decembsr, 1883. 

JOSEPH F. BEYER, June, 1889. 

ARTHUR C. BIERCE, Feb. 27, 1884. 

E. M. BILLINGS, Dec. 29, 1895. 

JOHN BLACK, April 12, 1871. 

WILLIAM H. BLACKHURST, July, 
1888. 

WILLIAM BLAIR, March, 1888. 

JOHN BLANCH, Feb. 28, 1897. 

W. R. BLEAKMORE, April 22, 1883. 

C. W. BOBO ; worked on Evening Trib- 
une in June, 1906 ; deposited I. T. U. card 
June 13. 

EUGENE BOOTH ; from Hartford in 70's. 

E. E. BOWERS, January, 1889. 
ROBERT T. BOYLE, Oct. 8, 1870. 

F. L. BRADEN, July, 1887. 
HORACE B. BRADLEY, April 8, 1871. 
M. J. BRADY, June 8, 1872. 
THOMAS BRAZELL, May, 1886. 

E. B. BRECK, December, 1888. 

H. C. BREGGEMAN, Feb. 14, 1874. 

E. J. BRENNAN, June, 1886 ; May, 
1888. 

JOHN F. BRENNAN, Dec. 12, 1868. 

THOMAS BRETT, June 9, 1873. 

E. BRIMMER, from Harrisburg, Pa., 
June 13, 1868. 

FRED E. BROWN, April 22, 1883 
(dead). 

J. P. BROWN, Sept. 27, 1891. 

WILLIAM BROWN, Dec. 12, 1874. 

JOSEPH A. BRYAN, April 30, 1884. 

W. P. BRYAN, July 28, 1901. 

WILLIAM J. BRYANT, September, 
1888. 

JOHN C. BURKE, Nov.' 27, 1892. 

S. H. BURKETT, Dec. 14, 1872. 

J. J. BURNS, Oct. 12, 1874. 



JOHN BUTLER, from New York, May 
13, 1871. 

Names from Providence Directory: 

AUGUSTUS N. BERRY 1859-61. 

MARTIN V. ELY 1853 and 1854 
worked at 29 Market square; 1856 at 3 
South Main street. 

ALBERT E. BOWERS 1850 worked at 
15 Market square; 1855 at Journal job 
office. 

STEPHEN H. BRANCH 1830 ; in 1832 
he was clerk at Post Office and in 1838 
agent Cloth Hall Co. 

WILLIAM A. BROWN 1828 worked 
at 9 Market square. 

WILLIAM E. BROWN 1850 to 1857. 

CHARLES J. BURR 1850 worked on 
Daily Post. 

Printers Known to Have Worked in Provi- 
dence : 

MARY E. BARTON (of Warren, R. I.) ; 
granted honorable withdrawal card April 
26, 1903. 

W. D. BA^TABLE; at Journal office 
in 1884-85. 

A. C. BENTLEY ; name in 1870 consti- 
tution. 

H. E. BLANCHARD; January, 1885. 

ALFRED BOTTOMLEY; worked in 
this city fall of 1906. 

JOSEPH BOWDITCH; in New York 
city in 1906. 

DANIEL BOWEN ; began his appren- 
ticeship with John Cartsr, April 14, 1774. 

FRANK BOWMAN; worked in Provi- 
dence in 1906. 

JOHN BRADY; at Journal office 1860- 
65 ; reported dead. 

SAMUEL W. BURBANK Died Provi- 
dence Sspt. 24, in his 33d year. 

CHARLES BURRILL (colored) ; at A. 
Crawford Greene's in 1862 and later. 

H. D. BURRILL ; at Journal Office in 
1873; belonged in Grand Rapids, Mich. 

JOHN H. CADIGAN Born Spring- 
field, Mass., April 10, 1862 ; learned print- 
ing on Springfield Republican ; came to 
Providence in 1880 to witness the Hop 
Bitters regatta and worked on the Star 
and the Sunday papers in that year, and 
off and on in this city since ; now copy- 
holder on Bulletin ; admitted by card to 
Providence Union Sept. 27, 1891. 

JOHN CAIRNS Born Quebec City, 
P. Q. ; learned printing in Toronto, Can.. 
on the Telegraph and Mail, beginning in 
1870 ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card April, 1886. "I travelled a great deal 
and have worked in 20 States; am leav- 
ing Toronto (1904). for 'Old Virginia. 1 
going into the stock-raising business ; 
quit the 'road' in 1891 ; expect to spend 
the rest of my days on the stock farm 
with a good withdrawal card of I. T. U. 
hanging framed in my bed room. Ad- 
dress will be 'Cismont P. O., Albemarle 
Co., Va.' " 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XVII 



W. O. CALDWELL Died Worcester, 
Mass., April 11, 1904. He was born in 
that city in 1851, and learned the print- 
ing trade there. His father was also a 
printer. Mr. Caldwell's card was depos- 
ited in Providence Union Oct. 12, 1872, 
and he worked in the office of the Morn- 
ing Herald. For 25 years he was in the 
employ of the Worcester Spy, and was 
foreman of the composing room for a 
large portion of the time. He was em- 
ployed on the Worcester Telegram at the 
time of his death, and for about six years 
before. He was a member of Worcester 
Typographical Union. 

ARCHIE CAMERON Born Almonte, 
Ont., April 8, 1858; learned printing in 
Gazette office in that town, beginning in 
1872 ; worked in Providence in winter of 
1885-86, and was admitted by card to No. 
33 Dec. 27, 1885; at present (1904) em- 
ployed on the Jersey City Journal. 

FRANCIS H. CAMPBELL Born New 
York city Feb. 26, 1864 ; began learning 
to care for linotype machines in 1891 at 
Mergenthaler factory, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 
worked on The Wheel, New York city ; 
Glen's Falls Times, both the Troy Times 
and the Record, and Meriden (Conn.) 
Record ; admitted by card to Providence 
Union at the June meeting, 1907 ; worked 
on Journal summer of 1907. 

JOHN H. CAMPBELL Born Phenix, 
R. I., May 27, 1849. The family moved 
to Providence in 1856, and it was in this 
city, in the office of the Evening Press, 
that he learned printing. From a night 
"sit" on the Star he went to the fore- 
manship of the North Attleboro Chroni- 
cle in 1876. Later, in partnership with 
Rexaben E. Capron, he started the Paw- 
tuxet Valley Gleaner in his native town 
of Phenix. Shortly after he became its 
sole owner and continued in that con- 
nection until his death, Feb. 11, 1904. 
Mr. Campbell was a representative in the 
General Assembly from Warwick for 
three years, 1891-93. He was initiated 
into Providence Union Nov. 9, 1872, and 
retained his membership until 1877. 

JOHN W. CAMPBELL Born Alexan- 
dria, Va., Sept. 5, 1846 ; learned printing 
in office of McGill & Witherous, Wash- 
ington, D. C., beginning in 1865 ; worked 
in Providence in 1868-69 ; at present 
(1905) at Union Printers' Home, Colorado. 

JOSEPH H. CAMPBELL Born Natick, 
R. I., June 18, 1873 ; learned printing on 
the Pawtucket Times, beginning in 1888; 
worked in Providence on the Telegram 
and News ; initiated into Providence 
Union May 17, 1888 ; in New York city he 
worked on the Sun until the strike (Aug. 
5, 1899) ; now employed on Evening 
Journal of that city. 

WILLIAM CAMPBELL Born Natick, 
R. I., Dec. 18. 1869: learned printing at 
K. L. Freeman & Son's, Central Falls ; 
initiated into Providence Union July 30, 



1893 ; worked in Providence from 1887 to 
1900, and the two latter years had charge 
of United States Government Stamp 
Department at J. C. Hall's ; at present 
employed in Pawtucket police depart- 
ment. 

PERCY J. CANTWELL Born Souris, 
P. E. I., June 21, 1879; learned printing 
at Charlottetown, P. E. I., beginning in 
1893 ; became a member of Providence 
Union June 30, 1901, by card ; came out 
of the What Cheer office in the effort for 
eight hours in 1906, and for some time 
was chairman of the strikers ; President 
No. 33 in 1907 ; at present on Evening 
Bulletin. 

WILLIAM P. CANTWELL Born Bos- 
ton, Mass., Nov. 16, 1875 ; learned print- 
ing in Charlottetown, P. E. I., beginning 
April, 1890; admitted to Providence 
Union by card at August meeting, 1906 ; 
linotype operator on Journal. 

FRANK J. CAPRON Born Providence 
Dec. 15, 1868 ; learned printing at Journal 
office, beginning in 1887 ; admitted to 
Providence Union Sept. 29, 1889, as an 
apprentice ; worked in this city until 
June, 1898, and later on the Boston Her- 
ald, Pawtucket Times and Worcester 
Telegram ; returned to Evening Bulletin 
in 1906. 

WILLIAM H. CAPRON Born Provi- 
dence Nov. 25, 1849 ; learned printing on 
Evening Press, beginning in 1869 ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Dec. 14. 1872, 
and admitted by card May 31, 1883, re- 
maining in this city until 1890 ; now in 
New York city. 

ALFRED H. CAREY Born 1854; 
learned printing in Providence ; initiated 
into Providence Union Dec. 30, 1900. 

JAMES CAREY Worked in the 
Gazette office in Providence in 1826, and 
from 1832 to 1841 his name appears in 
the Directory as working at 15 Market 
square. In 1848 a James Carey was 
prominent in the formation of the Boston 
Union. His portrait is in the Boston 
Souvenir, issued in 1898. He is buried in 
Mt. Hope Cemetery, in the printers' 
burial lot. 

FRANCIS Y. CARLISLE In 1825 
bought from William G. Goddard the 
American, and in partnership with H. H. 
Brown consolidated it with the Gazette. 
Other papers were absorbed and changes 
made in the partnership until in 1829 the 
first daily newspaper printed in Provi- 
dence was issued by the firm. In the 
latter part of 1829 Carlisle sold his inter- 
est to Daniel Mowry, 3d, and went into 
the brokerage business. The following 
reminiscence is interesting in connection 
with his subsequent career : John L. 
Clark was engaged in a brokerage busi- 
ness in the city of Providence, selling 
lottery tickets. He became involved in 
the affairs of the Burrillville Bank. The 
bank was incorporated in 1818. Mr. 



XVIII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



Clark's connection with it began in Sep- 
tember, 1831, when he was made Presi- 
dent. Its circulation was then $2000. 
Seven months later, in April, 1832, its 
circulation had increased to $56,000, and 
it then failed. In March, a month before 
the failure, Clark removed all the books 
to Providence and cut from them all 
leaves bearing entries of bills delivered 
to himself, but these leaves were after- 
ward recovered. Clark ran away, but 
was arrested in New York in May, 1832, 
and brought back. He was tried in 
March, 1834, and sentenced to pay a fine 
of $5000 and to stand committed until the 
fine was paid. The General Assembly at 
the January session (1835) remitted the 
fine and he was released upon his making 
an assignment of his property to com- 
missioners who had been elected by the 
General Assembly to close the affairs of 
the Burrillville Bank. It took 12 years to 
finish its labors, but cost only $500, to be 
divided between three. The principal 
assets of the bank consisted of notes and 
indorsements of Francis Y. Carlisle, who 
was a clerk in the office of Mr. Clark. 
Long litigation followed with Carlisle, 
which resulted in the commissioners' ob- 
taining judgment against him for an 
amount over $100,000. A compromise was 
finally made with him, he giving bonds to 
redeem the circulation and pay the other 
debts against the bank, with the excep- 
tion of such debts as might be due Clark, 
he being the only real stockholder. Clark 
committed suicide July 26, 1836. He was 
then 31 years old. Carlisle continued for 
two or three years, endeavoring to grasp 
the business which Clark had left, and in 
the meantime purchasing the bills of the 
Burrillville Bank, which he was bound to 
redeem. He finally left Providence and 
travelled through the South and West, 
writing occasional letters to the Journal. 

ROBERT W. CARLISLE Born Ban- 
gor, Me., Feb. 4, 1853; learned printing in 
office of Whig and Courier of that city, 
beginning in 1 869 ; first came to Provi- 
dence in 1873; ch-irter member at the 
reorganization in 1883; held cases on the 
Journal and Star and for a time was a 
"sub" on the Telegram ; was employed at 
the Norwood Press (Norwood, Mass.) in 
1904. 

CYRIL A. CARPENTER Died Sept. 
3, 1865, aged 52 years; from the Direc- 
tory of 1832 it is learned that he was a 
printer, working at 12 Market square ; in 
1835 he published for a short time the 
Weekly Visitor; in 1841 ship news collec- 
tor for the Journal ; in 1854-55 marine 
reporter for Morning Post ; became a 
bookkeeper in 1856. 

GEORGE MOULTON CARPENTER 
Born Portsmouth, R. I., April 22, 1844 ; 
died suddenly from apoplexy at Katwijk 
aan Zee, in Holland, July 31, 1896. He 
was educated in the public schools of 
New Bedford and Providence, graduated 
from Brown University in 1864 and ad- 
mitted to the bar of Rhode Island in 



1867. He was elected Associate Justice 
of the Supreme Court of the State in 
1882, and Jan. 1, 1885, was appointed by 
President Arthur, Judge of the United 
States District Court for the District of 
Rhode Island, which last position he 
occupied at the time of his death. In 
November, 1885, Judge Carpenter was 
the fifth member of the Board of Arbi- 
tration which settled a question in dis- 
pute between organized labor and the 
Providence Journal. He had been selected 
by the four other members, A. D. Chace 
and Lucian Sharpe for the Journal and 
John P. Horan and James A. McKay for 
organized labor. At the December meet- 
ing (1885) of Providence Typographical 
Union Judge Carpenter was elected to 
honorary membership and later accepted 
the honor in a letter to the Union. An 
extended obituary of Judge Carpenter is 
to be found in Vol. V., 1897, "Publica- 
tions R. I. Hist Society," p. 62. 

EDWARD CARR Died Newport Aug. 
25, 1837, aged 38 years; served his ap- 
prenticeship in the office of the Rhode 
Island Republican, beginning in 1812. 
The paper was then published by Col. 
William Simons, at Newport. When Mr. 
Simons came to Providence Mr. Carr 
came with him and worked on the 
Patriot and Republican-Herald, living in 
his employer's family all the time, as was 
the custom in those days. 

STEPHEN CARR Died Pawtuxet, 
R. I., Saturday, March 31, 1832, aged 20 
years. He served an apprenticeship in 
the printing office of the Providence 
Patriot. 

WILLIAM E. CARR Born Taunton, 
Mass., in 1880; learned printing in that 
'city ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card Dec. 21, 1902; linotype operator on 
Tribune. 

CHARLES CARROLL Born Provi- 
dence June 8, 1876 ; learned printing in 
Journal office ; joined Providence Union 
in April, 1903 ; educated in Providence 
public schools ; at Brown University, 
whence he was graduated. A. B., in 1898, 
second in class of 120 ; and at Harvard 
Law School, whence he was graduated, 
LL. B., in 1901 ; editor of Brown Daily 
Herald, 1897-98; member of Rhode Island 
Alpha of Phi Beta Kappa ; financial sec- 
retary of Union during eight-hour effort 
in 1906-07 ; delegate to I. T. U. conven- 
tion, Hot Springs, 1907 ; admitted to 
Rhode Island bar 1901. 

HUGH F. CARROLL Born Provi- 
dence in 1871 ; learned printing in J. A. 
& R. A. Reid's, beginning Nov. 1, 1887 ; 
initiated into No. 33 March 27, 1892 ; 
was foreman of Remington Printing Co. 
at time of effort for eight hours in 1906, 
and soon joined the ranks of the journey- 
men ; in 1907 established the Providence 
Printing Co., of which he is manager. 
This firm secured the contract for print- 
ing the Fiftieth Anniversary Souvenir of 
Providence Typographical Union. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XIX 



JOHN A. CARROLL Died Pawtucket 
Jan. 11, 1900, aged 43 years. He was 
initiated into Providence Union Sept. 26, 
1897. He was brother to Hon. Hugh J. 
Carroll of Pawtucket. 

JOHN P. CARROLL Born Providence 
March 16, 1880. He began to learn print- 
ing in 1898, in ths Journal office, where 
he is now night foreman ; initiated into 
Providence Union June, 1903. He is a 
graduate of Providence high school and 
entered Brown University with the class 
of 1903, but did not graduate. 

ROBERT F. CARROLL Born Provi- 
dence in 1884; learned printing at E. A. 
Johnson Co., beginning in 1905 ; admit- 
ted to Providence Union Nov. 26, 1905 ; 
participated in the effort for the eight- 
hour day in 1906 ; now bank man on 
Evening Bulletin. 

WILLIAM CARROLL Born Jewett 
City, Conn., April 27, 1853 ; began to 
learn printing in the office of the Press 
in New London, Conn., in 1868, and 
afterward worked in Meriden on the Re- 
publican as a two-thirder until 1863, 
when he worked in Norwich, Conn., join- 
ing the Union in that city in January, 
1870. From Norwich he went to Willi- 
mantic, Conn., working there on th? Jour- 
nal, and later to New York city, where 
he worked on the first issue of John Rus- 
sell Young's Standard, the New York 
Herald and Times, and in George 
Lafaye's office. In the summer of 1871 
he made a trip West, stopping to work in 
the cities of Pittsburg, Pa., Columbus, O., 
Lafayette, Ind., Chicago, 111., Milwaukee, 
Wis., Grand Rapids and Detroit, Mich. 
He came to Providence Sept. 28, 1872. 
His card was deposited Dec. 14, 1872. He 
worked first on the Morning Herald, and 
later on ths Journal, Press and Star and 
Sunday Dispatch. He was foreman of 
the Star, and also its city editor, in 1886. 
Jan. 1, 1887, he began working on the 
Journal, getting a frame in 1889, and in 
the same year learned the linotype 
machine. He was promoted to the fore- 
manship of the Sunday Journal in Feb- 
ruary, 1890, and shortly after became 
foreman of the entire composing room. 
He was recording secretary of the Union 
in 1876 ; delegate to the International in 
1885, where he introduced and engineered 
the passage of ths Strike Fund Law ; 
President of No. 33 in 1892. He has 
taken an active interest in politics, and 
was chairman of the Democratic city 
committee in 1891-92. In the former year 
the party elected its candidate for Mayor, 
the first time in 38 years. He introduced 
and had passed by the committee during 
his chairmanship rules for the reform 
and government of the Democratic cau- 
cusas that have since been adopted in 
principle by the Legislature of the State 
for the regulation of political caucuses in 
Providence. At the December (1903) 
meeting of No. 33 he introduced the reso- 
lution providing for the appointment of a 
committee to prepare for the observance 



of the 50th anniversary of the institution 
of Providence Union, and was elected 
chairman of that committee. 

DAVID E. CARTER Born South 
Attleboro, Mass., Aug. 30, 1880; learned 
trade at E. L. Freeman & Son's, Central 
Falls, beginning August, 1834 ; worked on 
Evening Bulletin ; now employed on Bos- 
ton Transcript. 

EDWARD A. CARTER Born Boston, 
Mass., March 10, 1845. Th- family re- 
moved to Illinois in 1855. Young Edward 
entered the office of the Urbana Union 
in 1858, where he worked until Decem- 
ber, 1861, part of which time was put in 
on the Urbana Clarion,, the Illinois 
Zephyr and a paper called Our Constitu- 
tion. He went into the Army in Janu- 
ary, 1862, joining the 26th Illinois Infan- 
try as drummer, and the regiment went 
into every Southern State except Texas 
and Florida. "Ned" saw service at Island 
No. 10, Corinth, Miss., Vicksburg, Chatta- 
nooga, Atlanta, "Sherman's march to the 
sea," Savannah, the Carolinas, the grand 
review in Washington at the close of the 
war, and was mustered out in July, 1865. 
Then he again took up the "stick and 
rule," this time in Boston. He came to 
Providence in 1868, was admitted to No. 
33 June 13 of that year, and worked on 
the Evening Press and the Journal. 
When the Morning Star was started, Dec. 
6, 1869, he became its first foreman. He 
was afterward foreman of the Providence 
Herald and Worcester Press, but did his 
last "typesetting" on the Boston Herald. 
He went into the wholesale milk business 
in this city in 1877 and into the ice busi- 
ness in 1830. He is now senior member 
of the Hughesdale Ice Company (Carter 
& Hohler), located at 12 Merino street. 

GEORGE CARTER Born England 
May 23, 1844 ; came to America in July, 
1857 ; learned printing in Port Hope, 
Can. ; served in the Army during the 
Civil War ; after the war went to Erie, 
Pa., where he joined the Typographical 
Union and worked on the Dispatch ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card Aug. 
10, 1867 ; worked on the Evening Press 
until February, 1870, when he went to 
New York city, where he has remained 
since ; now on the Times. 

JOHN CARTER (a) Died Providence 
Aug. 19, 1814, aged 69 years. He was a 
native of Philadelphia, where he served 
an apprenticeship to the printing trade 
in Dr. Benjamin Franklin's office. He 
came to Providence in 1767 to work as 
a journeyman in the Gazette office, then 
owned by Mrs. Sarah Goddard, and on 
Sept. 1^ of that year he became a part- 
ner in the' business. Nov. 12, 1768, he 
became sole owner, and continued as 
such until Nov. 2, 1798, when William 
Wilkinson was associated with him, and 
the business was extended to include 
bookselling, etc. The partnership expired 
Mav 9, 1899, Mr. Carter resuming com- 
plete control of the printing department 



XX 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



and Mr. Wilkinson the bookselling busi- 
ness. From this date until he finally 
retired from business, in February, 1814, 
Mr. Carter was editor and proprietor of 
the Gazette and owner of the printing 
business connected with it. He was 
Postmaster for the town from July 4, 
1772, until June 16, 1792. His connection 
with the Gazette lasted for more than 
46 years, and during that time the "paper 
was remarkable for accuracy of execu- 
tion and correctness of sentiment and 
principle." He was buried in St. John's 
churchyard, North Main street, where 
later a monument was erected to his 
memory by his daughters. One son (John) 
was a printer. 

WILLIAM MAGEE CARTER Born 
about 1850; learned printing in office of 
Paterson (N. J. ) Daily Guardian; came 
to Providence in 1872 and while here was 
identified with the firms of Chapman & 
Carter and R. I. Printing Co. Died some 
years ago. 

GEORGE F. CARTWRIGHT Partici- 
pated in eight-hour effort in 1906; where- 
abouts unknown. 

JOHN P. CASE Born Kingston, 
R. I., Jan. 5, 1831 ; learned printing in 
Providence, beginning in 1846 ; worked in 
this city on the Transcript when it was 
published by Greene & Shaw ; George W. 
Danielson was foreman of the paper ; at 
present (1905> in the undertaking busi- 
ness at Wakefield, R. I. 

WILLET F. CASEY Born Napanee, 
Ont., Jan. 4, 1859; learned printing in 
Toronto, Ont., beginning in 1875; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Nov. 30, 1865 ; 
worked on the Journal a few months and 
was afterward foreman of the Sunday 
Dispatch when published by Remington & 
Corbett ; employed on the Boston Globe 
(1907). 

PATRICK A. C ASHMAN Born Provi- 
dence June 12, 1878; learned printing in 
office of Telegram ; was obligated in the 
Union Sept. 29, 1901 ; at present located 
on the Evening Tribune. 

THOMAS J. CASHMAN Born Provi- 
dence in 1886; began to learn printing in 
1903 at Remington's; participated in the 
effort for the eight-hour day in 1906. Now 
employed in Providence. 

JAMES F. CAVENY Born Riverpoint, 
R. I., Aug. 12, 1874 ; learned printing at 
What Cheer Printing Co., beginning in 
1889. 

WILLIAM N. CHADSEY Born Wor- 
cester, Mass., 1854 ; learned printing in 
Journal job office, this city ; was one of 
the original partners in the printing firm 
of E. A. Johnson & Co. ; member of the 
firm of Chadsey & Clarke from 1881 to 
1893 ; now in business of drain laying in 
this city. 

GEORGE F. CHAPMAN Born Oct. 19, 
1845, at Euclid, O. (a suburb of Cleve- 



land, O. ) His story follows: "Jan. 2, 
1859, commenced my apprenticeship on 
the Ashtabula Telegraph, published by 
James Reed, at Ashtabula, O. The first 
year I received a gold dollar for my 
services besides my board. The second 
year I got a little spending money and 
some wearing apparel. Before the expira- 
tion of the third year I went to Cleveland, 
O., and worked in the Ben Franklin job 
office for a time, and in the newspaper 
offices of the Herald, Leader and Plain- 
dealer. On the Plaindealer I worked at 
the frame once held by Artemus Ward. 
From there I went to Norwalk, O., and 
worked for a year or more on the Experi- 
ment, a rank Copperhead sheet, as it was 
then considered. About every week the 
editor was threatened with mob violence. 
The editor and proprietor, W. W. Red- 
field, and myself were the only force. I 
lodged in a little room adjoining the 
office and was furnished with a battery 
of two navy revolvers and an old flint- 
lock musket. I was told to shoot to kill 
the first person that broke in, but the 
threats were never carried out. I re- 
turned to Cleveland in the spring of 1863 
and soon after enlisted in the 150th Ohio 
Volunteers, served for 100 days, was dis- 
charged and re-enlisted in the 177th Ohio 
Regiment and served until the close of 
the Civil War. Soon after my second 
enlistment I was on detail service until 
the end. My first detail was Colonel's 
orderly. From there I served on the 
staffs of General Milroy and General Ros- 
seau in Tennessee, and later on the staff 
of General Schofield. After the war I 
went to work on the Cleveland Morning 
Leader for a short time ; then in the 
Leader job room ; from there to Evans, 
Powell & Co., where I became foreman. 
In the spring of 1868 I left Cleveland and 
came East, reaching New York city late 
in the summer. There I went to work 
for Thitchener & Glostaeter, who were 
then turning out some remarkable pro- 
ductions of typographical art. Here I met 
William M. Carter. I left T. and G. for a 
position with the New York Economical 
Printing Co., 194 Fulton street, one of 
the largest printing plants at that time 
in New York. I was with the Economi- 
cal until the spring of 1872, the last two 
years as foreman. In the fall of 1872 
William M. Carter and myself started a 
small printing plant at 60 Weybosset 
street, Providence, as Chapman & Carter. 
We met with success from the start. In 
September, 1873, the R. I. Printing Co. 
was formed, composed of Chapman & 
Carter, Bugbee & Hall and Charles C. 
Gray. Our business increased every day 
from the start, and it was not long before 
the R. I. Printing Co. was noted through- 
out New England for turning out remark- 
ably fine printing. William M. Carter. 
Jennison C. Hall and John E. Bugbee 
have all three passed over the divide. 
Mr. C. C. Gray, now sole proprietor of 
the R. I. Printing Co., and myself are 
all that is left of the old firm. I sold 




THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXI 



my stock in the concern in 1881 to Mr. 
Gray and embarked in another business, 
but not with success. In 1884 I again 
started in the printing business at 27 
Pine street as George F. Chapman & Co. ; 
was in business about three years, and 
sold out. Since then have been at work 
on the Evening Telegram and Tribune 
until April of this year, when I changed 
to the Evening Bulletin." Mr. Chapman 
has been a member of Cleveland Union, 
No. 53, Big Six, and became a member 
of Providence Union Feb. 24, 1901. 

HARVEY CHAPPELL Born Troy, 
N. Y., Oct. 21, 1862 ; learned printing in 
office of Troy Times, beginning in 1880 ; 
worked in Providence a few days in 
February, 1887 ; at present a resident of 
Lynn, Mass., and employed on Boston 
American. 

FRANKLIN A. CHASE Born P'all 
River, Mass., May 20, 1835 ; learned print- 
ing on Fall River News ; came to Provi- 
dence in the early 50's and worked on 
the Morning Mirror and later on the 
Tribune ; left the printing business about 
1860 and went into the counting room of 
the Tribune. In 1861 enlisted in the 4th 
R. I. Regiment as Second Lieutenant and 
rose to the rank of Captain (Co. K) ; 
was severely wounded in 1864 while the 
regiment was before Petersburg ; mus- 
tered out Oct. 14, 1864. Then Mr. Chase 
took a position as bookkeeper with Pot- 
ter, Anthony & Denison ; has since been 
in the banking business with Brown & 
Frieze up to 1872 ; then teller in Rhode 
Island National Bank until 1886 ; then 
made cashier and continued there until 
bank was consolidated with others in 
1901 ; now retired. 

FRANK B. CHASE Born Little Comp- 
ton, R. I., in 1864 ; learned printing in 
office of R. I. Printing Co., beginning in 
1884, where he is at present employed. 

WILLIAM E. CHASE Born North- 
ampton, Vt., April 22, 1843; learned print- 
ing in Elkhart, Ind. ; worked in Provi- 
dence on Journal in 1880; also in every 
State in the Union except Maine ; last 
employed in Lowell, Mass. ; now touring 
the country. 

WILLIAM H. CHENERY Born Ux- 

bridge, Mass., Sept. 7, 1842; began to 
learn printing in 1856 in the Journal job 
office; December, 1861, enlisted in Co. 
D, 5th R. I. Infantry; participated in the 
operations of the Burnside expedition and 
was promoted to the rank of sergeant ; 
in 1863 he was commissioned First Lieu- 
tenant in the 14th R. I. Heavy Artillery 
(colored) and served with that regiment 
in Louisiana until its return home and 
disbandment in October, 1865. Mr. Chen- 
ery resumed work at his trade after the 
war, first with the Providence Press Co., 
and from 1869 to 1874 as member of the 
firm of Hammond, Angell & Co. In the 
latter year he became foreman of J. A. 
& R. A. Reid's book room and remained 



there 13 years ; afterward he was em- 
ployed by the R. I. Printing Co., and at 
E. L. Freeman & Son's until 1888, when 
he became foreman of Snow & Farn- 
ham's book room, where he is at present 
employed. He became a member of Provi- 
dence Union May 12, 1866 ; treasurer in 
1867-68. 

FRANCIS CHESHIRE Participated in 
eight-hour effort in 1906. 

HARRY CHIPMAN Participated in 
effort for eight-hour day in 1906 ; press- 
feeder. 

FRANK CHRISTMAS Participated in 
effort for eight-hour day in 1906. 

AMBROSE H. CHOQUET Born Mon- 
treal, Can., Dec. 13, 1871 ; learned print- 
ing in Plattsburg, N. Y., beginning May 
1, 1886 ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card Nov. 27, 1892 ; worked in this city 
in 1890-92 and 1898-1901 on the Journal, 
Telegram, News and Olneyyille Times ; 
also worked on Pawtuxet Valley Gleaner 
and in New York city and in Worcester, 
Mass. ; at present located in Pawtucket. 

JOSEPH H. CHOQUET Born Mon- 
treal, Can., Aug. 10, 1869 ; learned print- 
ing at Plattsburg, N. Y., beginning in 
1888 ; worked in Montreal, Albany, Troy, 
Worcester, New York city, Pawtucket and 
Providence, where he learned to operate 
a linotype ; admitted to Providence Union 
Sept. 27, 1891 ; now employed on Provi- 
dence Journal. 

CHARLES R. CHRISTIE Born Truro, 
N. S. ; learned printing in the office of 
the News Publishing Co. of that town ; 
initiated into Providence Union April 27, 
1902 ; participated in the effort for eight 
hours in 1906 ; at present employed on 
the Bulletin. 

GEORGE CLARKE Died Newport, 
R. I. Nov. 15, 1895 ; he was admitted to 
Providence Union by card May 29, 1892, 
and had been employed on the Newport 
Herald. 

JAMES CLARKE Born Dublin, Ire- 
land, May 1. 1860; learned printing in 
office of the Dublin Evening Post, begin- 
ning in 1874 ; in the United States he first 
worked on the Woonsocket Reporter and 
later on the Providence Telegram during 
the first year of its existence; in 1880 
he went to New Bedford, where he now 
resides ; he is a charter member of New 
Bedford Union, No. 276. 

JOHN W. CLARKSON Died Roxbury, 
Mass., March 6. 1901. He was born in 
Lowell. Mass. ; learned printing in Nashua, 
N. H. ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card April 22, 1883, and again in June, 
1888; worked on the Journal and Star; 
was a linotype operator on the Boston 
Herald at time of death. Ten bearers 
and a large delegation of friends accom- 
panied the remains to Nashua, N. H., 
where he was buried. 



XXII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



GEORGE CLAYTON Born Hyde, 
Cheshire, England, Nov. 30, 1862 ; learned 
printing in office of the North Cheshire 
Herald, published in that town, begin- 
ning in 1875 ; was apprenticed for seven 
years, but in July, 1880, the contract was 
cancelled on payment of 50, when he 
came to Providence and has worked here 
since ; initiated into No. 33 March 20, 
1885; at present is employed on the 
Evening Tribune as proofreader. 

JAMES L. CLERIHEW Born Aber- 
deen, Scotland, April 19, 1880; learned 
printing on the Aberdeen Journal, begin- 
ning in 1895; admitted to the Typographi- 
cal Society in 1899 and worked in Aber- 
deen until June, 1906, when he came to 
Providence ; admitted to Providence Union 
July, 1906. 

ROBERT J. CLOWES Born Alice 
Town, South Africa, Nov. 28, 1852 ; began 
to learn printing in Phenix, R. L, in 
1869, and finished his apprenticeship in 
Pawtucket in 1873 ; he then came to 
Providence and was initiated into No. 33 
Sept. 12, 1874, and again (after the reor- 
ganization) June 28, 1885 ; he worked on 
the Journal, Press and Star, Telegram 
and at Snow & Farnham's ; also in 
Worcester for a short time in the 70's, 
and at present is employed on the Eve- 
ning Record in Norwich, Conn. 

CHARLES W. CLUGSTON Born 1876 ; 
learned trade in printing offices in Liver- 
pool, England, and Glasgow, Scotland ; 
initiated into Providence Union Feb. 28, 
1904. 

JOHN COAN Learned printing with 
A. Crawford Greene in Providence ; initi- 
ated into No. 33 on April 9, 1870; worked 
in Dayton, O. ; located in Walla Walla, 
Wash., in 1905. 

ELMER E. COBB Initiated into Provi- 
dence Union April 28, 1901 ; learned 
printing in Attleboro, Mass., beginning in 
1894. 

BEDFORD PYM CODRINGTON Born 
Kingston, Jamaica, W. I., Jan. 14, 1869 ; 
learned printing in De Land, Fla. ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Sept. 24, 
1889 ; now located in New York city. 

GEORGE COGGESHALL Probably 
born Bristol, R. I., where he learned 
printing ; initiated into Providence Union 
Dec. 15, 1867 ; admitted by card again 
Aug. 27, 1884, when he worked on Jour- 
nal ; supposed to be located in Hartford, 
Conn. 

JAMES H. COGGESHALL Born Bris- 
tol, R. I. ; learned the printing trade in 
that town ; worked in Providence from 
1871 to 1888 as a job compositor; at 
present publisher of the Standard at 
Wickford, R. I. 

CHARLES A. COLE Born Sterling, 
Neb., Nov. 8, 1870, where he also learned 
the trade of printer; worked in Provi- 



dence from April, 1896, in the office of 
the Evening Telegram, until 1906, when 
he returned to the West ; is now located 
in Seattle. 

JOHN COLEMAN Born Boyle, County 
Roscommon, Ireland, June, 1878 ; learned 
the printing trade on the Roscommon 
Herald, beginning work in 1892 ; came to 
Rhode Island in 1903, having been dis- 
placed in Ireland by the introduction of 
linotype machines ; here he worked on 
the Pawtuxet Valley Gleaner ; he was 
elected a member of No. 33 March 27, 
1904. 

RHODES T. W. COLLINS Died Provi- 
dence March 28, 1882, aged 38 years. He 
was a native of Warwick, R. I., enlisted 
in Co. F, 4th R. I. Vols., in October, 1861 ; 
discharged October, 1864 ; initiated into 
Providence Union Dec. 10, 1870, and on 
its roll in 1877 ; he was also a member 
and Adjutant .of Prescott Post, G. A. R., 
at time of his death ; 40 members of the 
post attended his funeral ; interment was 
at North Burying Ground. 

WILLIAM COLWELL Born Lonsdale, 
R. L, March 18, 1878; learned printing 
on Evening Telegram, Providence, begin- 
ning Jan. 1, 1900; away from trade 2% 
years studying bleaching and dyeing ; 
now employed on Evening .Tribune ; mem- 
ber of Providence Union. 

FREDERICK CONEFY Born 1872; 
learned printing in office of Evening 
News at Taunton, Mass., beginning in 
1888; worked in Providence for Alber- 
type Co. ; applied for membership in 
Taunton Union November, 1900. 

THOMAS P. CONNERY Born Bristol, 
R. L, and learned printing there, begin- 
ning in 1890; initiated into Providence 
Union Sept. 30, 1894, and worked in this 
city four months ; at present located in 
Bristol. 

JOHN F. CONNORS Died in Provi- 
dence Feb. 2, 1883, in his 28th year; 
learned printing on the Morning Herald, 
beginning in 1872 ; was a member of 
Providence Union in 1878 ; worked on 
Evening Telegram previous to his last 
sickness. 

JOSEPH CONNORS Born Halifax, 
N. S., March 23, 1850 ; learned printing in 
office of Providence Journal, beginning 
in 1870; went to New York city in 1872, 
where he joined No. 6 ; admitted to 
Providence Union by card Oct. 12, 1874 ; 
has been a continuous member of No. 6 
since 1883 and is No. 633. 

BENJAMIN CONWAY Born Provi- 
dence Aug. 26, 1884 ; learned printing at 
Thompson & Thompson's, beginning 1904 ; 
participated in eight-hour effort in April, 
1906 ; now located in Providence. 

PATRICK J. COOGAN Admitted to 
Providence Union by card at April meet- 
ing, 1886; worked on Star and Journal; 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXIII 



President of Syracuse Union in 1897-98, 
latter convention year ; foreman Syracuse 
Post-Standard in 1901 ; I. T. U. delegate 
from Syracuse in 1902 ; now located at 
Anaconda, Mont. 

ROBERT E. COOKE Died Charleston, 
S. C., June 5, 1822, after a short illness, 
in the 25th year of his age. The Rhode 
Island American of June 25, 1822, said: 
"This worthy young man served a long 
apprenticeship in the office of the Provi- 
dence Patriot, and subsequently worked 
as a journeyman with great faithfulness 
and industry. He had embarked in other 
business with fair prospects and had the 
best wishes of all who knew his virtues 
for success. His early removal is deeply 
regretted and will long be mourned by 
numerous relatives and friends." 

WILLIAM E. COOK Born Boston, 
Mass., March 3, 1839; learned printing 
in the office of Rand & Avery in that 
city, beginning in 1857 ; worked in Provi- 
dence at A. Crawford Greene's and on 
the Post, Journal, Press and Star ; initi- 
ated into Providence Typographical Union 
Nov. 14, 1863 ; vice president in 1877. 
Mr. Cook enlisted in the 2d Mass. H. A. 
in 1862, and served until April 5, 1865; 
member of G. A. R. Post 174 of Green- 
field, Mass., where he now (1904) re- 
sides ; has been afflicted with creeping 
paralysis since 1893. 

GEORGE EDWARD COOLEY Born 
Norwich Falls, Conn., Feb. 7, 1825. He 
learned the printing trade in Norwich, 
Conn., and after finishing his apprentice- 
ship his mother started him in business. 
From there he went to Newport, where he 
was married to Cynthia Anna Chapman 
July 29, 1849. Then he went to Woon- 
socket, where he worked on the Patriot ; 
thence to Providence as foreman of the 
Evening Press. Isaac Bromley induced 
Mr. Cooley to go to Norwich as foreman 
of the Bulletin, and when Mr. Bromley 
went to Hartford to take charge of the 
Evening Post Mr. Cooley went with him 
as foreman. In the 70's he came back to 
Providence, first as foreman of the book 
department of the Evening Press and 
later as foreman of the paper. When 
the Press suspended Mr. Cooley worked 
on the Dispatch, and later, in partnership 
with George O. Willard, started the Paw- 
tucket Evening Times. He was initiated 
into Providence Union in August, 1858; 
President in 1859 and treasurer 1862- 
63-64-65. He died at the R. I. Hospital 
Nov. 15, 1893. 

HOWARD A. COREY Born Mill- 
town, R. I., July 3, 1887 ; learned print- 
ing on the Westerly Sun and with J. J. 
Ryder Co., this city, beginning in 1902 ; 
worked in Providence 1903-06 ; joined the 
strikers for the eight-hour day at the 
expiration of apprenticeship and was ad- 
mitted to Providence Union in March, 
1906 ; now located in Boston. 



A. F. CORRIGAN Born Lansingburg, 
N. Y., May 30, 1873 ; began learning 
printing in 1887 at E. L. Freeman & 
Son's, Central Falls, R. I. ; left Freeman's 
in January, 1906, in effort for eight-hour 
day ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card November, 1906 ; now employed on 
Tribune. 

JOHN CORT Born March 9, 1836, at 
Littleboro, Lancashire, England. At an 
early age- he entered the printing busi- 
ness, being apprenticed for seven years. 
He came to America in October, 1863, 
and after working in New York city for 
some time, eventually located in Provi- 
dence. Here he worked on the Journal 
and joined Providence Typographical 
Union Oct. 14, 1864. In 1874, in com- 
pany with Charles R. Stobbs, he pur- 
chased the Webster Times. The same 
year Mr. Stobbs withdrew, leaving Mr. 
Cort in possession. He published the 
paper up to his death, which occurred in 
Worcester March 4, 1903, aged 66 years, 
11 months and 27 days. Six years previ- 
ous to his death his nephew, Arthur H. 
Rossall (also a former member of Provi- 
dence Union), was editor and manager 
of the Times. Mr. Cort always led an 
upright life and was generous to a fault, 
and his death was deeply regretted by 
the many tourists who passed through 
Webster in their wanderings, and the 
writer of this brief biography never 
knew him to turn down a printer with a 
card always giving them enough work 
to put them on their feet again, or a meal 
or railroad ticket. In closing, I think the 
following words, written by Albert Tyler, 
editor of the Oxford (Mass.) Mid- 
Weekly, and a lifelong friend, briefly 
characterize the deceased : "He pub- 
lished a clean paper, which carried no 
immoral taint into the homes it visited. 
In all his work he exhibited tact and 
discretion. . . . Those who know me 
will not be surprised when I declare my 
conviction that so long and so useful a 
life will not lose the award of God's 
eternal favor." 

JEREMIAH F. COURTNEY Died 
New York city April 12, 1906, aged 42 
years. He was born in Lowell, Mass. ; 
while employed in Providence on th3 
Journal he was initiated into No. 33 May, 
1887 ; soon after he went to New York, 
where he worked on the Sun, Times and 
Journal. 

JAMES E. COX Born Providence Feb. 
23, 1879 ; learned printing in Evening 
Telegram office, beginning in 1896; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Feb. 24, 1901 ; 
at present employed on the Tribune. 

HOWARD A. CRAM Born Providence 
Aug. 21, 18-77 ; learned printing in Jour- 
nal office, beginning in 1894; initiated 
into No. 33 Nov. 30, 1902 ; worked in 
Boston on the Journal and Herald ; one 
of the organizers of the Providence Lino- 
type Co. 



XXIV 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



FELIX CRANE Born Boston, Mass., in 
1887 ; learned printing in office of Olney- 
ville Times, 1900-03 ; worked in various 
offices in Providence ; participated in the 
effort for the eight-hour day in 1906. 

MAURICE HENRY CRANE Born 
Providence Sept. 13, 1854; died there Nov. 
25, 1905 ; learned printing in office of 
Henry Tilden, beginning in 1870; initi- 
ated into Providence Union May 17, 1888 ; 
with the exception of about four years 
spent in Boston he worked in this city 
during his life ; was in the 1st R. I. 
Regiment in the Spanish-American War. 

AMOS B. CRANSTON Died Provi- 
dence April 6, 1880. His name appears 
in the 1854 Directory as working on the 
Post and in 1855 at A. Crawford Greene's 
For more than 20 years before his death 
he was a compositor on the Press and 
Star. He was a charter member of 
Providence Union in 1857 and continued 
his connection with that body until its 
dissolution in 1878, holding many impor- 
tant offices in it. His funeral was most 
impressive. About 50 of the compositors 
and pressmen of the city assembled at 
the business office of the Press on Sun- 
day, April 11, where J. E. C. Farnham 
addressed them. Then, under the marshal- 
ship of Capt. C. C. Gray, they marched 
in a body to the house, No. 274 High 
street. Rev. Henry W. Rugg conducted 
the services at the house. The floral 
offering from the Press and Star was a 
"Star" of white pinks and roses, across 
the centre of which was the word "Press" 
in blue immortelles. That from the Jour- 
nal was a large pillow of fragrant white 
buds and blossoms, bearing at the top the 
figure 9, the "slug" the deceased had been 
using, while below this was a composing 
stick, made of green leaves, in which 
was a single white rosebud, typical of 
a "full stop." The bearers ware A. P. 
Brown of the Star, H. A. Barnes of the 
Press, J. E. C. Farnham of the book 
department and Nathaniel Brown of the 
job department of the Providence Press 
Co. The following appears at the close 
of the description of the funeral, proba- 
bly written by George O. Willard : "Amos 
B. Cranston's page of life is finished, the 
last column has been made up, the proof 
drawn and in ths hands of his Maker 
for correction and revision preparatory 
to the final adjustment. His slips are 
pasted up, the stick laid aside and the 
rule turned ; let us hope his string will 
measure well." 

BARZILLAI CRANSTON Died Provi- 
dence Oct. 26, 1867, aged 74 years, 7 
months and 14 days. He was born in 
Foster, R. I., in 1793 ; came to this city 
when 14 years old, and learned the print- 
ing trade with Jones & Wheeler. In 1819 
he entered the firm and engaged in the 
publication of the Patriot and Columbian 
Phenix. This partnership lasted one year. 
During the year 1824 he did the print- 
ing for the Christian Telescope, after 



which he continued in the printing busi- 
ness in the firm of Cranston & Marshall, 
and later in that of Cranston & Ham- 
mond. He was also in partnership with 
S. R. Weeden and John W. Cory, book- 
sellers and publishers. He was one of the 
best workmen of his day. During his life 
he held many positions of honor and 
trust. Was a member of the school com- 
mittee and of the Common Council many 
times, President of the Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation, treasurer of the Rawson Foun- 
tain Society and treasurer of the Citizens' 
Savings Bank. 

GEORGE H. CRANSTON Died Provi- 
dence Dec. 4, 1867, aged 35 years. The 
Evening Press, on which he was employed 
at the time of his death, said: "Origi- 
nally possessed of a strong constitution, 
it was undermined in the public service, 
and our friend may be numbered among 
those who gave life for country and 
liberty." In 1860 he was employed on the 
Post. He was a charter member of 
Providence Typographical Union in 1857. 
Its members attended his funeral in a 
body. 

E. FRANK CRAPON Died Woon- 

socket Sept. 7, 1872, aged 25 years, 11 
months and 14 days. He learned printing 
in the office of the Woonsockat Patriot ; 
was initiated into Providence Union April 
11, 1868. 

WILLIAM CRAVEN Born Providence 
Dec. 9, 1873 ; learned printing on the 
Pawtucket Times ; worked in Providence 
since 1894 ; initiated into Providence 
Union July 26, 1903. 

GEORGE M. CRAWFORD Born Pic- 
tou, N. S., Jan. 14, 1882 ; learned print- 
ing in offices of Pictou Advocate and 
Remington Printing Co., this city ; came 
to Providence in 1901 ; initiated into No. 
33 Dec. 27, 1903. 

JAMES E. CRAWFORD Born Pictou, 
N. S., Dec. 4, 1879 ; learned trade in the 
Advocate office of that town ; worked in 
Providence since 1898 ; initiated into No. 
33 April 29, 1900. 

FRANCIS V. CREAMER Died Provi- 
dence July 7, 1892, aged 30 years. He 
learned printing in this city and was ad- 
mitted to Providence Union April 30, 
1884. 

ALBERT A. CRIST Born 1878; 
learned printing at office of Anoka Times 
and at Snow & Farnham's ; initiated into 
Providence Union March 25, 1900. 

JAMES B. CROFWELL Born South 
Coventry, Conn. ; learned printing in 
Providence at George F. Chapman's and 
Evening Telegram, beginning in 1888 ; ini- 
tiated into Providence Union Nov. 30. 
1891 ; worked on Journal in this city and 
on the Herald, Post and Transcript in 
Boston ; at present practicing dentistry in 
Boston. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXV 



MARTIN J. CROFWELL Born Nor- 
wich, Conn., in 1875 ; served apprentice- 
ship on the Evening Bulletin, beginning 
in 1895, where he is at present employed, 
operating a linotype machine. He became 
a member of No. 33 Sept. 30, 1900. 

ASA M. CROWELL Born Providence 
Jan. 20, 1857 ; learned the newspaper 
pressman's trade in Journal pressroom, 
beginning July 15, 1878. He tells his 
story as follows : "Started as engineer 
and fired the boilers and had charge of 
ice water and ink fountains, and was 
head devil of the pressroom ; then learned 
to feed on the four and six-cylinder 
presses and to make rollers ; then ap- 
pointed assistant foreman, and on the 
death of John J. Dwyer in 1893 was 
made foreman of the pressroom." This 
latter position he held 10 years ; initi- 
ated into No. 33 April 29> 1888; from 
1903 until 1906 he was in the employ of 
the New York World. In February of 
the latter year he returned to the Journal 
as foreman of its pressroom. 

IDA C. CROWELL Born Providence 
Dec. 11, 1869 ; learned printing in office 
of E. A. Johnson & Co., beginning in 
1886; worked at the business until 1891, 
when she married Henry N. Burrett of 
the Evening Bulletin. 

WARREN E. CROWELL Born March 
7, 1875 ; learned printing in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. ; worked in Providence on the 
Telegram for a short time in the spring 
of 1905. 

JOSEPH CROWLEY Born Providence 
Jan. 13, 1878 ; learned printing on Jour- 
nal, beginning in 1896 ; initiated into No. 
33 Aug. 26, 1900 ; at present linotype 
operator on Journal. 

JOSEPH P. CULLEN Born Westfield, 
Mass., Aug. 24, 1869 ; learned printing- in 
Springfield, Mass., beginning in 1885; 
worked on Boston Post 1893-96 and 1905- 
06 ; Pawtucket Times 1905 ; now employed 
on Providence Journal ; member Provi- 
dence Union. 

MATTHEW J. CUMMINGS Born 
Providence 1862 ; learned printing in job 
office of Evening -Press ; initiated into 
Providence Union May 30, 1886 ; started 
small job office on Dorrance street in 
1887 ; elected Overseer of the Poor of the 
city of Providence in 1889, and has been 
re-elected each year since. 

MATTHEW J. CURRAN Born 1881 ; 
learned printing on the Telegram, begin- 
ning in 1899. 

WILLIAM P. CURRAN Born Provi- 
dence March 16, 1875 ; learned printing 
in office of Journal, beginning in 1892 ; 
worked on the Providence News and on 
Newport Herald ; at present linotype 
operator on Woonsocket Call ; initiated 
into Providence Union April 26, 1896. 



FRANK A. CUSHMAN Born Paw- 
tucket, R. I., June 30, 1860 ; learned print- 
ing in office of Pawtucket Gazette and 
Chronicle, beginning in 1877 ; initiated 
into New York Union in 1883 ; admitted 
by card to Providence Union October, 
1886 ; worked in Taunton, Mass. 

CORNELIUS C. CUSICK Born Provi- 
dence Aug. 4, 1887 ; learned printing in 
office of Journal, beginning in 1902 ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union December, 
1906 ; linotype operator on Journal. 

GEORGE G. CUTTING Claims the 
distinction of being the first tourist printer 
on a bicycle. He was born in Warwick, 
R. I., June 22, 1865 ; learned the printing 
trade on the Westerly Tribune ; worked 
at E. A. Johnson & Co.'s 1885-89 ; initi- 
ated into Providence Typographical Union 
May 11, 1888 ; has been on executive com- 
mittee and other committees ; delegate to 
Allied Printing Trades and to Central 
Labor Union for four years ; worked in 
New York and Boston. 

Initiated Into Providence Union on Dates 
Named: 

JOHN A. CALLAN, April 24, 1887. 
JOSEPH C. CAMPBELL, Jan. 29, 1893. 
P. W. CARD, Oct. 27, 1895. 
RAYMOND A. CARD, March 27, 1892. 
THOMAS P. CARNEY, Dec. 18, 1887. 

E. CAWLINS, Oct. 10, 1868. 
EUGENE F. CHASE, Oct. 29, 1887 ; by 

card April, 1888. 

LAWRENCE CHASE, July 11, 1868; 
now a proofreader on Boston Globe. 

EDWARD F. CLARKE, April 29, 1888. 

PHILIP S. COFFIN, April 8, 1871. 

MOSES W. COLLINS; before 1865. 

THOMAS J. CONNER, Aug. 8, 1857. 

GEORGE COOPER, Jan. 11, 1868. 

JAMES J. COSTELLO, July 31, 1887. 

JOHN F. COYLE, Sept. 11, 1869. 

GEORGE E. CRANDALL, Nov. 30, 
1891 ; by card Nov. 25, 1893. 

W. C. CRANGLE, Nov. 27, 1892. 

T. E. CURRAN, Sept. 26, 1886. 

DAVID CUSHING, Nov. 9, 1873. 

GEORGE W. CUSHING, July 9, 1859. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named: 

ALBERT A. CADY, February, 1885. 
W. H. CALKIN, July, 1888. 
THOMAS G. CALLEN, April, 1887. 

C. S. CAMPBELL, January, 1889. 

W. H. CAMPBELL; from New York 
Sept. 14/1867; June 8, 1872. 

D. S. CAPUL; from Louisville, Ky., 
Sept. 14, 1867. 

J. R. CARPENTER, April, 1889. 
JOHN A. CARR, March 29, 1896. 
W. R. CARRIGAN, September, 1887. 
MICHAEL GARY, Nov. 12, 1870. 

F. S. CASSELMAN, May, 1887. 
JAMES E. CHANDLER, April, 1888. 
H. P. CHAPLINE, November, 1888 ; 

reported dead. 

ALBERT W. CHAPPELL, 1874. 
DANIEL CHARLTON, Sept. 14, 1872. 
JOHN CHERRY, Oct. 14, 1865. 



XXVI 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



JAMES A. CLARKE, April, 1886 ; Feb- 
ruary 1887. 

L. O. CLIFTON, March, 1886. 

THADDEUS S. CLINCH; from Nor- 
wich, Conn., Sept. 11, 1869. 

JAMES H. COLLINS, Sept. 30, 1883 ; 
August, 1886. 

JOHN COLLINS, Nov. 12, 1884. 

MICHAEL COLLINS, New York, May 
11, 1872. 

R. E. COLLINS, 1874. 

WILLIAM COMYN, Sept. 30, 1883. 

JOHN CONNELLY, March, 1886; re- 
ported died in Albany, N. Y. 

T. J. CONNOLLY, January, 1885. 

CHARLES COOL, February, 1887. C. 
A. Cool died at Pittsburg, Pa., Dec. 20, 
1905, aged 50 years. 

JOSEPH CORBEIL March 26, 1893. 

CLARENCE L. CORD, May 28, 1899. 

JAMES COTTER, Aug. 12, 1871. 

HENRY COURTNEY, September, 1886. 

H. CRAIG, June 9, 1873. 

ARTHUR J. CRAWSHAW, December, 
1889. 

J. C. CRESS, June, 1887. 

CHARLES L. CROCKER, June 24, 1900. 

JOHN CRONIN, April, 1886. Reported 
dead. 

J. F. CROWLEY, April 12, 1871. 

P. CROWLEY, December, 1883. 

JOHN E. CULLEN, Aug. 12, 1871. 

JOHN CURLEY, June, 1887. 

Names Found in the Providence Direc- 
tory: 

JESSE CALDER 1850-54; 1856-57 and 
1863 clerk in Post Office. 

JOHN CARTER 1855, at 24 Westmin- 
ster street; by card Sept. 10, 1870. 

GEORGE CARY 1857. 

CHARLES N. CASWELL 1844 over 
15 Market square. 1850 at Journal Office. 

DANIEL R. CASWELL 1841 at 25 
Market square. 

CHARLES F. CHARNLEY Learned 
printing trade in Journal office ; now in 
jewelry business in this city. 

EDWARD B. CHEEVER 1850 on 
Daily Post and Journal; 1855 on Journal. 

GEORGE P. CHOAT 1847 at B. T. 
Albro's, 5 Canal street. 

EDWARD CODDINGTON 1824 at 3 
South Main street. 

HENRY R. COOKE 1855 at 24 West- 
minster street. 

EDWARD CORY 1830-32 at 9 Market 
square (E. and J. W. Cory). 

JOHN W. CORY 1832-36 at 9 Market 
square; 1838 bookseller and publisher; 
1847 at Journal Office. 

WILLIAM H. CORY 1856; 1857 at 
Journal office. 

JOHN COTTON 1838. 

WILLIAM CRANSTON 1857. 

CHARLES F. CURTIS 1826 at Ameri- 
can office; 1828 at Journal office. 

CALEB CUSHING 1826 at 3 South 
Main street. Caleb Gushing, publisher 
of the Salem (Mass.) Gazette, sold the 
paper in 1823. 

JOSHUA CUSHING 1828. 



Printers Known to Have Worked Here: 

FRANK C APRON (Long Frank) ; died 
about 18(2. 

WILLIAM CARROLL (Red) ; early 
80's ; died in New York city. 

D. CASHEN; withdrew card in 1877. 

JOHN CONLON ; was in "News" strike. 

J. F. COLLINS 1853 ; worked on Jour- 
nal. 

WILLIAM C. CROSMAN 1902. 

THOMAS J. CREIGHTON; early 80's ; 
now in Hartford, Conn. 

CHARLES M. CLARK was foreman of 
the Providence Evening Telegram for a 
number of years, while it was out of the 
Union. Afterward he was foreman of the 
New York Sun. 

THOMAS WAYNE DALLING Born 
West Chester, Pa., Sept. 20, 1870 ; learned 
printing in that city, beginning in 1887; 
came to Providence Journal shortly after 
the introduction of the linotype machines ; 
initiated into No. 33 Dec. 28, 1890; now 
employed on Philadelphia Record. 

CHARLES A. DALTON Born Salem, 
Mass. ; learned printing at the University 
Press, Cambridge, Mass. ; has worked in 
Providence since 1901 ; admitted by card 
to Providence Union May 31, 1903 ; now 
superintendent Franklin Press. 

FRANCIS LIPPITT DANFORTH Died 
Providence April 30, 1867, aged 55 years. 
He was a son of Walter R. Danforth and 
grandson of John Carter. The Directory 
of 1856 gives his occupation as printer. 

GEORGE DANFORTH Died Taunton, 
Mass., Feb. 10, 1851 ; employed on the 
Providence Journal in 1836, and from 1841 
to 1850; on Morning Courier in 1838. 

GEORGE WHITMAN DANIELSON 
Born Killingly, Conn., April 25, 1829; 
died Providence March 25, 1884. In his 
15th year he began to learn printing in 
the office of E. B. Carter at Danielson- 
ville, Conn., but remained there only one 
year. He then came to Providence, work- 
ing here as a journeyman printer, and 
also tried New York city for a while, 
after which he returned to Providence 
and for a short time published the Daily 
Sentinel. He was also for a time editor 
of the Daily Transcript. July 26, 1848. he 
became editor and publisher of the New 
England Arena at West Killingly, Conn., 
but was back in Providence in a little 
more than a year. In May, 1851, he was 
marine reporter for the Daily Post, and 
while connected with that paper also 
occupied the positions of foreman of the 
composing room and assistant editor. 
March 14. 1859, in partnership with Albert 
R. Cooke, he established the Evening 
Press. In October, 1862, on retiring from 
the firm, the employes presented to him a 
silver goblet and a four-volume set of 
"Carlyle's Critical and Miscellaneous 
Essays." Jan. 1, 1863, he became busi- 
ness manager and managing editor of the 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXVII 



Journal, and on Jan. 26 started the Eve- 
ning Bulletin. His hours of work were 
those of the morning newspaper composi- 
tors of that period 14 or 15 hours be- 
tween 10 A. M. of one day and 4 A. M. 
of the next. He was a tireless worker 
and the natural growth of the newspapers 
in his charge weighed upon him, perhaps 
imperceptibly, until he succumbed. For 
a number of years he was President of 
the New England Associated Press, and 
he was also interested in many business 
concerns in Providence. In 1854 he was 
President of the Providence Printers' 
Union, the first organization known to the 
craft in this city. It met at 24 Westmin- 
ster street Saturday evenings, according 
to the Directory of that year. 

HERBERT A. DARLING Died Bos- 
ton Feb. 12, 1896 ; he was initiated into 
Providence Union May 9, 1868, and worked 
in this city on the Press until 1872 ; 
worked in Boston 1872-1880; in Provi- 
dence 1880-1887; in Boston 1887-1896; he 
was foreman of the Providence Star in 
1887. 

HENRY FIELD DAVIS Born Provi- 
dence March 21, 1869 ; died here Feb. 4, 
1906 ; learned printing in the office of the 
Evening Bulletin, beginning in 1886, and 
continued to work there during the rest 
of his life ; he was initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Feb. 26, 1889; was one of 
the first in this city to learn to operate 
the linotype. Burial was at Swan Point. 
Henry R. Davis, for more than 50 years 
connected with the Journal, was his 
father. 

WALTER B. DAVIS Born Providence 
May 6, 1884 ; learned printing in office of 
Journal, beginning December, 1901 ; joined 
No. 33 Dec. 31, 1905 ; now employed on 
Tribune. 

ARTHUR DAWSON Born Todmorden, 
Lancashire, England, April 13, 1868; 
began to learn printing there in 1878; 
admitted to Providence Union at the 
August meeting, 1888 ; has travelled ex- 
tensively in the United States. 

JAMES R. DAY Born Washington, 
D. C., Aug. 10, 1860; started to learn 
printing in the office of Nickerson & 
Sibley, Pawtucket, in 1872, and finished 
his apprenticeship in the Evening Press 
job office, Providence, where he worked 
13 years ; he then went into business for 
himself and has been very successful ; he 
joined Providence Union December, 1886. 

MARTIN C. DAY Born Providence 
May 7, 1853; learned printing in Dover, 
N. H., beginning in 1870 ; reporter on the 
Providence Journal from 1876 to 1882; 
city editor from 1882 to 1894 ; author of 
the book, "Death in the Mail," a report of 
the Barnaby-Graves poisoning case ; for 
a time was city editor of the News. Mr. 
Day was initiated into Providence Typo- 
graphical Union Aug. 27, 1905 ; now 
located in New York city. 



ITHIEL DEARDEN Born England 
Sept. 24, 1870; learned printing in Provi- 
dence at Reid's, and later was employed 
on the Evening Telegram ; was initiated 
into Providence Union May 31, 189C ; now 
employed on the Brockton Times. 

VINCENT DE FINA Born Italy Dec. 
2, 1864 ; learned printing in Italy, com- 
ing to Providence in 1895; initiated into 
Providence Union Aug. 29, 1897 ; partici- 
pated in the effort for the eight-hour day 
in 1906 ; now employed on Evening 
Bulletin. 

WALTER DE HOFF Reported died in 
Jersey City, N. J. ; admitted by card to 
Providence Union Feb. 23, 1900; was a 
linotype operator, employed on the 
Journal. 

RUDOLPH DE LEEUW Born Hart- 
ford, Conn., May 17, 1858; learned the 
printing trade in that city in the office of 
the Evening Post, beginning in 1876 ; has 
worked in Providence on the Journal since 
1880, most of the time in the proofroom. 
Mr. De Leeuw was secretary of Hartford 
Union in 1881, vice president of Provi- 
dence Union 1901-02, treasurer 1903-04- 
05-06 and 1907, delegate to I. T. U. con- 
ventions at Atlanta, Ga. (1890), and 
Detroit, Mich. (1899), delegate to R. I. 
Central Trades and Labor Union 1902. 

ALFRED A. DEVENISH Born Provi- 
dence 1858 ; learned printing in office of 
J. A. & R. A. Reid, beginning in 1876, 
and has worked in this city all the time 
since with exception of three years in 
Boston ; initiated into Providence Union 
April 15, 1883 ; now foreman for J. C. 
Hall Co. 

JOSEPH E. DEVENISH Born Provi- 
dence Feb. 28, 1881 ; began apprentice- 
shin at Lufkin Press, Boston, in 1899, 
and finished at J. C. Hall's, in Providence ; 
initiated into Providence Union Aug. 30, 
1903 ; now employed on Evening Bulletin. 

W. H. DEVINE Born Waterford, Ire- 
land, May 14, 1880; learned printing with 
Harrigan & King, Worcester, Mass. ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union at the Decem- 
ber meeting, 1905, by card; was employed 
at Remington's, operating a monotype ; 
came out on strike for eight-hour day 
Jan. 1, 1906 ; left the city Jan. 3, 1906. 

JOHN J. DEVLIN Born Providence 
Sept. 12, 1860 ; learned printing at office 
of Angell & Co., beginning in 1874 ; initi- 
ated into No. 33 May 17, 1888 ; worked in 
most of the printing offices in this city, 
both as printer and reporter ; was the first 
police messenger appointed in Providence, 
and served as such under Chiefs of Police 
Charles H. Hunt and Benjamin H. Child ; 
since leaving Providence in 1895 has 
worked in various New England cities, 
and is now (1904) in the stationery busi- 
ness in Winsted, Conn., but retains his 
connection with newspaper work as corre- 
spondent for State papers. 



XXVIII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



GREGORY DEXTER Born Olney, 
England, about 1610; died Providence, 
R. I., 1700 ; learned printing at London, 
England, where he set up in business. 
He also ministered to a Baptist society in 
that city. He came to Providence about 
1638 and was the first practical printer to 
live here, but did not work at his trade 
in this colony. It is said that Mr. Dexter 
once visited Cambridge, Mass., to help the 
printer in that town put his office in order. 
For many years he was one of the colony 
assistants under the charter of Charles 
II. ; also served as town clerk and held 
other public offices. He was the fourth 
minister of the First Baptist Church in 
Providence. His residence was built of 
logs and stood on the east side of what is 
now Benefit street, near its junction with 
North Main street. During King Phillip's 
war Mr. Dexter, with his wife, went to 
Long Island and remained there until ap- 
parent danger had passed. He returned to 
find his home desolate and two of his sons 
numbered with the dead. He rebuilt his 
house on the site opposite the city water- 
ing place at the summit of Constitution 
Hill. He was the progenitor of the Dexter 
family, one of whom (Ebenezer Knight 
Dexter) gave to the city the Dexter Asy- 
lum and Dexter Training Ground. 

MYRON W. DIBBLE Born Cornwall, 
Conn., in 1849; learned printing in Litch- 
field, Conn., beginning in 1861 ; admitted 
to Providence Union by card May 11, 
1872, and again at the April meeting. 
1888; worked on the Journal and other 
newspapers in this city. 

MASON DICKEY Died at Alexandria, 
Va., May 3, 1803. Mr. Mason Dickey, 
printer, late of this town. Providence 
Gazette, May 21, 1803. 

JOHN JAMES DIGGINS Born Provi- 
dence Oct. 15, 1879 ; learned printing with 
J. J. Ryder Co., beginning in November, 
1895 ; initiated into Providence Union 
Sept. 28, 1903 ; participated in the effort 
for the eight-hour day in 1906 ; now em- 
ployed on Tribune. 

JOHN J. DILLON Born Providence 
Nov. 16, 1858 ; learned printing in office 
of E. A. Johnson & Co., beginning in 
February, 1879 ; initiated into Providence 
Union Aug. 26, 1888; always worked in 
this city in the various job offices. 

EUGENE T. DION Born Central 
Falls, R. I. ; learned the printing trade 
in the office of the Chronicle Printing 
Co., Pawtucket ; now employed on Tribune. 

HENRY R. DIX Born Pictou, Pictou 
county, Nova Scotia, in 1854 ; learned 
printing in Providence and is at present 
employed at Rumford Chemical Works. 

CALEB S. P. DODGE Born Lempster, 
N. H., May 29, 1838; died Cambridge, 
Mass., 1906 ; learned printing in the office 
of the Watertown Sentinel ; worked at the 
business in many of the large cities of 



the country and in the early 80's on the 
Journal in this city. Since 1883 he was 
employed on the Boston Globe. He was 
President of Boston Union in 1892, and 
was connected with the Masons, Odd Fel- 
lows, Cadets of Temperance and the 
Franklin Typographical Society of Boston. 

BERNARD DOHERTY Died Provi- 
dence July 24, 1884, aged 45 years; initi- 
ated into No. 33 March 12, 1864 ; for 
many years he was employed in the Press 
job office as book pressman ; brother of 
Henry F. Doherty. 

HENRY F. DOHERTY Died Provi- 
dence July 31, 1907, aged 57 years ; 
learned printing in book room of the 
Providence Press Co. ; was foreman of 
that department for a number of years 
until 1882, when he accepted a position 
with the Davol Rubber Co. as salesman, 
remaining with that firm until his death ; 
initiated into Providence Union Nov. 13, 
1869. He is buried in Pocasset Ceme- 
tery. 

PATRICK J. DOHERTY Born St. 
John, N. B.. 1840; worked in Boston be- 
fore the Civil War and until 1867 on the 
Herald, Bee, Journal and Advertiser ; 
come to Providence in 1867 and was fore- 
man of Journal until 1871 ; name is on 
records of Providence Union ; died in this 
city May 4, 1889. 

HUGH F. DOLAN Born Providence 
April 8, 1864 ; learned printing on Evening 
Telegram, beginning in 1883 ; worked on 
the Journal and in Boston, Worcester, Fall 
River and other New England cities ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Jan. 31, 1886. 

JOHN P. DOLAN Born Danbury, 
Conn., Feb. 20, 1854 ; learned printing in 
Woonsocket, R. I., on the Reporter, begin- 
ning in 1872 ; came to Providence in 1879, 
and worked on the Telegram, Sunday Dis- 
patch and Morning Star until 1882, when 
he went to the Journal, remaining on 
that paper until 1889 ; he was initiated 
into Providence Union April 8, 1883, the 
meeting at which the Union was reorgan- 
ized ; served on the executive committee 
for several years ; recording secretary 
1886-87, and President 1888. Since leaving 
this city Mr. Dolan has worked in Boston, 
on the Globe until the American started, 
when he went to that paper and is at 
present employed there. 

PATRICK DOLAN Lost his life in the 
Mississippi river in April, 1865. He was 
an apprentice on the Providence Journal 
in 1860; enlisted as a private in Co. G, 
llth R. I. Vol., in September, 1862 ; after 
expiration of his term of service he re- 
enlisted in the 3d R. I. Cavalry, Troop 
H ; was discharged for disability on ac- 
count of wounds received, and was return- 
ing home on the Sultana when the acci- 
dent occurred. The telegraphic dispatch 
printed at the time said : "Steamer Sul- 
tana, from New Orleans April 21, arrived 
at Vicksburg with boilers leaking badly. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXIX 



She remained 30 hours repairing and 
taking on 1996 Federal prisoners and 35 
officers, lately released from Cahawba and 
Andersonville prisons. She arrived at 
Memphis April 27, and after coaling pro- 
ceeded. About 2 P. M., when seven miles 
out, she blew up and immediately took 
fire and burned to the water's edge. Of 
2106 souls on board, not more than 700 
can be rescued ; 500 are in hospital and 
two or three hundred uninjured ones are 
at the Soldiers' Home." 

JOHN H. DONAHUE Boi'n 1860; 
began to learn printing in 1882 ; initiated 
into Providence Union Jan. 25, 1893. 

MICHAEL AMOS DONAHUE Born 
Clyman, Dodge county, Wis., Jan. 1, 1868; 
learned printing in the office of the Provi- 
dence Evening Telegram, beginning in 
1885 ; after the strike on that paper he 
went to Worcester, Mass., remaining there 
two years, and then worked in Boston 
and New York. Went West in 1901, visit- 
ing Buffalo, Chicago, St. Louis, Denver, 
Leadville, reaching San Francisco in 1903, 
where he is now located on the Examiner ; 
initiated into Providence Union March 31, 
1889. 

THOMAS H. DONAHUE Born Pas- 
coag, R. I., Feb. 24, 1863; learned stereo- 
typing on the Providence Journal, begin- 
ning in 1886, and continued there until 
1890; Woonsocket Reporter 1890-91; 
Providence Telegram 1891-96 ; Brockton 
Times 1896-97 ; Providence Journal 1898 
to present time, and is foreman of the 
room ; initiated into Providence Union Feb. 
26, 1889. 

JAMES H. DONOVAN Born Provi- 
dence April 20, 1883 ; began his appren- 
ticeship in the office of the Evening Press 
in 1883, and finished on the Star; admit- 
ted to the Union Aug. 30, 1885, as an 
apprentice member, probably the first ap- 
prentice admitted in that way ; has worked 
in New York, Boston and Cambridge. 

J. J. DONOVAN Admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card Sept. 14, 1872 ; 
worked for a time on the Journal. 

PATRICK J. DONOVAN Admitted by 
card to Providence Union Nov. 9, 1873 ; 
worked on Star and Press ; served in the 
U. S. Regulars and in a Massachusetts 
regiment during the Civil War ; belonged 
in Boston, Mass., where he probably died. 

WILLIAM DONOVAN Born Provi- 
dence, R. I., in 1858 ; learned printing with 
J. A. & R. A. Reid, beginning in 1879 
initiated into Providence Union April 15 
1883; treasurer 1883; President 1901-02 
delegate 1902. With the exception of six 
months in New York city, has worked 
continuously in this city ; at present in 
ad department, Evening Bulletin. 

EUGENE AUGUSTUS DORAN Born 
Pawtucket Oct. 29, 1881 ; learned printing 
on the Pawtucket Times, beginning in 
1900; worked in Providence on the News. 



WILLIAM H. DORAN Born Fall River, 
Mass., Oct. 3, 1860; learned printing in 
office of Fiske & Munroe in that city, 
beginning March 8, 1875 ; admitted to 
Providence Union by card Dec. 30, 1900 ; 
worked at Livermore & Knight's and at 
present in ad department of Bulletin ; 
was foreman of Block Island Wireless in 
summer of 1903. 

JOHN P. DORL Born New York city 
Jan. 28, 1897 ; started to learn the print- 
ing trade in Haverstraw, N. Y., in 1885 ; 
admitted to Providence Union in July, 
1888, and has worked in this city at dif- 
ferent times since ; has been President, 
vice president and secretary-treasurer of 
Pawtucket Union, and held the latter office 
during the first strike ever ordered by 
that Union; delegate to N. E. A. P. T. 
in 1907 and elected vice president of 
that body ; now employed on Tribune. 

JOSEPH DOVE Born Providence Feb. 
26, 1869 ; began to learn printing on the 
Pawtuxet Valley Gleaner in 1883, and 
finished apprenticeship at What Cheer 
Print in Providence; initiated into No. 33 
as apprentice member July 25, 1886 ; 
learned to operate a linotype on the Provi- 
dence Journal and worked in that office 
until 1894 ; from 1894 to 1906 employed 
on Boston Herald ; now linotype operator 
on Journal of this city. 

WILLIAM W. DOW Born Hampden, 
Me., Jan. 2, 1853 ; learned printing in 
office of Piscataquis Observer at Dover, 
Me., beginning in 1875; came to Provi- 
dence in 1878 and worked in the Evening 
Press job office ; at present employed in 
the water department of the city. 

ALBERT E. DOYLE Born Providence 
Aug. 3, 1873 ; learned printing with E. A. 
Johnson & Co., beginning December, 1889 ; 
also worked with J. A. & R. A. Reid ; at 
present located in Washington, D. C. 

GEORGE F. DRAPE Born Pawtucket, 
R. I., May 10, 1870 ; learned printing at 
.E. L. Freeman's, Central Falls, and at 
John W. Little's, Pawtucket, beginning 
Jan. 15, 1886 ; initiated into Providence 
Union Jan. 27, 1889, and worked here at 
Snow & Farnham's, Casey Bros.', Frank- 
lin Press, E. A. Johnson's and on the 
News; in 1904 erriployed on the Brockton 
Times. 

CHARLES W. DRINKWATER Born 
Eastington, Gloucestershire, Eng., Feb. 28, 
1855 ; learned printing at Strond, Glouces- 
tershire ; came to Providence in 1883 ; 
was initiated into Providence Union April 
22, 1883 ; worked for many years at Reid's 
and at Livermore & Knight's ; partici- 
pated in the effort for the eight-hour day 
in 1906 ; now employed on Tribune. 

SAMUEL A. DRISCOLL Died War- 
ren, R. I., Oct. 30, 1886, aged 76 years; 
learned the trade of a printer and for a 
time worked on the Journal in this city. 
He made a whaling voyage and on his 
return, when nearing home, while engaged 



XXX 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



in firing a salute, by a premature dis- 
charge of the cannon he lost both hands. 
During the remainder of his li'e he wore 
artificial hands. Notwithstanding his in- 
firmity, he was very successful in busi- 
ness. A cataract deprived him of sight 
a few years before his death. 

HUGH DRUMM Died Providence Nov. 
7, 1901; learned stereotyping on the Morn- 
ing Star ; initiated into Providence Union 
Feb. 26, 1889. 

J. H. DUFFY Came to Providence 
from England in 1886 and worked on the 
Star until March, 1887, when he returned 
to England. Later he went into the hotel 
business in Manchester, Eng. 

ANDREW J. DUGGAN Born Niagara 
Falls, Ont., March 24, 1865 ; learned the 
printing trade on the News at St. Cath- 
arines, Ont., beginning in 1881, and is at 
present located in Worcester, Mass. He 
says : "Arrived in Providence with P. J. 
Coogan on the day Rhode Island voted 
for prohibition, and it was raining like 

. Worked on Star, Item, Telegram 

and Evening Call. Left after the Tele- 
gram strike in 1889." His card was re- 
ceived April, 1886. 

WILLIAM W. DUNHAM In partner- 
ship with T. A. Foster he founded the 
Providence Phenix, May 11, 1802 ; was 
editor of the Phenix the second year, 
after which it was purchased by William 
Olney ; May 24, 1806, Mr. Dunham issued 
proposals for printing a weekly paper in 
New Bedford, The Gazette; in 1816 he 
resided in Zanesville, Ohio. 

ALBERT B. DUN WELL Born Derby, 
Conn., Oct. 8, 1862 ; learned printing at 
Ansonia, Conn., beginning in 1876 ; admit- 
ted to Providence Union by card Decem- 
ber, 1905 ; was a participant in the eight- 
hour strike of 1906. 

JAMES P. DUNWELL Name in 
Directory as printer in 1836; in 1874 as 
music teacher and 1856 as organist. He 
read proof in job office of Knowles, 
Anthony & Co. for many years ; died in 
1891, aged 79 years. 

W. N. DURAND Admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card Nov. 11, 1871 ; was 
well known in the central part of Connec- 
ticut ; now supposed to be dead. 

SARAH G. DUFFRY Born Newport 
Oct. 7, 1870 ; learned printing in office of 
Newport Daily News ; worked in Woon- 
socket and on the Providence News ; is 
employed in the latter office at present as 
a linotype operator ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union July 25, 1897. 

JAMES F. DUVALLY Born Fall 
River, Mass., Oct. 5, 1873 ; learned print- 
ing in that city ; worked in Providence 
two years in 1900-1901 at Snow & Farn- 
ham's and on the Telegram ; initiated into 
Providence Union Feb. 24. 1901 ; now 
employed on the Boston Herald. 



JOHN J. DUVALLY Born Fall River, 
Mass., Jan. 14, 1870 ; learned printing on 
the News in that city, beginning in 1887 ; 
admitted to Providence Union by card 
June 26, 1892 ; foreman Newport Herald 
in 1892 ; participated in the struggle for 
eight hours in 1906 ; now located in New 
York city. 

DANIEL J. DWYER Born Providence 
in 1866 ; began to learn printing in Jour- 
nal composing room in 1882 ; initiated 
into No. 33 October, 1886 ; for a number 
of years had charge of mailing room of 
Journal ; now superintendent circulation 
department of Tribune. 

JOHN H. DWYER Learned printing 
on Evening Bulletin ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Jan. 29, 1893 ; worked as 
linotype operator on Bulletin until March, 
1906 ; now on Evening Tribune. 

JOHN J. DWYER (a) Died Provi- 
dence July 13, 1892, aged 39 years; began 
work in the Journal pressroom in 1882, 
and in July, 1886, became foreman, suc- 
ceeding John Holiday, who had been 
pressman since December, 1848, when 
S. S. Wilson retired; May 17, 1888, Mr. 
Dwyer was initiated into Providence 
Typographical Union, but at the time of 
death was a member of Boston Press- 
men's Union ; in the State militia he rose 
to be captain of Co. B, 5th Bat. Inf. 

JOHN J. DWYER (b) Born Provi- 
dence in 1872 ; learned printing on Jour- 
nal, beginning in 1893 ; became a member 
of No. 33 June 27, 1897 ; now linotype 
operator on Journal. 

OLIVER DYER Died Windham, Conn., 
Friday. March 10, 1809, in the 28th year 
of his age ; he had been a printer, resid- 
ing in Providence, according to the Ameri- 
can of March 14, 1809. 

Initiated Into Providence Union on Dates 
Named: 

WILLIAM DAME, Oct. 10, 1868. 

BENJ. DAVIS, Aug. 12, 1871. 

JOHN DIO, March 31, 1901. 

CHARLES EDWIN DOBSON, Feb. 26, 
1893. 

FREDERICK M. DOBSON, Feb. 26, 
1893. 

S. K. DOLPHIN, Dec. 18, 1892. 

J. H. DONNELLY, Aug. 29, 1886. 

MICHAEL DONNELLY, April 11,1863. 
Probably served in Cos. B and F, 2d R. I., 
during Civil War. 

JOSEPH F. DOYLE, April 8, 1883. 

JAMES DUFFY, March 28, 1897. 

JAMES J. DUFFY, May 17, 1888. 

HERBERT M. DUNHAM, Dec. 11, 
1869. 

WILLIAM A. DYER, April 5, 1888. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named: 

W. H. DAVIDSON, Oct. 30, 1892. 
B. F. DAVIS, Feb. 26, 1893. 
D. W. DEAN, October, 1886. 
J. M. DEAN, March 27, 1884. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXXI 



B. DETWILER, June, 1887. 

W. J. DICKSON, August, 1886; July, 
1888. 

JAMES DIXON, April, 1888. 

JAMES A. DOHERTY, Montreal card, 
Nov. 9, 1872. 

JOHN F. DONNELLY, April, 1884. 

W. F. DOUGLAS, Dec. 14, 1872. 

EDWARD J. DOUTNEY, Nov. 11, 1871. 

JOHN D. DOYLE, Aug. 13, 1870; 
August, 1888. 

T. T. J. DOYLE, Boston card, July 8, 
1871. 

WILLIAM S. DRAKE, November, 1887. 

THOMAS DUBE, May 30, 1897. 

E. J. DUFFIN, May 28, 1884. 

WALTER DUNKERLY, Dec. 18, 1892. 

M. C. DUNN, September, 1886. 

JOHN DUNPHY, March 27, 1884. 

MERTON A. DUMPHY, Aug. 28, 1898. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here: 

JOHN P. DAVIS Charter member 
1857. 

JOSEPH DeBARTHE Member in 
1877. 

D. DOLAND Worked on Journal in 
1851. 

WILLIAM DUFF Directory, 1844. 

HARRY DUGAN Worked at R. I. 
Printing Co. in 80's. 

LOUIS H. DeCRANEY, Hartford card, 
May 11, 1872. 

WILLIAM EAGAN Born 1871 ; learned 
printing in New Haven, Conn., beginning 
in 1889; worked in New Hampshire; ap- 
plied for admission to Providence Union 
in December, 1899; worked on the News. 

CHARLES E. EARL Admitted to 
Providence Union by card Feb. 10, 1872 ; 
worked on the Journal until 1875 ; then 
removed to Norwich, Conn. ; I. T. U. dele- 
gate from Norwich in 1879. 

FRANKLIN PIERCE EDDY Died 
Providence, March 11, 1901, and was 
buried in Pocasset Cemetery ; learned 
printing at A. Crawford Greene's; initi- 
ated into Providence Union July 13, 1872 ; 
delegate to I. T. U. in 1891 ; also financial 
secretary for several years ; worked mostly 
on the Journal, the last years of his life 
as proofreader. 

JOSEPH EHRLICH Born Lodz, Rus- 
sian Poland, in 1884 ; learned printing 
there, beginning in 1895; participated in 
effort for eight-hour day in 1906 ; now 
located in Providence. 

JOHN E. ELLIOTT In 1844 worked in 
Providence at 41 Market square and in 
1850 kept an intelligence office at 12 
Exchange street. The Journal of Sept. 23, 
1863, contained the following: "John E. 
Elliott, who was formerly employed in 
this city as a printer and whose wife now 
resides in Pawtucket. is said to have been 
captured at Port Hudson as colonel of an 
Alabama regiment." 



EDWIN H. ELLIS Applied for admis- 
sion to Norwood (Mass.) Union in Janu- 
ary, 1902 ; born in 1876 ; learned printing 
at Ryder & Dearth's and J. A. & R. A. 
Reid's, Providence, and had worked in 
Pawtucket ; in 1904 he was employed on 
the Cincinnati Commercial Tribune. 

JAMES H. ELSBREE Born Newport, 
R. I., where he also learned printing ; he 
was employed on the Providence Journal 
in November, 1857, and from that time 
until his death, which occurred in Boston, 
worked on most of the newspapers in this 
city, Boston and Norwich, Conn. ; he was 
a member of No. 33 before 1865. When 
a youth Mr. Elsbree made a voyage in a 
merchant ship around the world, sailing 
from Newport. Served in 3d R. I. Heavy 
Artillery during the Civil War. Brother 
of William F. Elsbree. 

WILLIAM F. ELSBREE Born New- 
port, R. I., May 14, 1844 ; learned print- 
ing at E. L. Freeman's office in Central 
Falls, beginning in 1863 ; was foreman of 
the Norwich Advertiser for a short time ; 
worked in Providence on the Herald, Press, 
Star and Journal, and was best known as 
"the Distributor;" initiated into No. 33 
April 13, 1867 ; worked in Boston on the 
Herald and Globe ; at present employed 
on the Globe. Mr. Elsbree is an accom- 
plished vocalist and was for about 15 
years on the musical stage two seasons 
with Barlow, Primrose & West's Min- 
strels, nine weeks with Boston Museum 
Operatic Co. and six weeks with the 
Bijou. He is a brother of James H. 
Elsbree. 

EDWARD A. EMERY Born South 
Yarmouth, Mass., Sept. 18, 1872 ; learned 
printing trade in office of Eastern Adv. 
Co. of Pawtucket, beginning in 1888; be- 
came member of Providence Union Sept. 
29, 1901 ; now ad man on the Evening 
Bulletin. 

VIRGILIO ESCOBAR Born Azores 
Islands May 13, 1881 ; learned printing at 
Azores, beginning 1895 ; worked in this 
city since 1904 ; joined effort for the eight- 
hour day August, 1906. 

DAVID EVANS Born Alloway, N. J., 
Aug. 28, 1853 ; learned trade on Salem 
(N. J.) Standard; in 1890 had charge of 
the advertisements on Providence Tele- 
gram ; in the spring of 1892 took charge 
of Wm. R. Brown's plant, 45 Eddy street, 
remaining there four years, and with 
the assistance of P. H. Quinn union- 
ized the office ; started in job print- 
ing business Sept. 16, 1895, and continued 
a master printer for about three years ; 
in that time had for partners P. W. Card, 
M. G. Selbing and Franklin Hussey ; later 
worked on the Journal and News in Provi- 
dence ; was business manager of The 
Financial Inquirer of New York city ; in 
1904 superintendent of the New York 
Labor News Co. ; now in business in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; initiated into Providence 



XXXII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



Union Dec. 18, 1892 ; was vice president 
and also recording secretary. 

D. OTIS EVANS Born Seymour, Conn., 
March 5, 1875 ; began to learn printing on 
the Philadelphia Sunday Dispatch in 1888, 
and finished on the Providence Telegram ; 
initiated into Providence Union Jan. 29, 
1893 ; worked on the News, Telegram and 
Evening Bulletin in Providence and in 
most of the large cities east of Chicago ; 
vice president of No. 33 in 1905. 

Initiated Into Providence Union on Dates 
Named : 

CHARLES K. ENGEL, Feb. 26, 1893. 
WILLIAM ETCHELLS, April 29, 1888. 
(Pressman.) 
MABEL F. EVANS, May 29, 1892. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named: 

THOMAS EAGIN, Boston, Nov. 13, 1869. 
H. C. EARLE, July 30, 1884. 
H. E. EARLE, Oct. 13, 1874. 

E. W. EDWARDS, April, 1888. 
G. G. ESKRIDGE, Dec. 9, 1871. 
W. B. ESTEY, March 30, 1890. 
GUS EVANS, Aug. 27, 1884. 

G. W. EVANS, November, 1886. 

Names Found in Directory: 

SAMUEL B. EASTMAN 1828 at 15 
Market square (Eastman & Hall). 

JAMES ELLIS 1824-26 at 39 Market 
square; 1828 at Canal Market. 

ISAAC W. ENGLAND 1850 at 24 
Westminster street ; afterwards publisher 
New York Sun. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here: 

BENJAMIN F. EVANS 1891 publisher 
of R. I. Democrat ; also published weekly 
papers in Olneyville and East Providence. 

FRANK F. EVANS 1882 to 1886, when 
he removed from the city. 

JAMES H. FAIRBROTHER Died 
Providence Dec. 11, 1888, in the 46th year 
of his age ; he was initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Dec. 10, 1870, and continued 
his membership until 1878, when the char- 
ter was surrendered ; also a member of 
Prescott Post, G. A. R., and Assistant 
Quartermaster General of Dept. R. I., G. 
A. R. ; also member of Battery D, 1st 
R. I. Light Artillery. 

DANIEL W. FARNHAM Died Provi- 
dence Nov. 4, 1875, aged 29 years, of 
typhoid fever ; he was initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Jan. 12, 1867 ; at time of 
death was employed in the Journal office. 
Unity Lodge of Odd Fellows conducted 
the funeral. He was buried in Riverside 
Cemetery. Mr. Farnham was a native of 
Nantucket, Mass., and brother of J. E. C. 
Farnham. 

JOSEPH E. C. FARNHAM Born Nan- 
tucket ; learned printing with A. Crawford 
Greene ; initiated into Providence Union 
Feb. 12, 1870; worked in the book office 



of the Providence Press Co. for many 
years ; with E. M. Snow he founded the 
firm of Snow & Farnham and purchased 
the book and job business formerly owned 
by the Providence Press Co. 

HENRY W. FARRELL Initiated into 
Providence Union Oct. 31, 1886 ; worked 
at E. A. Johnson's and in Wakefield ; now 
practicing medicine in this city. 

THOMAS F. FARRELL Born Provi- 
dence May 10, 1880 ; learned printing on 
the Telegram, News and Pawtucket 
Times, finishing his apprenticeship in 
1900 ; initiated into Providence Union 
July 28, 1901 ; has worked in Taunton, 
Boston and Brockton ; now make-up on 
the Evening Bulletin. 

RICHARD J. FAULKNER Born 
Guernsey, Channel Islands, England, in 
1852 ; served a six years' apprenticeship 
in the office of the Guernsey Comet, be- 
ginning Jan. 5, 1865 ; arrived in New 
York city Sept. 14, 1872, and joined New 
York Union in October of the same year ; 
came to Providence in November, 1880, 
and worked in this city 2% years on the 
Star and six years on the Telegram. Mr. 
Faulkner was active in the reorganization 
of Providence Union in 1883, depositing 
his card at the first meeting, and was 
elected President unanimously at the 
meeting for permanent organization, April 
15, because of the work he had done to 
perfect the reorganization ; was secretary 
in 1884, '87 and '88; delegate in 1886, 
and served on various important commit- 
tees. Since leaving this city he has 
worked in Boston, Brockton and New 
York ; now located in New York. 

FRANK G. FERRY Born Chicopee, 
Mass., April 12, 1873; learned printing in 
office of George V. Wheelock, Chicopee, 
beginning in 1870; came to Providence in 
April, 1874, and worked in various book 
and job offices until 1882 ; since 1882 Mr. 
Ferry has been with the Narragansett 
Times, at Wakefield, R. I., and during the 
summer season with the Daily Times at 
Narragansett Pier. 

A. E. FESSENDEN Born Boston. 
Mass., Nov. 9, 1862 ; learned printing in 
Woburn, Mass., beginning in 1879 ; worked 
in Providence two weeks in 1888, depos- 
iting card at the July meeting; in 1904 
was employed on the New York World. 

ALFRED G. FIELD Born at Port 
Elizabeth, South Africa, March 6, 1868; 
learned printing on the Port Elizabeth 
Telegraph, 1880-1885, after which worked 
in Melbourne, Australia, six months, and 
then sailed for the United States, arriv- 
ing here in 1887 ; deposited travelling 
card with Providence Union April 23. 
1892; worked on the News and at W. R. 
Brown's in Providence and as Instructor 
of Printing on the Howard Times at the 
Sockanosset School for Boys ; now em- 
ployed on the Evening Bulletin. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXXIII 



BARNUM FIELD Born Taunton, 
Mass., June 11, 1796 ; died in Boston, 
Mass.. May 7, 1851 ; graduate Brown 
University 1821; Aug. 28, 1823, to Sept. 
1, 1825, publisher Independent Inquirer 
in Providence ; on latter date sold the 
Inquirer to Journal ; grammar school prin- 
cipal in Boston, Mass. ; author School 
Geography. 

CHARLES H. FINLEY Born Provi- 
dence, R. I., June 17, 1875 ; learned print- 
ing on Boston Traveler, beginning in 1887 ; 
admitted to Boston Union Nov. 27, 1892; 
now employed on Boston Globe ; carried 
route on Providence Journal in 1885-86 ; 
grandson of Hon. Sidney Dean, former 
editor Providence Evening Press and 
Morning Star. 

THOMAS F. FINNEY Born Consho- 
hocken, Pa., Dec. 5, 1869 ; learned print- 
ing in Recorder office in that town ; 
worked throughout the East ; came to 
Providence in 1904. 

ERNEST BERTRAND FIRTH Born 

Kettering, England, March 24, 1874 ; 
learned printing with W. E. & J. Goss in 
that town, beginning in 1888 ; worked in 
Providence on the Journal in 1899 ; 
Toronto Union was given permission (Oct. 
28, 1900,) by No. 33 to initiate Bertrand ; 
in 1906 in New York on Times. 

E. W. FISHER Born 1870 ; learned 
printing at Danville, N. J., beginning in 
1896 ; worked at Biddeford, Me., and 
Ophir, Col. ; initiated into Providence 
Union July 28, 1901 ; in 1904 was located 
in Boston. 

WALTER B. FISKE Died Pawtucket 
May 4, 1874, in the 41st year of his age; 
was initiated into Providence Union in 
1861, and his name appears in the circu- 
lar of 1866. 

JOHN H. .FITZ Born Providence Oct. 
26, 1864, in a building located on the 
present site of the Journal building; 
learned printing in office of Evening 
Press, beginning in 1880; located in New 
York city on the Herald since 1883. 

JAMES O. FITZGERALD Born Provi- 
dence Dec. 3, 1874; learned printing at 
Journal office, beginning in 1892; initi- 
ated into Providence Union May 29, 1904 ; 
now located in Manchester, N. H. 

MICHAEL FITZGERALD Born Ire- 
land ; learned stereotyping on the Provi- 
dence Journal ; initiated into Providence 
Union Dec. 25, 1887 ; now employed on 
Boston Globe. 

PETER J. FITZGERALD Born Provi- 
dence July 3, 1855 ; began in 1866, in the 
Journal job office, to learn the printing- 
trade, and worked in Providence until 
1882, when he became a merchant; he 
has been Grand Secretary of the For- 
esters of America in Rhode Island for a 
number of years. 



FRANK FRICHE Born Terre Haute, 
Ind., May, 1873 ; learned printing in ad 
room of Terre Haute Tribune ; admitted 
to Providence Union by card May, 1886, 
and worked in this city that summer. 
"Celebrated the night of 31st of June, 
last day of license ; put in a dry Fourth 
with 'Gedge' Hughes and Ownie Hamill 
at Roger Williams Park." Now on Terre 
Haute Express. 

ALEXANDER FRICKER Born War- 
ren, Mass., in 1876 ; learned printing in 
office of Olneyville Times, beginning in 
1894 ; was initiated into Providence Union 
Nov. 25, 1900. 

JAMES S. FRIEND (Bristol Bill) 
Born Glasgow, Scotland, Feb. 16, 1871; 
learned printing in Phoenix office, Bris- 
tol, R. I., beginning in 1887 ; admitted to 
Providence Union by card May 29, 1892 ; 
participated in the effort for the eight- 
hour day in 1906. 

GEORGE F. FULLER Directory, 1847, 
at 29 Market square ; went to New York 
city and became interested in the Mirror 
of that city. 

JOHN FITZPATRICK Born Fall 
River, Mass., April 9, 1875 ; began to 
learn printing on the News of that city in 
1880 ; worked in various cities of New 
England ; admitted to Providence Union 
by card April 27, 1902. 

CHARLES H. .FLAGLER Born St. 
John, N. B., Sept. 25, 1873 ; initiated into 
Providence Union April 5, 1888. Supt. 
Charles Deacon of the Union Printers' 
Home, Colorado Springs, Col., in a letter 
dated Aug. 30, 1904, furnishes the fol- 
lowing: "Mr. Flagler was admitted from 
Denver Typographical Union, No. 49, 
March 20, 1897, suffering with pulmonary 
tuberculosis. He continued to fail, and 
Dec. 30, 1899, at the request of his father, 
we started him home, accompanied by a 
trained nurse. When about 100 miles 
east of Chicago it became necessary to 
call a physician aboard the train, who 
was unable to save the sufferer, and he 
never reached Boston alive. The remains 
were taken off the train by the nurse, 
properly prepared for burial, and taken to 
Boston, where interment was made." 

EDWARD L. 'FLANAGAN Died New 

York city ; admitted to Providence Union 
by card Feb. 27, 1884 ; worked for sev- 
eral years on the Providence Journal. 

GEORGE WILLIAM FLYNN Born 
Providence Aug. 4, 1855 ; learned print- 
ing in George H. Whitney's job office, be- 
ginning in 1869 ; afterward worked for 
Reynolds & Mackinnon and on the Eve- 
ning Telegram ; in New York city from 
1886 to 1889 ; in Pawtucket for two years 
on the Evening Times, and has been fore- 
man of the Providence Visitor ; now em- 
ployed in proofroom of Providence Jour- 
nal ; obligated at the first meeting of the 
reorganized Union, April 8, 1883, and his 
name is on the charter. 



XXXIV 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



GEORGE M. FORBES Killed by a 
trolley car in Crawford, N. J., Oct. 19, 
1906, aged about 60 years; had been em- 
ployed by the Standard Printing Co. of 
this city. 

ALEXANDER W. FORSYTH Born 
Providence, R. I., Feb. 4, 1850, and died 
here June 20, 1887 ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Dec. 11, 1869, and worked on 
the Herald, Press, Star and Journal. He 
was a member of the United Train of 
Artillery. 

WILLIAM FOSTER Died Warwick, 
R. I. ; initiated into Providence Union 
June 20, 1857 ; secretary 1858, '59, '60 and 
'61 ; reporter on Evening Press in the 
70's ; candidate for Governor of the State 
on Greenback ticket 1877-'78 ; for several 
years had charge of the city wood yard 
in Providence. 

ROBERT FOULKES Born Manches- 
ter, England, Sept. 7, 1873 ; learned print- 
ing with Dean & Co., Stockport, England, 
beginning 1889 ; came to Providence Au- 
gust, 1893 ; worked on Telegram, News- 
Democrat and Evening Tribune ; initiated 
into Providence Union Sept. 29, 1901. 

EDWARD LIVINGSTON FREEMAN 
Born Waterville, Me., Sept. 10, 1835; died 
Central Falls, Feb. 25, 1907 ; began to 
learn printing in the office of A. W. 
Pearce, Pawtucket, R. I., in June, 1850; 
worked in Providence from 1854 to 1863,- 
in the office of Hammond, Angell & Co., 
and was part owner for a time. In 1863 
he removed to Central Falls and estab- 
lished the printing office of E. L. Freeman 
& Sons. The firm has done a very large 
business and since 1877 all of the official 
printing- of the State. Mr. Freeman was 
a member of the Legislature for nearly 
25 years and was Railroad Commissioner 
from 1888 until his death. He published 
the Central Falls Weekly Visitor for 21 
years. He was elected a member of 
Providence Typographical Union at its 
first meeting, April 18, 1857, but never 
qualified by signing the constitution, going 
to Washington, D. C., to work before the 
next meeting. He had a splendid reputa- 
tion among printers for his liberality to 
his employes and fair dealing. In the 
Masonic order he had held nearly every 
position of importance in the State. 

RALPH FREEMAN Born Central 
Falls, R. L, Feb. 8, 1877; learned print- 
ing at E. L. Freeman & Sons, beginning 
in 1881 ; admitted to Providence Union 
by card at the October meeting, 1905 ; 
participated in the effort for the eight- 
hour day in 1906. 

Initiated Into Providence Union on Dates 
Named: 

JOHN P. FALLON (pressman), Sept. 
28, 1890. 

CHARLES W. FARNHAM, Dec. 8, 1866. 
SAMUEL C. FARRON, March 28, 1886. 



JOHN W. FIFE, June 12, 1858. 
LUKE H. FLOOD, April 29, 1888. 
J. H. FOLEY, Jan. 31, 1897. 
MILTON C. FOSS, July 11, 1863. 
JOHN FRATER, April 29, 1893. 
DANIEL B. FULLER, June 24, 1888. 
FRANK E. FULLER, Feb. 26, 1893. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named: 

R. V. FAIRLAMB, March 27, 1884. 

C, A. FALLER, April 15, 1883. Re- 
ported dead. 

THOMAS J. FALLON, February, 1886. 

HENRY M. FARNHAM, October, 1873. 

JOHN P. FARNHAM, Oct. 27, 1895. 

JOSEPH P. FARWELL, Sept. 30, 1883. 

J. F. FEDRO, Aug. 27, 1884. 

R. S. FERGUSON, February, 1886. 

CHARLES FEUCHTER, July 10, 1870. 

F. W. FINLEY, June, 1886. 

T. FINNEY, June 26, 1904. 

EDWIN FITZGERALD, August, 1886; 
November, 1888. 

J. N. FITZGERALD, April 22, 1883. 

SAMUEL FLEMING, May 8, 1869. 

OWEN FLOOD, Dec. 14, 1872. 

MICHAEL D. FLYNN, July, 1888. 

M. FLYNN, October, 1886. 

E. P. FRANK, June, 1886. 

ISAAC FREUDENTHAL, January, 1887. 

J. J. FULLERTON, August, 1886. 

FRANK L. FOSMIRE, October, 1883. 

Names Found in Directory: 

PATRICK H. FANNING 1863 to 1870. 

M. F. FARRELL 1860. 

WILLIAM FISHER 1859. 

JAMES F. FORSYTH 1841 ; worked at 
Journal office. 

HENRY W. FOSDICK f844 ; worked 
over 15 Market square. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here: 

ORRA H. FELLOWS Name in 1870 
constitution. 

THOMAS FITZPATRICK Learned 
trade in Providence ; worked at Alber- 
type Co. 

J. HARRY FOSTER Born in New 
York and learned trade there ; worked in 
Providence. 

E. H. FRICKER Born in 1875 ; learned 
printing in Olneyville. 

EZEKIEL C. GARDINER Born Exe- 
ter, R. I., Feb. 1, 1839. When 15 years 
old he came to Providence and began an 
apprenticeship to the printing trade in 
the office of A. Crawford Greene, with 
whom he remained five years. Later he 
went to North Attleboro to work, where 
he remained two years, when he again 
returned to Providence to re-enter the 
employ of Mr. Greene. At the outbreak 
of the Civil war he enlisted in Co. D, 
2d R. I. Vols. After 28 months in the 
field he became ill, and on his recovery 
was put into the invalid corps, serving 
for some time as clerk in the hospital at 
Portsmouth Grove, R. I. He was hon- 
orably discharged at Fort Wood, New 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXXV 



York harbor, June 6, 1864. After his dis- 
charge from the army he entered the 
mill business for a while at Ashaway, 
R. I. He soon returned to his trade as 
printer, and was initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Aug. 13, 1864. He then 
went to Fall River to assist S. Angler 
Chace in printing the Fall River Monitor. 
In 1865 he removed to New Bedford, 
where he died Aug. 10, 1901. He was 
employed on the Evening Standard for 
a period of 25 years. He served the city 
of New Bedford as Councilman and 
Alderman, and for two years was Chief 
of Police, and later a member of the 
Board of Overseers of the Poor. He 
was a Past Master of Star in the East 
Masonic Lodge, a member of Adoniram 
Royal Arch Chapter and a Past Com- 
mander of Sutton Commandery. He was 
also a member of Post 190, G. A. R., and 
a charter member of the New Bedford 
Printers' Benefit Association and chair- 
man of the board of trustees of Bay 
State Lodge, N. E. O. P., for many years. 

PHILIP GILLARD GAIR Born To- 
ronto, Can., June 20, 1869 ; learned print- 
ing on the Advance at Dutton, Ontario, 
Can. ; worked in Providence from July 6, 
1893, to Feb. 13, 1901; two years on the 
News and five years on the Telegram ; 
also was in the job printing business at 
741 Westminster street for a while with 
Fred A. Manson ; initiated into Los 
Angeles Union in 1902 ; in 1905 was 
located at Santa Barbara, Cal. 

MICHAEL GARVEY Admitted to 
Providence Union by card at the Novem- 
ber meeting, 1905 ; came out of the 
Standard Printing Co. Jan. 1, 1906, for 
the eight-hour day ; left the city shortly 
after. 

HOWARD P. GATLEY Born Port- 
land, Me., Feb. 17, 1883 ; learned print- 
ing in Portland, beginning in 1898 ; 
worked in Providence in December, 1903~; 
in 1904 was located in Washington, D. C. 

HARRY E. GATRELL Born at Ford- 
ingbridge, England, and learned printing 
trade there ; worked in Providence from 
1892 to 1906 ; for several years was fore- 
man of the Evening Telegram ; initiated 
into Providence Union Feb. 24, 1901. 

CHARLES C. GAUVIN Born Ste. 
Rosalie, P. Q., Sept. 29, 1862 ; learned 
printing on a French newspaper in Woon- 
socket ; worked in Providence for about 
one year in 1881 ; since then has lived in 
Woonsocket ; eight years in job offices, 
seven years with Evening Reporter, five 
years manager of La Tribune, and four 
years as an insurance broker ; repre- 
sented Woonsocket three years in the 
Common Council and three years in the 
General Assembly. 

THOMAS CARLETON GAWLEY 
Born Chatham, Ont., Feb. 24, 1850 ; 
learned printing in that town, beginning 



in 1863; admitted to Providence Union by 
card Aug. 13, 1870 ; worked in this city 
on the Morning Herald in 1870 and 1872, 
and on the Journal in 1881. In 1904 he 
wrote : "Having worked all over the 
United States, Canada and Mexico, I can 
truthfully say that Providence, in the 
early 70's, was the ideal town for 'birds 
of passage.' " For the last ten years of 
his life he was a proofreader on the 
New .York Herald. He died in New York 
city June 25, 1905. 

E. F. GEBHARDT Died at Syracuse, 
N. Y., April 18, 1898, aged 34 years; he 
visited Texas in Februray of 1898 for the 
benefit of his health ; admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card Feb. 27, 1884. 

ROBERT H. GEBHARDT Born New 
York city Feb. 25, 1878; learned printing 
on the New York Weekly, beginning in 
June, 1892; worked in Providence on the 
News in 1898. "The two features I en- 
joyed while in Providence were the shore 
dinners and good fellowship of the mem- 
bers of No. 33." Located in New York 
city in 1904. 

FAYETTE U. GEER Initiated into 
Providence Union May 17, 1888; Presi- 
dent of Pawtucket Union in 1898; Presi- 
dent Providence Union in 1904, but did 
not finish term, going to Boston, where 
he has since been employed on the Globe 
as a linotype operator. 

JOSEPH GERHARDT Born East 
Providence Jan. 7, 1887 ; learned printing 
in office of Providence Journal, beginning 
Feb. 16, 1903 ; initiated into Providence 
Union at February meeting, 1907 ; night 
linotype operator on Journal. 

WILLIAM J. GHENT Born Frank- 
fort, Ind. ; began to learn printing in that 
town August, 1879 ; worked in Providence 
May-November, 1884, on Star and Press ; 
April- June, 1886, on Star and Telegram, 
on both visits depositing a card with No. 
33. Mr. Ghent is now secretary of Rand 
School of Social Science, New York city, 
and also lecturer. He is the author of 
"A Benevolent Feudalism," "Mass and 
Class" and other works. 

EZRA GIFFORD Born 1871 ; began to 
learn printing in Providence in 1886 ; 
initiated into Providence Union Dec. 28, 
1900 ; now located in Boston. 

DAVID L. GILBERT Born Andes, 
N. Y., May 15, 1856; learned printing at 
Delhi, N. Y., on the Gazette, beginning 
in 1873 ; his home was in Albany, N. Y., 
for about 27 years, but worked also in 
the New England States, New York and 
New Jersey ; first came to Providence in 
1900 ; admitted by card from Rutland 
(Vt.) Union in January, 1906, during the 
strike. 

WILLIAM E. GILLESPIE Born Pic- 
tou, N. xS. ; died Boston, Mass., Dec. 3. 
1906, aged 48 years ; learned printing on 



XXXVI 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



Pictou Standard, beginning in 1872 ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card July 
30, 1884 ; worked about six months on 
Journal ; last five years of his life he was 
employed on the Boston Post. 

MARTIN F. GILLOON Born Boston 
March 16, 1862 ; learned printing at Rand 
& Avery's, Boston, beginning in 1878; 
initiated into Providence Union Dec. 26, 
1883 ; died in Chattanooga, Tenn., March 
10, 1907, of tuberculosis. 

SABINO GIORDANO Born Italy Nov. 
27, 1871 ; learned printing in his native 
country ; was a member of Chicago Union, 
No. 16, in 1893, and of New York Italian 
Branch, No. 261, in 1897 ; has been in 
Providence since 1898; was initiated into 
Providence Union May 27, 1900; at pres- 
ent employed at Livermore & Knight's. 

BENJAMIN L. GLASBY Name in 
Directory 1844-'47, former year at Daily 
Gazette office ; enlisted in 5th R. I. H. 
Artillery Oct. 16, 1861, Corporal of Co. 
E; Jan. 30, 1863, discharged for disa- 
bility ; in 1859 vice president New York 
Union, No. 6. 

HARRY G. GLASBY Born West 
Chester, Pa., Aug. 24, 1862 ; learned to 
operate linotype machine in the office of 
Providence Journal, beginning in 1889, 
and has worked in that office since ; be- 
came member of No. 33 Jan. 29, 1893. 

ALFRED W. GLEASON Born Man- 
chester, Conn., March 29, 1855 ; learned 
printing on the Hartford Courant, begin- 
ning Dec. 2, 1871 ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Dec. 18, 1892 ; was for six 
months foreman of the Meriden Republi- 
can ; also worked on the Springfield Re- 
publican ; at present located In Woon- 
socket. 

MALVERN E. GLEASON Born March 
27, 1863, at Thompson, Conn. ; learned 
printing in Danielson, Conn., beginning in 
1877 ; initiated into Providence Union 
March 27, 1887, and worked at the busi- 
ness in this city from June 17, 1882, to 
July 24, 1888; has since been connected 
with F. A. Chase & Co., mill supplies, in 
this city. 

OWEN M. GLEDHILL Born Woon- 
socket and died there June 6, 1888, aged 
28 years, 11 months and 25 days; initi- 
ated into Providence Union April 8, 1883 ; 
financial secretary in 1886-'87 ; worked on 
Evening Telegram. 

WILLIAM GODDARD The first 
printer to establish that trade in Provi- 
dence, was born in New London, Conn., 
in 1740, the son of Dr. Giles Goddard 
and Sarah Updike. On his mother's side 
his ancestry extended back to the first 
settlers of Rhode Island and Connecti- 
cut. Lodowyck, her father, was the son 
of Gysbert Opdyck, the Dutch commander 
of Fort Hope at Hartford, Conn., in 1638, 
and Catherine, wife of Gysbert, was a 



daughter of Richard Smith, 2d, whose 
father, in 1639, purchased 30,000 acres 
of land from Narragansett sachems. The 
purchase included "all the land on the 
west side of Narragansett bay, north of 
Annaquatucket river, east of the 'Pequot 
path' and south of Allen's harbor." Upon 
this tract, called "Cocumscussuc," the 
first Richard Smith erected a block 
house for trading with the Indians. At 
this block house the expedition that de- 
feated the Indians in the Great Swamp 
fight rendezvoused, and to it the rem- 
nants of that party returned after the 
victory over the savages. William God- 
dard, through the influence of his mother, 
served an apprenticeship to the* printing 
trade in the office of James Parker in 
New York city. His father had been 
postmaster in New London, and possibly 
that experience was the means of attract- 
ing Mrs. Goddard's attention to the print- 
ing craft, as many of the postmasters 
of those days were also printers. About 
the 1st of July, 1762, Goddard opened 
his printing office in Providence, and in 
October following issued the first num- 
ber of the Gazette. After a short expe- 
rience he abandoned the enterprise and 
went to New York city to work at his 
trade as a journeyman printer. He was 
an ardent Revolutionary patriot. It was 
at that time that the following incident 
described in "Hudson's Journalism in the 
United States" took place : 

"There was published in Burlington, 
N. J., Saturday, Sept. 21, 1765, a paper 
under the title of the Constitutional 
Courant. It was printed by 'Andrew 
Marvel, at the sign of the bribe refused, 
on Constitution Hill, North America.' 
The real printer was William Goddard. 
With its title it had for a device a cut 
representing a snake divided into eight 
parts, each part denoting a section or 
colony the head and neck representing 
New England and the body New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
Virginia, North Carolina and South Caro- 
lina, with the motto : 'Join or Die.' 

"The Constitutional Courant was sold 
in the streets of New York and produced 
a sensation. It was noticed by the Gov- 
ernment. There was a 'council of war' 
on the paper. One of the 'newsboys' of 
that time, Samuel Sweeney there are 
many of that name nowadays on being 
asked by the council 'where that incendi- 
ary paper was printed, answered, 'At 
Peter Hassenclever's Iron Works, please 
your honor.' " 

Goddard started the Pennsylvania 
Chronicle and Universal Advertiser in 
Philadelphia in 1767. In August, 1773, 
in Baltimore, he started the Maryland 
Journal and Baltimore Advertiser. At 
one time after the Revolution he held the 
position of Surveyor General of Post 
Roads from the National Government. 
He was married to Miss Abigail Angell, 
eldest daughter of Gen. Israel Angell, in 
Cranston, R. L, on May 25, 1785. The 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXXVII 



last years of his life were spent in farm- 
ing in Providence. He died here Dec. 
23, 1817, at the age of 77 years. 

BERT A. GOODRICH Born in 1863 ; 
applied for membership in Burlington 
(Vt.) Union July, 1901; learned printing 
in Herald and News office at Randolph, 
Vt., beginning in 1880 ; had worked in 
Providence, R. I. ; in 1901 was employed 
at Middlebury, Vt. 

P. W. GOODSON Admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card June 27, 1897 ; 
brother to the inventor of the Goodson 
typesetting machine ; in 1904 was No. 
4430 in New York Union. 

EBEN GORDON Was a charter mem- 
ber of Providence Union in 1857 ; initi- 
ated again May 21, 1864, after his return 
from the Civil war; vice president of the 
Union in 1857 and 1859 ; President in 
1870; worked on Herald in 1872; went 
to Boston that year and worked on Her- 
ald there; died in that city in 1888. He 
enlisted June 5, 1861, in Co. C, 2d Inf.; 
discharged for disability Oct. 3, 1863. 

WILLIAM S. GORDON Initiated into 
Providence Union Aug. 27, 1893 ; he was 
foreman of the Telegram for a short 
time; also worked on the News ; in 1904 
was employed on the New York World. 

JOHN R. GORE Died by suicide at 
Syracuse, N. Y., June 20, 1904, aged 45 
years ; he was admitted to Providence 
Union by card at the January meeting, 

1886. 

JAMES M. GOULD Died Grosvenor- 
dale, Conn., April 5, 1904 ; born in Alle- 
gheny, Pa., and learned printing in the 
office of the Pittsburg Dispatch ; was a 
compositor on the Providence Telegram 
in 1880; admitted to No. 33 by card May 
27, 1883 ; later he worked in New York 
and Philadelphia, and was foreman of 
the Windham County Standard, published 
in Putnam, Conn. 

GEORGE GRAHAM Died by suicide 
in Newark, N. J., March 9, 1902, aged 
46 years. He was born in Scotland and 
came to this country with his father 
when a boy. He received a good educa- 
tion and then learned printing. He was 
one of the fastest hand compositors in 
the country. In a contest in Boston he 
.won a diamond-studded watch. He was 
employed as a writer on a New Haven 
paper and also on the New York Star. 
As a printer he travelled extensively, 
stopping in Providence in 1887, when he 
deposited his card in December of that 
year. 

JAMES H. GRAHAM Born Lebanon, 
O., Jan. 13, 1864 ; learned printing there, 
beginning in 1883; worked at the busi- 
ness in Milwaukee, Chicago, New York 
and Cincinnati ; located in Providence in 
1892; initiated into No. 33 Feb. 24, 1901; 
member of executive committee several 
years. 



THOMAS GRAHAM Born Providence 
April 26, 1861 ; learned printing at What 
Cheer office, beginning in 1878; initiated 
into Providence Union Dec. 26, 1883; 
was a master printer for about four 
years ; participated in the effort for the 
eight-hour day in 1906. 

JOHN ALLAN GRANT Died Boston 
Jan. 23, 1903, aged 41 years; initiated 
into Providence Union Nov. 12, 1884 ; his 
body was cremated at Forest Hills. 

EDWARD GRATTON Was in part- 
nership with John Miller for a short time 
in 1826. He was a job printer. 

CHARLES C. GRAY Born Little 
Compton, R. I., Dec. 27, 1841 ; removed 
to Providence in 1854. He was working 
as a printer when the Civil war began ; 
enlisted May 2, 1861, in 1st R. I. Light 
Battery, serving three months ; re- 
enlisted Sept. 4, 1861, in Battery D, 1st 
R. I. Light Artillery; re-enlisted again 
Jan. 31, 1864 ; received a commission as 
Second Lieutenant May 26, 1864, and 
served until the close of the war. He 
was one of the bravest soldiers from 
Rhode Island. At Antietam 39 men were 
lost from his battery and but one com- 
rade and himself remained with one of 
the guns; again at Knoxville, Tenn. (Nov. 
29, 1863), he distinguished himself. The 
following from Harper's Magazine of 
February, 1865, tells how a rebel battery 
was captured after the defeat of Early's 
army Oct. 19, 1864: "Lieut. Gray of 
Battery D galloped up to a retiring bat- 
tery and ordered it to face about and 
turn into the pike. 'I was told to go to 
the rear as rapidly as possible,' remon- 
strated the captain in command. 'You 
don't seem to know who I am,' answered 
Gray. 'I am one of those d d Yanks. 
Countermarch immediately.' The battery 
was countermarched, and Gray was lead- 
ing it off alone when a squadron of our 
cavalry came up and made the capture 
a certainty." Since the close of the war 
he has been prominent in the G. A. R. 
and was Chief Marshal of the ceremonies 
on Battle Flag Day, Oct. 17, 1903. He 
was for several years a member of the 
House of Representatives from Provi- 
dence ; State Auditor from 1899 to 1907; 
also Insurance Commissioner for the 
State. Mr. Gray was a member of the 
printing firm of Millard, Gray & Simp- 
son and owner of the Rhode Island Print- 
ing Co. He was initiated into Providence 
Union March 9, 1867 ; vice president in 
1867 and 1868; President in 1869 and 
treasurer in 1870. 

WILLIAM F. GRAY Born Bristol, 
R. I., March 16, 1866; learned printing 
in that town, beginning in 1881 ; initiated 
into Providence Union May 30, 1886, and 
worked in this city until the fall of 1889 ; 
in 1905 was employed on the Boston 
Herald. 

A. CRAWFORD GREENE Born North 
Kingstown, R. I., April 10, 1824 ; learned 



XXXVIII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



printing in Woonsocket, in his uncle's 
office (William N. Sherman) ; in 1845 
established a printing office in Provi- 
dence, which he conducted until his death, 
July 29, 1881, in' his 57th year. Captain 
Co. G, 10th Inf., in the Civil war. 

BENJAMIN GREENE Born Provi- 
dence, R. I., Nov. 1, 1879; learned the 
printing trade in the office of the Evening 
Telegram ; initiated into Providence Union 
Jan. 26, .1902. 

CHARLES A. GREENE Born Natick, 
R. I., Dec. 8, 1823; began to learn print- 
ing in the office of the Bristol Phoenix 
in 1837 ; worked in Providence and New 
York city; bought the Phoenix in 1862 
and conducted it until his death, which 
occurred in Bristol May 14, 1899 ; he was 
prominent in the political and militia 
circles of Bristol. 

JOHN FLAVEL GREENE Born North 
Kingstown, R. I., June 19, 1833 ; learned 
printing in his brother's (A. Crawford 
Greene) office, and in 1856 was in part- 
nership with him at 24 Westminster 
street; from 1867 to 1891 was in business 
for himself, and his successors have con- 
tinued his name to designate their office. 

ROBERT GRIEVE Born Sept. 16, 
1855, at Linwood, Renfrewshire, Scotland; 
came to America autumn of 1866 ; lived 
in Fall River a few months ; Warwick, 
R. I., four years ; New Bedford, eight 
years ; Boston and Providence. Learned 
trade : Providence Press Co., for a few 
months in 1869; then in book and job 
office of the Morning Mercury, New Bed- 
ford, Mass., 1876-'78, going from there to 
Boston and shortly after coming to Provi- 
dence, where he has since remained. 
Worked in Providence for A. Crawford 
Greene ; J. A. & R. A. Reid (as composi- 
tor, collector, clerk and confidential sec- 
retary, assistant manager and editor and 
writer) ; Providence Press Co., Provi- 
dence Journal, News (compositor and re- 
porter), Telegram (compositor and proof- 
reader) ; also in some smaller printing 
offices at various times. Publisher and 
editor of The People, labor paper, 1885- 
'87 ; The Times, a fortnightly railroad 
guide and business paper, 1888-' 89 ; wrote 
guide books and specials for J. A. & R. 
A. Reid, also history of "Cotton Centen- 
nial," 1890. Wrote Illustrated History 
of Pawtucket, 1896. During this period 
likewise wrote many specials for Provi- 
dence Journal and other publications. 
Editor Journal of Commerce 1897-1900 ; 
manager Journal of Commerce 1898-1902. 
Has published many smaller and fugitive 
publications, pamphlets, etc. Executive 
secretary to Gov. Garvin, 1903-'04. Studied 
law and was admitted to R. I. bar 1906. 
Mr. Grieve was initiated into Providence 
Union March 27, 1884, and served as 
President for a portion of that year. 

EDWARD N. GRIFFITHS Born Provi- 
dence, R. I., Nov. 26, 1873 ; learned print- 



ing trade in office of the Evening Times, 
Pawtucket, where he was employed in 
1904 ; worked in Providence in 1894 and 
again in 1904. 

WILLIAM GROGAN Admitted to 
Providence Union by card at the October 
meeting in 1886; withdrew card in 
March, 1887. 

MELVIN GUSHEE Came to Provi- 
dence from Mansfield, Mass, in 1884 to 
work for R. I. Printing Co.; about 1892 
he quit the business to become private 
secretary to a New York bank president. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Dates Named: 

THOMAS GAHAN, Feb. 26, 1893. 

ASHTON H. GARDINER, charter 
member 1857. 

L. E. GARDINER, elected to member- 
ship March 29, 1903 ; obligated by Glen's 
Falls Union. 

A. F. GERRISH, Sept. 26, 1886. 

GEORGE L. GOODMAN, Aug. 28, 1887. 

HENRY W. GOODNOW, Jan. 28, 1900. 

JOHN C. GOODWIN. Feb. 26, 1899. 

SHELDON E. GOFFE, March 30, 1899. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named: 

JOHN GALLOWAY, Harrisburg, Pa., 
Aug. 8. 1868. 

WALTER G. GAST, November, 1886. 
Reported dead. 

W. J. GOW, March 29, 1903. 

EDMUND GELINAS, Sept. 25, 1892. 

WILLIAM H. GEROW, Sept. 30, 1883. 

ROBERT GLIDDEN, November, 1888. 

LUKE A. GOLDEN, March, 1886. Died 
in Hartford. 

T. W. F. GOODE, January, 1886. 

ANDREW H. GORMAN, Nov. 30, 1902 ; 
Feb. 7, 1904. 

WILLIAM GORNALL, May 29, 1894. 

ANTHONY P. GUINAN, July 30, 1884. 
Died in Newark, N. J. 

A. GRAHAM, July,1886. Reported dead. 

CHARLES GRAHAM, October, 1886. 

WILLIAM GRAHAM, Boston, July 11, 
1868. 

JOHN GRANT, Sept. 9, 1871. 

J. STANLEY GRANT, June, 1886. 

CHARLES E. GRAY, Sept. 26, 1897. 

GEORGE W. GREENE, July 29, 1900. 

W. S. GREENE, May, 1885. 

P. B. GRISTE, Philadelphia, Sept. 14, 
1867. 

JOHN T. GRUBB, Feb. 22, 1885. 

Names from Providence Directory : 

THOMAS GLASBY 1844 at 2 Canal 
street; 1847 at 5 Canal street. 

JOHN H. GODFREY 1844. 

JOHN S. GREENE 1828 publisher 
Christian Telescope at 7 North Main 
street ; also started the Republican-Her- 
ald July 1 of that year. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here: 

GEORGE F. GAYLORD Early 70's. 
SEIGMUND GLASER Sept. 14, 1872. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XXXIX 



CHARLES A. GREENE In business 
on Washington row. 

CHARLES T. GREENE Aug. 8, 1874. 
E. W. GUILFORD 1856 on Journal. 

WILLIAM J. HAGERTY Initiated 
into Providence Union Sept. 28, 1885. 
He was for many years foreman of the 
What Cheer Print, and when he resigned 
from that position to go to Chicago in 
June, 1889, he was presented with a gold- 
headed cane. 

JEREMIAH R. HALEY Born Monti- 
cello, N. Y., Oct. 27, 1869 ; learned print- 
ing on Monticello Watchman, beginning 
in 1883 ; initiated into Providence Union 
May 17, 1888, and worked on the Evening 
Telegram until the strike of 1889, when 
he went to Woonsocket and worked there 
as reporter and compositor for three 
years ; was secretary of Woonsocket 
Union for two years ; went to New York 
city in 1892 and worked on the Times; 
later went to Syracuse and was employed 
two years on the Post-Standard ; then 
returned to New York and was employed 
on the Brooklyn Citizen; in 1902 he was 
delegate from No. 6 to the I. T. U. con- 
vention, held at Cincinnati, O. ; Decem- 
ber, 1905, visited Denver, Col., to benefit 
his health. 

AHIRA HALL Born Cambridgeport, 
Mass., May 22, 1849 ; learned printing 
trade with Pierce & Budlong, whose 
office was then located in Barton Block, 
beginning in 1865 ; worked at A. Craw- 
ford Greene's office, on the R. I. Lantern, 
General Advertiser and East Greenwich 
Pendulum ; also for many years on the 
Evening Press ; in Pawtucket five years 
on the Times, beginning with the first 
number ; later at Snow & Farnum's on 
the Providence Town Records ; initiated 
into Providence Union Jan. 11, 1873 ; now 
in the grocery business on Thayer street, 
Providence. 

BENJAMIN L. HALL Born Fall 
River, Mass., Sept. 11, 1838; began work 
at the printing trade with Benjamin T. 
Albro in this city in 1854, serving three 
years, and then left the business. Mr. 
Hall thinks that while he worked for Mr. 
Albro he made and used the first paper 
collar. It came about in this way : Young 
Hall and a journeyman were painting a 
press. The latter tried to induce Hall to 
take a difficult part of the job without 
success. In anger the journeyman threw 
his paint brush at Hall, striking him in 
the face and covering his neck and collar 
with paint. The boy did not wish to be 
rebuked at home, so he got rid of the 
stains on his clothing, but his collar was 
ruined. He then made a paper collar 
and wore it for several days. He was 
not experienced enough to patent his in- 
vention. Afterward paper collars were 
extensively used. In 1857 Mr. Hall 
started in the jewelry business and con- 
tinued at it until 1889, with the exception 
of the time he was in the Civil War with 



the First and Fifth Regiments. He was 
at the first battle of Bull Run. At the 
battle of Newbern he stood beside Benj. 
L. Glasby (printer) when the latter was 
wounded. He rose to the rank of Captain 
in the service. In 1873 he entered into 
the partnership of Hall & Willis. In 1891 
Capt. Hall became Commander of the 
Soldiers' Home at Bristol, which position 
he now holds. Nathan Hall was his uncle 
and E. B. Hall his brother. 

EDWARD B. HALL Born Fall River, 

Mass., Aug. 24, 1830 ; he was apprenticed 
to Henry Pratt in the office of the Fall 
River Monitor for five years, in 1846 ; 
served a little more than a year and "lit 
out" and came to Providence ; went to 
work for Albro & Hall, who had an office 
in the "Old Coffee House," corner Canal 
street and Market square ; later worked 
on the Post, of which George W. Daniel- 
son was at that time foreman, and on 
the Evening Press from its start until he 
enlisted in the llth Regiment in 1862. 
After his return from the war Mr. Hall 
went to New York city, where he has 
been employed since on the Times. Mr. 
Hall was a charter member of Providence 
Union in 1857, and is now one of the four 
surviving charter members. 

FRED C. HALL Born Canterbury, 
Conn., Aug. 21, 1863 ; learned printing 
trade in Danielson, Conn. ; has worked 
in several offices in Connecticut and Mas- 
sachusetts towns ; joined Providence 
Union April 25, 1886; worked in Journal 
of Commerce office five years, and with 
the Evening Bulletin until he became 
assistant foreman of the Journal, which 
position he now holds. 

FRED. I. HALL Born Lowell, Mass., 
June, 1864 ; learned printing in the Times 
office, Lowell, beginning in 1878 ; worked 
in Providence in 1886-87 ; in New York 
city in 1904. 

GEORGE W. HALL (son of Nathan 
Hall) Born Providence March, 1825 ; 
died August, 1893 ; learned printing at 
Knowles' office and worked there about 
four years after serving his apprentice- 
ship ; then went to Boston for about two 
years, and then to New Orleans for about 
one year ; from there to the Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C., for 
several years ; entered the Pension 
Bureau, where he was employed con- 
tinuously for over thirty years, with the 
exception of one year (1889-90), when 
he was removed by Commissioner Tanner, 
but was later reinstated by Secretary 
Noble. His services in the Pension 
Office were recognized by his being de- 
tailed to the board of review, upon whose 
decisions depended the fate of pension 
claims. 

JOHN W. D. HALL Was partner 
with Brown Simmons for a few weeks in 
October, 1829, in the publication of the 
Literary Subaltern. In 1832 he conducted 
a lottery office at 25 Arcade. 



XL 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



JOSEPH D. HALL, JR. Born Daniel- 
son, Conn., Aug. 29, 1856 ; learned trade 
in the office of the Danielson Herald. In 
Providence he worked several years on 
the Journal ; published the Providence 
Journal of Commerce (now Board of 
Trade Journal), of which he was Presi- 
dent and Manager ; was Manager of The 
Call, published by Typographical Union, 
No. 33 ; author of "Humbugs and Can- 
terbury Folks," "Twentieth Century Va- 
cation," "Biographical History of Manu- 
facturers and Business Men of Rhode 
Island ;" writer under the pseudonym of 
"Mrs. Wilberforce ;" also publisher of 
these, together with a number of Board 
of Trade books of New England and 
numerous small publications. "Mrs. Wil- 
berforce" pronounces unionism the great- 
est blessing of the age for all concerned, 
because it compels justice and equality 
to all men more than any other force 
that has ever been tried. Was business 
manager of Providence News in 1904. 
Mr. Hall joined Providence Typographical 
Union June 27, 1886, and held the office 
of President one year. He says : "As 
manager of The Call we were enabled to 
settle all bills when the paper closed up 
its business." 

NATHAN HALL, Died Providence, 
Feb. 13, 1877, aged 75 years and 5 
months. He was born in Warren, R. I., 
but learned printing here, serving five 
years' apprenticeship with H. H. Brown, 
then publisher of the Gazette, beginning 
Nov. 17, 1817. With the exception of five 
years, two of which were spent in New 
York city and three in Fall River, he 
worked all the years of his journeyman 
days in this city. Jan. 1, 1826, he started 
the Monitor in Fall River, but subse- 
quently sold it. For a long time he was 
foreman of the largest job printing office 
in this city (Knowles & Vose) ; was 
associated with B. T. Albro and later 
with Robert A. Pierce, and for many 
years was in the employ of the Provi- 
dence Press Co. In 1835-36 with C. S. 
Jones he published the Daily News. On 
his 70th birthday the Evening Press 
printed a sketch of his life, concluding 
as follows : "He is a worthy member of 
the art preservative of all arts, his life 
an example none need be ashamed to 
pattern by. The 'line' of his life is duly 
'justified,' his 'form' well 'imposed,' and 
we may hope that the final 'impression' 
shall be satisfactory and need no 're- 
vision." Mr. Hall was vice president 
of the first printers' Union in Providence 
in 1854, was a charter member of No. 33 
in 1857, and elected its first President at 
its institution, June, 1857. 

WALTER E. HALL Born Danielson, 
Conn., Oct. 14, 1871 ; learned printing in 
that town, beginning in January, 1889 ; 
initiated into Providence Union Aug. 27, 
1893, and worked here eight years; 
located at E. L. Freeman's, Central Falls, 
R. I., in 1904. 



JAMES S. HAM Born Providence 
March 8, 1809; died here Sept. 8, 1865; 
learned the trade of a printer in the 
office of Hugh H. Brown, from which 
circumstance he used to claim that he 
was typographically descended from Ben- 
jamin Franklin. John Carter learned his 
trade of Franklin, Hugh H. Brown 
learned his trade of Carter, and James 
S. Ham learned his trade of Brown. He 
became a thorough printer and proof- 
reader, and worked as a journeyman in 
this city, in Washington and in Cam- 
bridge, Mass. For a long time he was a 
proofreader on the Washington Globe 
and could have had an editorial position 
on that paper but for disagreeing with 
its politics. He would take no position 
in which it would be necessary for him 
to withhold the full and open expression 
of his Whig sentiments. His first edi- 
torial employment was on the Providence 
Daily Advertiser (1831), in which posi- 
tion he continued two years. In 1833, in 
company with Joseph Knowles, he pur- 
chased the Microcosm, American and 
Gazette, a weekly paper, which was con- 
tinued for one year. Twice he had the 
editorial charge of the Providence Jour- 
nal, once for six months in 1855 and 
again in 1860 for a longer time. Mr. 
Ham was the "Old Mortality" of Rhode 
Island public men. He was familiar with 
every conspicuous struggle for party 
supremacy in this State, with its outside 
and inside history. He was several times 
Alderman and often served as Acting 
Mayor in the absence of the chief mu-. 
nicipal officer of Providence. 

DAVID HAMILTON Born Toronto, 
Ontario, in 1858 ; learned printing on the 
Guelph Herald; beginning in 1873 ; 
worked in Providence in 1886 ; admitted 
to No. 33 by card February, 1886 ; 
located in New York city in 1904. 

JOSEPH A. HAMILTON Born Que- 
bec, Can., Oct. 19, 1858 ; died Woon- 
socket, R. L, Feb. 7, 1904 ; joined Provi- 
dence Union by card Dec. 27, 1885, and 
worked here on the Evening Telegram ; 
later he was employed in Pawtucket ; in 
1890 he removed to Woonsocket. At his 
death eight children were left orphans, 
the oldest but 17. His wife died in Sep- 
tember, 1903. 

WALTER CHARLES HAMM Grad- 
uate of Brown University in 1870. Dur- 
ing his four years' attendance at college 
he learned the trade of compositor in the 
Journal composing room ; member edi- 
torial staff New York Tribune 1875-83 ; 
Philadelphia Press 1883-1903 ; U. S. Con- 
sul at Hull, Eng., 1903. 

OWEN J. HAMMALL Born Toronto, 
Can., June 18, 1866 ; learned printing in 
office of Toronto Globe, beginning in 
1881 ; admitted by card to Providence 
Union at the April meeting, 1886 ; "best 
summer town in experience ;" visited 
Providence again in 1907. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XLI 



JOHN S. HAMMOND Was employed 
at Journal office in 1826 as a printer. 
Between the years 1836 and 1853 he was 
a bookseller on Market square. In the 
latter year he resumed the occupation of 
a printer and was for many years man- 
ager of the Journal job office. 

THOMAS S. HAMMOND (son of John 
S. Hammond) Born Providence Dec. 8, 
1844 ; learned printing in the Journal job 
office, beginning in 1860. About 1871, in 
partnership with Henry F. Ferrin, a 
noted auctioneer, he established an office 
for the publication of the Temple of 
Honor and Freemason's Repository in the 
building on Weybosset street next east 
of the Arcade. In time the Temple of 
Honor was discontinued and the Free- 
mason's Repository was sold to B. L. 
Freeman. In 1894 Mr. Hammond started 
the Cranston City Times. During the 
continuance of the Chicago World's Fair 
he published' for the State the R. I. 
World's Fair Bulletin. 

CHARLES WALTER HANDY Young- 
est son of Major Handy of Newport, R. I., 
died March 30, 1818, in the 17th year 
of his age, after a two weeks' illness. 
For three years he had been a highly 
valuable clerk and compositor in the 
Rhode Island American office. He was 
buried in St. John's Churchyard Sunday, 
April 1, 1818. 

ARTHUR HANLEY Born Ireland in 
1839 and died in Providence Dec. 30, 
1883; he learned printing in this city; 
initiated into Providence Union May 9, 
1863 ; on honorary list in 1877 ; for many 
years and until 1882 he was employed on 
the Weekly Visitor. 

FRANK HANRAHAN Born Taunton, 
Mass., Oct. 17, 1860; learned printing at 
J. A. & R. A. Reid's, beginning in 1881 ; 
worked for a short time in Attleboro and 
Pawtucket ; initiated into Providence 
Union March 29, 1903. 

ROBERT HARCUS Died at Union 
Printers' Home, Colorado Springs, Oct. 13, 
1904. He had been sent there from New 
York Union. He was born in Kirkwall, 
Orkney Islands, Scotland, May 8, 1865; 
learned printing in the office of the Ork- 
ney Herald ; worked in Providence in 
1884-85. 

WILLtAM C. HARCUS Born Scotland 

Sept. 7, 1863; learned printing at Kirk- 
wall, Orkney Islands, Scotland; initiated 
into Providence Union June 27, 1886; 
worked on the Evening Telegram and at 
the Standard Printing Co. and for a num- 
ber of years at E. L. Freeman's, Central 
Falls ; in Brockton in 1907. 

IRVING C. HARGRAVES Born Ol- 
neyville Aug. 17, 1858; learned printing 
on Evening Bulletin, beginning in 1876; 
has been employed on that paper since ; 
learned to operate linotype ; now proof- 
reader ; initiated into Providence Union 
May 30, 1886. 



THOMAS M. HARKER Born Carlisle. 
Cumberland, England, in 1826 and learned 
the printing trade in that city ; worked 
in Providence from 1864 until his death 
in 1872 ; was Superintendent of Provi- 
dence Journal job office ; afterward en- 
tered into partnership with Samuel Mil- 
lard (Millard & Harker). War Record 
In 1861 enlisted in 79th New York High- 
landers ; afterward transferred to Navy 
and served as gunner's mate on the U. S. 
gunboat Moose until his discharge in 1864. 

JOHN F. HARRINGTON Born Man- 
chester, N. H., April 28, 1877 ; learned 
printing on Manchester Union, beginning 
July 19, 1892 ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card at April meeting, 1907. 

EPHRAIM HARRIS Born Utica, 
N. Y., Nov. 15, 1872 ; learned printing at 
Mason's job office in that city, beginning 
in 1888 ; came to Providence May 13, 
1904 ; now employed on News-Democrat. 

JOB HARRY Born 1871; learned 
printing in office of Kennett (Pa.) News 
and Advertiser, beginning in 1887 ; was 
member of Providence Union February, 
1900 ; worked in Taunton, Mass., and 
New Haven, Conn. 

FREDERICK E. HART Born Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, in 1867 ; learned printing with 
O. H. Harpel Pointing Co., Cincinnati, O. 
His own story: "Started out at age of 15 
with my uncle, who was an all-round 
printer (tourist), for the South; worked 
five years in Nashville, Tenn. ; then began 
a tour of the United States ; crossed the 
Texas plains, with a newspaper outfit, for 
Silver City, N. M. ; attacked by Indians 
110 miles from Phoenix, Arizona; lost the 
outfit and got away by the skin of my 
teeth; landed in St. Louis in 1890; got 
married and settled down for a few 
years, but again began to travel ; to Chi- 
cago, St. Paul, Albany and Providence ; 
seven children, no money and still learn- 
ing the business." Initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Feb. 24, 1901. Drowned in 
Warren river, in Swansea, Mass., July 
14, 1906, while seining shrimp. 

JOHN HARWOOD Married to Mrs. 
Nancy Eames July 20, 1799. His wife 
Esther had died the previous month, 
"after a long and distressing illness." In 
making these announcements the Gazette 
stated that Mr. Harwood was a printer. 
John Harwood, a Revolutionary pen- 
sioner, died Feb. 2, 1835, aged 74 years. 

JOHN CARTER HARWOOD Started 
the Pawtucket Chronicle Nov. 12, 1825. 
and sold it to Brown & Carlile of Provi- 
dence in 1826. He was employed at the 
American office in this city in 1824, and 
from 1832 to 1836 at the Journal office, 
according to the Directory. Later he 
went to New York city, where he 'worked 
as a journeyman printer until his death. 

WALLACE WINFIELD HASKINS 
Born Pawtucket, R. I., June 6, 1874 ; 



XLII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



learned printing in Pawtucket, beginning 
in 1889; admitted to Providence Union 
by card July 29, 1900 ; worked on Paw- 
tucket Times and later on Evening 
Bulletin in Providence ; now employed on 
Pawtucket Times. 

J. FRANK HASKELL Linotype ope- 
rator; worked on Journal in 1889-90 and 
made record on first type of machine ; 
was working in Cincinnati, O., in 1899. 

CHARLES HAVEN Admitted to 
Providence Union by card (from Boston) 
April 14, 1860; elected President for first 
six months of 1863 and served as Secre- 
tary for rest of the year. 

FRANK W. HAVENS Born Hartford, 
Conn. ; learned printing in office of Cou- 
rant, of which his father was for many 
years foreman of the pressroom ; initiated 
into Providence Union Dec. 27, 1885; for 
several years was night foreman of Jour- 
nal, succeeding Robert Quinn. 

DAVID HAWKINS Was said to be 
the oldest printer in the State when he 
died, Feb. 5. 1865, at the age of 80, in 
the town of North Providence, where he 
had resided for the previous 50 years, 
engaged for the larger part of the time 
in agricultural pursuits. He learned the 
"art and mystery" of printing of John 
Carter, whose boast it was that he had 
Dr. Franklin for his master. In company 
with William W. Dunham, in 1808, Mr. 
Hawkins established the Rhode Island 
American, the third semi-weekly paper 
published in the State. He continued his 
connection with the American until 1813, 
when he retired altogether from the 
printing business. 

WALTER D. HAWLEY Born Malone, 
N. Y., September, 1861 ; learned printing 
in that town, beginning in 1882 ; admitted 
to Providence Union by card May 28, 
1884, and January, 1886; worked in New 
York, Boston and other cities ; in October, 
1906, visited Providence, but returned to 
New York. 

JAMES J HAY Born St. Johns N. F. ; 
learned printing in that city ; admitted 
to Providence Union by card July, 1887 ; 
worked on the Journal until 1889 ; was 
employed at Norwood, Mass., in 1905. 

AMBROSE A. HAYDEN Died Provi- 
dence Sept. 21, 1886; he was admitted to 
Providence Union by card at the June 
meeting, 1886. 

MATTHEW A. HAYES Born Albany, 
N. Y., Sept. 23, 1859 ; learned printing in 
Albany, beginning in 1874 ; admitted to 
Providence Union by card July, 1886; 
worked on Star, Journal and Telegram ; 
visited Providence in June, 1907. 

JOHN C. HAZARD Born Providence 
Oct. 27, 1883; learned printing on the 
Telegram and News, beginning in 1901 ; 
participated in the effort for the eight- 



hour day and was initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Jan. 28, 1906 ; now employed 
on Tribune. 

JOSEPH M. HAZZARD Born Kent 
county, Del., March 15, 1859 ; learned 
printing in Wilmington, Del., beginning 
in 1873 ; joined Providence Union by card 
April 30, 1884, stopping in this city about 
one year ; for several years managing 
editor American Press Association in New 
York city ; owner of Brooklyn Record in 
1905. 

SAMUEL K. HEAD Died Arlington, 
Mass., Feb. 20, 1901 ; he had worked at 
printing in this city previous to 1872. His 
father was one of the founders of the 
Boston Herald. 

FRANKLIN HEIMBACK Born St. 
Paul, Minn., Dec. 6, 1853 ; learned print- 
ing in that city, beginning May 1, 1870 ; 
visited Providence in the spring of 1885 
and worked on Telegram ; in Jackson, 
Miss., in 1904. 

JONATHAN P. HELME Died Provi- 
dence May 10, 1877, aged 68 years and 4 
months. His name appears in the Direc- 
tory of 1832 as working at 12 Market 
square ; he worked on the Courier, Jour- 
nal and Post. In 1856 he was Custom 
House Inspector. He was initiated into 
Providence Union Dec. 13, 1862. 

JAMES J. HENDERSON Born Kings- 
ton, N. B., May 11, 1870; learned printing 
on the Rhode Island Democrat while 
Benj. Evans conducted the paper ; now 
employed in a private job office owned by 
Young Bros., this city. 

AMBROSE HIGGINS Born New York 
city Sept. 18, 1845 ; learned printing in 
Norwich, Conn. ; worked in Providence in 
1860-'61 ; in New London, Conn., in 1904. 

GEORGE W. HILSMAN Born Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Nov. 25, 1880 ; learned print- 
ing in that city, beginning in 1892, on the 
Public Ledger ; initiated into Providence 
Union Nov. 30, 1902 ; now employed on 
Tribune. 

JOSEPH G. HODGKINSON Died Provi- 
dence Feb. 4, 1903. He was a native of 
England and learned printing in that 
country. He came to the United States in 
1879 ; was initiated into Providence Union 
April 8, 1883, and worked on the Tele- 
gram ; he worked also in Brooklyn, New 
York city and Paterson, N. J. He re- 
turned to Providence in September, 1902, 
and was an employe of the Journal at 
the time of his death. 

THOMAS CADMAN HOE Born 1845; 
learned printing in office of The North- 
western at Oshkosh, Wis., beginning in 
1865 ; worked all over country, including 
Providence, R. I. ; applied for membership 
in Madison (Wis.) Union in 1901. 

MAX HOFFMAN Born Bennisch, 
Silesia, Austria, Sept. 25, 1879; learned 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XLIH 



printing in Kansas City, Mo., beginning- 
May 31, 1892 ; worked in Providence since 
1897, with J. C. Hall Co., Tribune, News- 
Democrat and Journal ; joined Providence 
Union April 30, 1899. 

OSCAR D. HOLLAND Born Provi- 
dence Jan. 13, 1879 ; learned printing with 
his father, John Holland, beginning in 
1892; initiated into Providence Union 
Dec. 31, 1899 ; member firm of John Hol- 
land & Son. 

STEPHEN G. HOLROYD ("Uncle Ste- 
phen") Born Providence June 12, 1807 ; 
died there Feb. 10, 1884 ; learned the 
trade of a printer, working as a journey- 
man until Feb. 2, 1833, when, in part- 
nership with Sylvester S. Southworth, he 
published the Daily Gazette. The paper 
lived nine months, when it was made a 
weekly and soon after discontinued. In 
1837-'40, in partnership with Andrew M. 
Barber, he published the Otsego Repub- 
lican, at Cooperstown, N. Y. This town 
was the home of the novelist, James Fen- 
nimore Cooper, who at that time was in 
some disfavor with the public because of 
the many strictures on American ideas, 
methods and manners contained in some 
of his books. A New York newspaper, 
in criticising one of Cooper's novels, pub- 
lished an article full of personal abuse of 
the novelist. This article was copied into 
many newspapers, Mr. Holroyd's among 
others, and the result was a series of 
libel suits. The Otsego Republican was 
an unsuccessful defendant in one of them 
and in consequence Mr. Holroyd returned 
to the ranks of the journeymen, working 
for a short time on the Freeman's Jour- 
nal, in Cooperstown, and, in 1841, in New 
York city. There he worked on the 
Tribune, which started in 1841, and on 
the Courier and Enquirer, then one of 
the leading papers of that city. In 1849 
Mr. Holroyd returned to Providence, ac- 
cepting a position on the Journal Nov. 3. 
Mr. Holroyd collected the ship news for 
the Journal, using a boat for that pur- 
pose, and also put it into type. It was, 
in those days, one of the most important 
departments of the paper. He became an 
expert in the business, following the news 
of the Providence vessels in their voy- 
ages from port to port, changes in owner- 
ship and commanders, and could, without 
referring to other authority, tell all there 
was to say about them. In 1867 he gave 
up the collecting part and took the ship 
news cases on the Press, holding them 
until 1881, when he retired. On that 
occasion his associates in the office pre- 
sented to him a gold-headed cane, suitably 
engraved, Mr. George O. Willard, then 
city editor of the Press, making the pres- 
entation speech. He was initiated into 
Providence Union April 11, 1868. He is 
buried in North End Cemetery. 

EDWARD C. HOOPES Born West 
Chester, Pa. ; learned printing trade on 
the Daily Local News, beginning Nov. 22, 



1879. Since then he has been manager 
and editor of a newspaper at Downington, 
Pa., and in the JOD printing business for 
10 years. He is an accomplished musi- 
cian, having been director of a theatre 
orchestra for 15 years. He came to Provi- 
dence March 10, 1903, working on the 
Telegram and Journal ; now proofreader 
on the Tribune. 

GEORGE HAROLD HOPE Born Provi- 
dence July 8, 1878 ; learned printing in 
this city at Eagle Printing Co., beginning 
in 1893 ; initiated into Providence Union 
Oct. 29, 1899 ; worked on Evening Tele- 
gram ; "my father and grandfather before 
me served their time at the printing busi- 
ness." At present treasurer of the Star 
Printing Co. in Providence. 

GEORGE W. HOPE Born Halifax, 
N. S., Oct. 9, 1854; learned printing in 
office of Mercury at New Bedford, Mass., 
beginning in 1872 ; worked in Providence 
since 1875 ; now manager of Star Printing 
Co., Westminster street, near Hoyle build- 
ing. 

CHARLES H. HOPKINS Born New 
Haven Nov. 30, 1858 ; died Providence 
Jan. 28, 1904. He came of a family of 
printers ; father, uncles and brothers were 
all expert at the trade. He learned print- 
ing in New York city, but removed to 
Manchester, N. H., before he was 20. In 
1881 he was foreman of the Woonsocket 
Reporter, and again from 1884 to 1891. 
In 1883 and from 1891 to 1900 he was 
employed in the composing room of the 
Providence Journal, holding the position 
of assistant foreman of the Evening Bul- 
letin for a number of years. From 1900 
to the summer of 1903 he was in business 
with his brother, Frank E.. at Jamaica, 
N. Y., printing books. For a few months 
before his death he was employed on the 
Evening Telegram. He joined Providence 
Union by card Dec. 28, 1890. He was a 
first-class workman and his character was 
very nearly perfect. 

JOHN P. HORAN Became prominent 
in the affairs of Providence Union in 
1884 and was elected President in 1885 
and 1886. In 1885 he was one of the five 
arbitrators to whom was referred the dis- 
pute between the Journal and the Union. 
He left this city in February, 1887, for 
Ireland, and is reported to have died 
shortly after in England. While in this 
city he was employed on the Telegram. 

THOMAS L. HORAN Learned print- 
ing in the office of the Norwich (Conn.) 
Advertiser, beginning about 1870 ; admit- 
ted to Providence Union by card in 1873 ; 
initiated April 8, 1883 ; Vice President in 
1887 ; worked in the offices of the Jour- 
nal, Star and Telegram ; now proofreader 
on the Boston Advertiser. 

FREDERICK A. HORTON Died Provi- 
dence May 22. 1894, aged 21 years, 6 
months and 23 days. He was initiated 



XLIV 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



into Providence Typographical Union 
March 26, 1893, and worked at Brownell's 
bookbindery. At that time bookbinders 
were eligible to membership in the Union. 

JOHN J. HORTON Born Westerly, 
R. I., April 13, 1874; learned printing in 
the office of the Westerly Daily Tribune, 
commencing July 16, 1888; came to Provi- 
dence Sept. 1, 1890, locating first at What 
Cheer Print, and became a member of 
the Typographical Union May 29, 1892; 
has served since on the following commit- 
tees of that body : Joint standing on 
Telegram agreement; executive, 1901- 
1903 ; on city printing, 1901-1902 ; on 
scale, 1901-1902 ; joint conference on nine- 
hour day, 1900 ; committee of thirty, 
1900 ; on souvenir committee, 1904-1907. 
Mr. Horton represented the Union in the 
Allied Printing Trades' Council in 1902- 
1903, and was secretary-treasurer of that 
body. He has worked in various localities 
between Boston and Chicago and has held 
about 45 situations. He claims the dis- 
tinction of being "the only printer who 
paid full fare for every mile he has trav- 
elled." Now employed on Evening Bul- 
letin. 

OLIVER JUDSON HOUCK Learned 
printing with Reynolds & Co., Albany, 
N. Y. ; he worked in Springfield, Mass. ; 
initiated into Providence Union at the 
December meeting, 1897. 

JOHN STANLEY HOULE Born Lan- 
caster, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 25, 1861 ; 
learned printing in Montreal, beginning in 
1876; initiated into Manchester (N. H.) 
Union June, 1904 ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card April 30, 1905 ; participated 
in the effort for the eight-hour day in 
1906 ; prepared the issues of the "Union 
Man's Reference Book ;" in New York 
city in 1907. 

WILLIAM H. HOVEY Died Norwich, 
Conn., March 5, 1899. He had been toast- 
master at the 32d anniversary banquet 
given by Norwich Union during the eve- 
ning and was in the corridor of the 
Wauregan Hotel, preparing to go home, 
when he was stricken at 2 A. M. The 
cause of death was cerebral apoplexy. 
Mr. Hovey was born in Morrisville, N. Y., 
in 1842 ; began to learn printing in the 
office of the Madison Observer, leaving in 
two years and continuing at the trade as 
a "two-thirder" for a short time. He 
settled in Norwich, Conn., in 1864, and 
worked in that city until his death, ex- 
cepting a short time when he worked on 
the Providence Evening Press. He was 
foreman of the Norwich Bulletin more 
than 26 years; was a charter member of 
No. 100, organized in 1867, and had held 
every office in its gift. He represented 
that Union in the I. T. U. conventions of 
'69, '77, '81, '82 and '90. He was a promi- 
nent Mason and that order had charge of 
the services at his funeral. 

FRANK C. HOWARD Born Boston, 
Mass., Feb. 4, 1881 ; learned printing in 



the Mercury office, New Bedford, begin- 
ning in 1896 ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card Oct. 26, 1902 ; at present 
employed on the Tribune. 

JASON T. HOWARD Died Providence 
April 29, 1891 ; he was initiated into 
Providence Union Jan. 31, 1886 ; worked 
at Whittemore & Colburn's. 

GEORGE S. HOWE Died New York 
city ; he probably came from Troy, N. Y. ; 
was a member of Albany Union in 1864 ; 
admitted to Providence Union by card 
Dec. 10, 1870 ; worked many years in 
New York city. When George Arensburg 
first came to the New York Times from 
Pittsburg and was the fastest compositor 
in the country, Howe christened him "The 
Velocipede." 

AUSTIN C. HOWELL Born Hope, 
Warren county, N. J., Jan. 12, 1850 ; 
learned printing trade in Pittsburg, Pa., 
beginning in 1866 ; worked in Providence 
1871-'74, '77 .to '92; at present (1904) 
farming in Hampton, Windham county, 
Conn., part of the year and the balance 
of the year printing in New York city. 

ERNEST A. HOWSE Born Bridge- 
town, Nova Scotia, 1876; learned printing 
in office of Weekly Monitor of that town ; 
worked in office of Library Bureau, Bos- 
ton, several years, where he learned to 
operate the monotype ; initiated into 
Providence Union Aug. 30, 1903. 

FRANK M. HOYT Born Binghamton, 
N. Y., in 1850; learned printing in that 
city on the Reporter, beginning in 1865 ; 
worked in Providence on the Herald in 
1872 and again in 1885 ; admitted to 
Providence Union January, 1885. 

CHARLES B. HUBBARD Learned 
printing on Evening Press, Providence ; 
went whaling on the "Talisman" from 
New Bedford after serving his appren- 
ticeship ; initiated into Providence Union 
Feb. 27, 1884 ; worked in Springfield, Mass. 

ALONZO B. HUDSON Died Kansas 
City, Mo., March 20, 1904 ; born Salem, 
O., and learned printing in his father's 
office ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card October, 1888; for the last six or 
eight years prior to his death he was 
associated with an elder brother in the 
conduct of the Kansas City Bill Post- 
ing Co. 

FRANK J. HUESTON Born New York 
city Aug. 28, 1857; died there March 20, 
1905 ; learned printing in Utica, N. Y., 
in office of the Herald, beginning in 1872 ; 
admitted by card to Providence Union at 
the April meeting, 1886. 

FREDERICK T. HUGHES ("Gedger") 
Died Seton Hospital, New York city, 
June 23, 1904, and was buried in the 
Union plot at Mount Hope Cemetery ; his 
card was deposited in Providence Union 
at the June meeting, 1886 ; he had been 
a member of New York Union for a num- 
ber of years previous to his death. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XLV 



MAURICE E. HUGHES Born Johns- 
ton, Queens county, N. B., Feb. 13, 1856; 
learned printing in News office, St. John, 
N. B., where he served a five years' ap- 
prenticeship ; worked in St. John three 
years after completing his apprenticeship 
and then went to Boston, where he 
worked for Rockwell & Churchill, Rand 
& Avery and the Boston Stereotype 
Foundry. In Cambridge he joined the 
Union and worked at the Riverside Press 
and University Press. He came to Provi- 
dence in 1884, where he worked in the 
office of the Journal 14 years and was one 
of the first to learn the linotype ; has 
worked for Snow & Farnham five years ; 
participated in the effort for the eight- 
hour day in 1906 ; now copyholder on 
Journal ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card Nov. 12, 1884 ; delegate to Toronto 
I. T. U. convention, 1905. 

WILLIAM H. HUGHES Born East 
Greenwich May 6, 1861 ; learned printing 
in that town ; worked in Providence in 
1886 for Press Co. ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Feb. 26, 1893. 

JOSEPH F. HUNOLD Born College 
Point, Long Island, N. Y., March 15, 1870 ; 
learned machinist trade at Flushing Iron 
Works, beginning in 1887 ; worked in 
Providence from 1900 as linotype machin- 
ist on the Telegram and Tribune until 
1906, when he removed to Seattle, Wash. 

ROBERT F. HUNT Born Cumberland, 
R. I., July 9, 1874 ; began to learn print- 
ing in the Gazette and Chronicle office, 
Pawtucket, Feb. 13, 1890, where he con- 
tinued ten years ; from there he went to 
New York city, where he worked three 
years and learned the linotype, and then 
came to this city ; participated in the 
eight-hour strike of 1906 ; now with the 
News-Democrat. 

DENNIS A. HURLEY Born Provi- 
dence May 28, 1886 ; learned printing with 
Remington Printing Co., beginning in 
1902 ; participated in the effort for eight- 
hour day in January, 1906, and joined 
Providence Union ; now employed on Eve- 
ning Bulletin. 

FLORENCE THOMAS HURLEY Born 
Providence Dec. 31, 1864 ; learned print- 
ing in Press Co. job department, begin- 
ning in 1880; initiated into Providence 
Union Sept. 29, 1901. 

JOHN E. HURLEY Born Providence 
June 22, 1866; learned printing at R. I. 
Printing Co. ; initiated into Providence 
Union Oct. 25, 1885 ; worked several years 
on Journal ; member of firm of Remington 
Printing Co. and has been connected with 
that concern since its start. 

MICHAEL J. HURLEY Died Lynch- 
burg, Va., in 1896; learned printing in 
Lynchburg ; worked at the business in this 
city In 1883-'84. 



JOHN C. HURLL Born Boston, Mass., 
July 17, 1854 ; learned printing in that 
city at Rand & Avery's ; worked in Provi- 
dence from November, 1884, to Sept. 6, 
1889, about three months on the Star and 
the balance of the time on the Journal ; 
admitted to No. 33 by card in December, 
1884; President of the Union in 1887. 
Since leaving this city Mr. Kuril has re- 
sided in Boston and is at present proof- 
reader on the Post. 

GEORGE H. HUSTON Born Whitby, 
Ont, Sept. 28, 1862 ; learned printing in 
office of Whitby Chronicle, beginning in 
1877 ; after travelling extensively in the 
United States settled in Providence in 
1884, depositing card in No. 33 at the 
November meeting that year ; employed 
continuously in Journal composing room 
in the meantime ; has operated a linotype 
since the introduction of the machines. 

THOMAS HYNES ("Skinny") Died 
San Francisco, Cal., Sept. 17, 1896, aged 
50 years, and is buried in the plot of San 
Francisco Typographical Union, No. 21, in 
Laurel Hill Cemetery ; he was admitted 
by card to Providence Union Oct. 12, 1872. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Dates Named : 

CHARLES E. HALL, Nov. 25, 1888 ; by 
card December, 1888, and October, 1889. 

FRED S. HALL, April 29, 1888. 

FREDERICK W. HALL, March 25, 1900. 

ROBERT HALLIDAY, April 5, 1888 
(pressman). Reported dead. 

L. A. HANLON, March 30, 1902. 

WILLIAM D. HARRINGTON, July 12, 
1873. 

J. FRANK HASKELL, Dec. 29, 1889 
(stereotyper). 

JAMES HATLOW, Dec. 27, 1896. 

ALFRED G. HEAD, Nov. 10, 1866. 

EDGAR L. HEATH, Dec. 26, 1883. 

CHARLES J. HICKS, before April 18, 
1857. 

SYLVESTER B. HILTON, March 27, 
1892. 

JOHN H. HUDSON, Dec. 26, 1883. 

MARTIN G. HUMMELL, July 27, 1890. 

W. W. HURLBUT, Feb. 28, 1897. 

HENRY HUTTON, May 28, 1893. 

THOMAS F. HOPEWELL, Nov. 14, 
1868. Died April, 1873. 

HARLEY F. HOPKINS, May 13, 1871. 

C. HOWRIGAN, Feb. 24, 1901. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named : 

W. E. A. HAGAN, August, 1886. 

FRED G. HALL, April, 1886. 

J. R. HALLER, April, 1887. (Reported 
dead.) 

JOHN F. HALLORAN, Nov. 27, 1892. 

JOSEPH P. HAMILTON, April, 1888. 
His address in 1905 was McCondice P. O., 
Charles county, Maryland. 

W. E. HAMILTON, March, 1888. 

F. E. HANCOCK, January, 1889. 

JOHN HANLEY, June 25, 1884 ; March, 
1886. 



XL VI 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



W. F. HANNA, Oct. 25, 1891. 

MR. HARDING, from Boston, Dec. 14, 
1872. 

R. J. HARDING, January, 1889. 

JAMES T. HARRIS, June, 1888; De- 
cember, 1888. 

M. C. HARRIS, from Louisville, Ky., 
Oct. 12, 1867. 

WILLIAM A. HARRIS, May 31, 1903. 

J. T. HARRISON, May, 1885. 

THOMAS HARRISON, March 30, 1902. 

M. F. HART, Nov. 14, 1868. 

PRESERVED B. M. HASKINS, from 
Boston, Aug. 13, 1864. 

J. H. HASLAM, April 23, 1892. 

ARTHUR HASSARD, July, 1888. 

W. L. HAYNES, May, 1888. 

W. H. HEANEY, June 26, 1904. 

C. E. HENDERSON, August, 1888. 

R. P. HENDERSON, 1877, and with- 
drew card same year. 

HARRY HETT, May 27, 1883. (Re- 
ported died in Jersey City.) 

JAMES C. HICKEY, November, 1883. 

JOHN HICKEY, from New York, July 
11, 1868. 

THOMAS HICKEY, November, 1884. 

O. G. HICKS, October, 1886. 

A. T. HILBRUN, June 25, 1884. 

WILLIAM F. HILLS, Jan. 25, 1903. 

SAMUEL G. HOLDREDGE, May, 1888. 

LOUIS K. HOLLAND, from Woon- 
socket, Sept. 24, 1905. 

THOMAS J. S. HOPKINS, April 25, 
1897. 

T. HOPMANS, Dec. 27, 1885. 

JOSEPH E. HOWE, November, 1886; 
Feb. 26, 1893. 

OTIS HO YE, Feb. 26, 1899. 

J. M. HUDSON, March 11, 1871. 

ANDY HUGHES. Sept. 30, 1883. 

EDWARD HULING, June 29, 1890. 

FRANK W. HULME, Feb. 25, 1900. 

A. W. HUNT, Aug. 10, 1872. 

R. B. HUNT, June 8, 1872. 

RICHARD HUNTER, March 30, 1902. 

ALFRED S. HUTCHINSON, from Mon- 
treal April 13, 1872. 

Names from Providence Directory : 

RICHARD HADFIELD 1859. 

CHARLES C. HASWELL 1836; re- 
moved to New York. 

FRANCIS P. HEALEY 1855. 

JAMES HELME 1828 worked at 12 
Market square; 1838 at Courier office; 
1841 clerk at 41 Arcade. 

JOHN D. HENRY 1850. 

P. G. HEWIT 1844. 

GEORGE HOPEWELL Foreman Ham- 
mond, Angell & Co. 

GEORGE H. HOPKINS 1836. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here : 

A. B. HART In partnership with C. 
W. Littell. 

ROBERT HUGHES 1853-'55 at Jour- 
nal office. 

JOHN B. INGRAHAM Name in Direc- 
tory of 1841 ; charter member Providence 
Union in 1857; enlisted Aug. 1, 1861, in 



2d R. I. Inf., Co. D, and served three 
years ; returned to printing after Civil 
War. 

SAMUEL INSLEE Was sent to Provi- 
dence from New York in 1766 by William 
Goddard to assist Mrs. Sarah Goddard in 
publishing the Gazette. Inslee soon re- 
turned to New York and in 1770 formed 
a partnership with Anthony Carr to con- 
tinue the publication of The New York 
Gazette and Post Boy after James Par- 
ker's death. Inslee was afterward em- 
ployed by Collins of Trenton, N. J., and 
died suddenly in his printing house. 

EARNEST IRONS Born St. Johns, 
N. B., June 28, 1871 ; in that city, in 1886, 
he started to learn printing; in 1887 came 
to Providence and finished his apprentice- 
ship on the Telegram ; joined Providence 
Union Nov. 27, 1892 ; has worked in this 
city at Snow & Farnham's, Remington's, 
E. A. Johnson's, J. C. Hall's, the Journal 
of Commerce and at E. L. Freeman's in 
Central Falls ; now employed on News- 
Democrat. 

SAMUEL S. IRVING Born New York 
city in 1849 ; learned printing on the New 
York Mercury ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card at the January meeting, 
1889 ; worked on the Telegram and Jour- 
nal ; also "worked in every State and 
Territory in the United States." 

GEORGE W. JARSE Admitted to 
Providence Union July 12, 1873 ; worked 
on Journal ; I. T. U. delegate from Detroit 
in 1877 ; in 1906, during the eight-hour 
strike, loaned Chicago Union $3000 with- 
out security ; at present proofreader on 
Chicago Tribune. 

PERCY MONROE JAQUES Born Ben- 
nington, Vt., Feb. 15, 1883 ; learned print- 
ing with Fox & Saunders, Providence, 
beginning July 12, 1898; initiated into No. 
33 June 28, 1903 ; participated in the effort 
for the eight-hour day in 1906. 

HORACE JEFFERS Born Pawtucket, 
R. I., July 23, 1866; learned printing in 
office of E. L. Freeman & Sons, Central 
Falls, beginning in 1880 ; worked in Provi- 
dence at Snow & Farnham's, Livermore & 
Knight Co., J. C. Hall Co., Foster H. 
Townsend, Evening Telegram and Sun- 
day Dispatch ; initiated into No. 33 Feb. 26, 
1888 ; located in Springfield, Mass., in 1904. 

W. A. JEFFERS Born Lynn, Mass., 
Dec. 9, 1851; learned printing in Provi- 
dence in the Journal job office, beginning 
in 1866; worked in Providence until 1869 ; 
located in Leavenworth, Kas., in 1905. 

THOMAS E. JENNINGS Died Provi- 
dence October, 1869 ; at the time of the 
fire in the Evening Press office, Dec. 31, 
1868, he was the only printer who was 
rendered unconscious by the smoke and 
had to be carried out of the building ; he 
was initiated into Providence Union May 
8, 1869. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XL VII 



CHARLES B. JEUDEVINE Initiated 
into Providence Union July 9, 1870; he 
was a noted "tourist." 

CHARLES E. JILLSON Born Hart- 
ford, Conn., July 8, 1840 ; learned printing 
in office of the Times of that city, begin- 
ning in 1855 ; came to Rhode Island in 
1876 ; worked at E. L. Freeman's eight 
years and in various offices in Provi- 
dence ; initiated into No. 33 April 22, 
1883 ; now retired from the business. In 
the Civil War Mr. Jillson went out with 
the 1st Conn. Inf. and re-enlisted in the 
1st Conn. Battery. 

WILLIAM H. JILLSON Born North 
Attleboro, Mass., in 1871 ; died Black 
Mountain, N. C., March 28, 1905, where he 
had resided for the benefit of his health. 
He learned printing at Attleboro, Mass., 
beginning in 1888; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Feb. 28, 1892, and worked in 
this city at Remington Printing Co. 

WILLIAM J. JOLLEY Born Wigan, 
England, Jan. 14, 1863 ; learned printing 
on the Wigan Examiner, beginning" in 
1876; admitted to Providence Union at 
the June meeting, 1887 ; worked on the 
Journal until September, 1889 ; "was par- 
tial inventor and manipulator-in-chief of 
the 'rotary' board in the Journal office ; 
am now (1904) practicing a rotation of 
crops raising wheat, oats and potatoes 
during spring and summer ; raising the 
wind in the fall and a crop of whiskers 
during the winter," at Edgemere, near 
Spokane, Wash. 

JENNIE JONAS Applied for admis- 
sion in Waterbury (Conn.) Union March, 
1901 ; she was then 40 years of age, and 
had been working at printing since 1881, 
having learned on the Meriden Journal ; 
she had worked in Providence, Springfield 
and Hartford, and was then employed on 
the Waterbury American. 

CORNELIUS S. JONES (son of Josiah 
Jones) Born Providence in 1812. It was 
said that "he was born to the newspaper 
business," and to it devoted all the active 
years of his life. He published a penny 
daily in this city in the early years of 
such enterprises, but was chiefly known 
as the publisher of the General Adver- 
tiser, with which he was connected for 
nearly 25 years. He died June 29, 1877, 
aged 65 years. 

FRANK E. JONES Initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Jan. 31, 1886. He came to 
this city from England, where he had 
learned printing. He has been a proof- 
reader and telegraph editor on the Jour- 
nal and now holds the latter position on 
the Tribune. 

JOSIAH JONES Born Providence in 
1782 ; learned printing with John Carter, 
Jr. ; in 1807, in partnership with Bennett 
H. Wheeler, he bought the Phenix, a 
weekly newspaper, and retained his con- 



nection with that paper until 1832. "Capt. 
Jones, as he was familiarly called, was 
a practical printer during his whole life. 
When the infirmities of age incapacitated 
him from continuous labor he would still 
turn his steps to the printing office of 
his son, where it was a matter of pride 
with him -to take occasionally his stand at 
the case and show that the old man of 
80 years had not forgotten how to handle 
the 'stick' and 'types.' " He died March 
23, 1868, at the residence of his son-in- 
law, Joseph Knowles, in his 84th year. 

LLEWELLYN T. JONES Born Wrex- 
ham, county of Denbighshire, North 
Wales ; apprenticed May 1, 1870, to the 
Wrexham Advertiser ; admitted to Provi- 
dence Union at the September meeting, 
1887 ; worked on the Telegram, Dispatch 
and at Reid's ; employed on the Courier- 
Citizen, Lowell, Mass., in 1904. 

WILLIAM H. JONES Died in Provi- 
dence Oct. 12, 1867 ; he was initiated inta 
Providence Union Oct. 13, 1866. 

WILLIAM LEFURGE JONES Born- 
New York city Sept. 24, 1850 ; learned" 
printing with Methodist Book Concern, 
beginning in 1864 ; initiated into New- 
York Union in 1871 ; worked in Provi- 
dence 1882-'84. 

FREDERICK T. JOYCE Born Dor- 
chester, Mass., Jan. 25, 1878; learned 
printing at office of Buker Publishing Co. ', 
has worked at offices of J. A. & R. A, 
Reid and Journal of Commerce ; now em- 
ployed at Rumford Chemical Works. 

CHARLES T. JUDSON Born Geneva, 

N. Y., Sept. 8, 1858; learned printing at 
Seaford, Del. ; came to Providence in 

1884 and initiated into No. 33 May 31, 

1885 ; went to Pawtucket for a while, but 
came back to Providence in 1890; partici- 
pated in the effort for the eight-hour day 
in 1906. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 

Union on Dates Named : 
GEORGE W. JOHNS, Feb. 24, 1901. 
C. P. JOHNSON, March 27, 1887. 
GEORGE C. JONES, June 11, 1864. 
HARVEY E. JONES, Oct. 25, 1891. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named : 

WILLIAM J. JARVIS, from New York, 
May 28, 1893 ; worked on Journal. 

ALEX. M. JOHNSON, May 27, 1883. 

HENRY W. JOHNSON, Sept. 9, 1871. 

JAMES J. JONES, from Boston, April 
8, 1883. 

JOHN JOYCE, March 27, 1884. Re- 
ported dead. 

IRVING JUDD, August, 1886. 

Names from Providence Directory : 

GEORGE C. JENCKES 1844 at Jour- 
nal. 

JOHN JESSE 1850 at 29 Market 
square. 



XL VIII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



GEORGE W. JOHNSON 1852-'54 
worked at Journal office. 

GEORGE JUDD 1838 at 15 Market 
square. 

ADONIRAM JUDSON REACH Born 
Hoosac, N. Y., in 1830 ; received his 
education at the academy in that place ; 
some years after leaving school, with his 
brother Abram, he published the Lowell 
Sun; in Waterbury, Conn., he edited a 
paper for a few years ; in 1870 he entered 
the employ of the Providence Journal as 
proofreader, which position he held at the 
time of his death, April 29, 1903, although 
he had not been able to attend to his 
duties since the previous January. He 
was admitted to Providence Union by 
Chicago card July 11, 1868. 

ALBERT J. KEACH Died Provi- 
dence July 30, 1889, in his 35th year; he 
began to learn printing in his father's 
(A. J. Keach) office in Waterbury, Conn., 
but served a regular apprenticeship on 
the Providence Journal ; he was initiated 
into Providence Union Jan. 11, 1873; 
worked in New York, Worcester, Spring- 
field and Boston, and was assistant fore- 
man of the Boston Advertiser at the time 
of death. His funeral was attended by 
representatives from that office, the Bos- 
ton Franklin Society and the Providence 
Journal. 

JOHN E. KEEFE Born Providence 
Jan. 15, 1876; learned printing in office 
of Whittemore & Colburn, beginning in 
1890; initiated into No. 33 Oct. 25, 1903; 
employed at Franklin Press. 

JOHN P. KEENAN Born Pawtucket 
Feb. 25, 1876 ; learned printing in offices 
of Pawtucket Tribune and Times ; worked 
in Providence at E. A. Johnson's and on 
the Evening Bulletin ; became member of 
No. 33 April 30, 1899 ; has charge of the 
advertising department in the composing 
room of Evening Bulletin. 

PHILIP E. KELLER Died New York 
city March 1, 1904, aged 42 years. He 
was admitted to Providence Union by 
card October, 1887. 

HERBERT CLINTON KELLS Died 
Providence Dec. 28, 1904, aged 42 years, 
10 months and 24 days ; he was born in 
Hudson, N. Y., but removed to Pittsfield, 
Mass., in 1875, where he began to study 
music and learn printing ; he played in all 
the bands of note in and about Pittsfield ; 
he removed to this city in 1902 and was 
admitted by card to Providence Union 
Sept. 28 of that year; subsequently he 
withdrew and became a member of the 
Pressmen's Union ; he was also a mem- 
ber of the Musicians' Union and of the 
Royal Arcanum ; he was buried in Pitts- 
field. 

FRANCIS E. KELLY Born Whitefield, 
Me., in 1839 ; began to learn printing in 
office of Woonsocket Patriot in 1851 ; 



came to Providence in 1856 and worked 
on Journal, Post and Tribune ; enlisted 
June 5, 1861, in 2d R. I. Inf. and served 
until May, 1862, in Co. D, holding rank of 
corporal ; participated in the battles of 
Bull Run and Williamsburg and siege of 
Yorktown ; was stricken with fever and 
ague and compelled to visit California in 
search of health, remaining there until 
1869. After his return from the Pacific 
coast he was employed on the newspapers 
in this city until 1873, when he accepted 
the foremanship of the Woonsocket Re- 
porter and has remained in that city 
since. Mr. Kelly has been active in poli- 
tics in Woonsocket and has held many 
important offices. In 1906 he was elected 
to the Legislature, receiving the nomina- 
tion from organized labor and the Demo- 
crats, and votes enough from Republi- 
cans to win. In the Legislature he served 
on the committees on labor and accounts, 
and was among those who voted for Col. 
Goddard for U. S. Senator from the first 
ballot to the close of the session and 
never missed a roll call. Mr. Kelly was 
a charter member of Providence Union 
in 1857 and Vice President in 1858 and 
1859. He is President of Woonsocket 
Union in 1907. 

PATRICK HENRY KELLY Born Mai- 
den, Mass., June 12, 1851 ; learned print- 
ing at Lynn, Mass. ; worked in Providence 
in 1876. 

WILLIAM F. KENEFICK Born Law- 
rence, Mass., Aug. 30, 1854 ; learned print- 
ing on the Lawrence Sentinel, beginning 
in 1872 ; held cases on Boston Globe and 
Herald, three years foreman of Boston 
Courier and seven years foreman of Bos- 
ton News Bureau; in 1886 initialed into 
Boston Typographical Union ; he was 
business manager of Providence Visitor 
for several years until 1904, when he 
resigned and returned to Boston. 

ROBERT T. KENNETH Born West- 
erly, R. I,, in 1854 ; learned printing on 
the Narragansett Weekly, beginning in 
1868; worked in Providence on the Jour- 
nal 1875-1880; now employed on Water- 
bury (Conn.) American. 

FRANK KILLDUFF Born Pittsburg, 
Pa., May 4, 1876 ; learned trade in that 
city, beginning in 1890 ; admitted to Provi- 
dence Union at October meeting, 1904 ; 
worked in most of the important cities of 
the country. 

HENRY KING (printer), son of Capt. 
John King Died Providence Jan. 24, 1824, 
in his 24th year. The funeral was from 
his mother's residence, near the Rev. 
Mr. Wilson's Meeting House. Rhode Is- 
land American, Jan. 24. 1824. 

AUGUSTUS B. KINGSLEY Died Pom- 
fret, Conn., March 22, 1823 ; he had been 
an apprentice in the office of the Provi- 
dence Patriot, but had been away from 
that office since the previous 1st of Janu- 
ary on a visit to his relatives, during 
which visit he had taken sick and died. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



XLIX 



ERNST F. KLAUSCH Born Germany 
July 10, 1857; learned the trade of 
machinist in that country ; came to Provi- 
dence in 1891 to care for the linotype 
machines at night in the Journal office, 
where he is at present employed ; he was 
initiated into Providence Typographical 
Union Aug. 26, 1900. 

OSCAR KLEBART Born Webster, 
Mass., March 6, 1867 ; learned printing in 
Webster, beginning in 1886 ; initiated into 
Providence Union Oct. 30, 1892 ; worked 
in this city 1891-1899, when he was com- 
pelled to leave the business because of 
ill-health ; appointed regular letter carrier 
in Webster July 15, 1901, and has since 
recovered his health ; is civil service ex- 
aminer in the Webster district and also 
secretary of Branch 831, National Asso- 
ciation of Letter Carriers. 

ROBERT KNIGHT Born 1882 ;Jearned 
printing on Staten Island Times, begin- 
ning in 1898; worked in New York city ; 
initiated into Providence Union Oct. 27, 
1901. 

JAMES D. KNOWLES Was foreman 
of the American office about 1819, and 
partner with William G. Goddard from 
July 6, 1819, to Oct. 6, 1820, in the publi- 
cation of that paper. 

JOHN POWER KNOWLES Died 
Providence Aug. 3, 1887, in his 80th year; 
he began to learn printing when 11 years 
old in the office of Hugh H. Brown ; be- 
fore reaching his majority he engaged 
with a senior partner in the business and 
continued until 1830, when he began to 
study for the law ; he graduated from 
Brown University in 1836 and from Har- 
vard Law School in 1838, and the latter 
year was admitted to the Rhode Island 
bar ; he was in active sympathy with 
Thomas W. Dorr in the agitation of 1841- 
'43 ; he was reporter of decisions of the 
Supreme Court of Rhode Island from 1855 
to 1857, and from 1865 to 1867; represen- 
tative from Providence in the General 
Assembly in 1855 and 1856; city solicitor 
of Providence in 1866 and 1867 ; appointed 
by the President, Judge of the District 
Court of the United States for the Dis- 
trict of Rhode Island in October, 1869, 
and held that position until March, 1881, 
when he resigned. 

JOSEPH KNOWLES Born Niantic, in 
the town of Westerly, R. I., July 3, 1810. 
He was educated in the common schools 
of his native place and at the academy 
at Kingston. He was apprenticed to Wil- 
liam Storer, the publisher of a news- 
paper at Stonington, Conn., with whom 
lie remained two years, but the paper 
was not successful, and the indentures 
were cancelled. He removed to Provi- 
dence in 1832, where he entered into the 
.service of Josiah Jones, publisher of the 
Providence Patriot and Columbian Phenix. 
Mr. Knowles engage:! in several printing 
enterprises in Providence. With the late 



James S. Ham he purchased The Micro- 
cosm, which was continued about one 
year. He published also the Commercial 
Advertiser for a short time and the Liter- 
ary Journal. In 1838 Mr. Knowles and 
William L. Burroughs purchased the Provi- 
dence Journal, with which business he 
was connected 36 years. He died in 
Providence Dec. 21, 1874. 

CHARLES LEONARD KOJAN Born 
New York city Aug. 11, 1861; learned 
printing in office of John Polhemus in 
that city, beginning in 1875 ; worked in 
Providence in 1885 ; employed on the New 
York Journal in 1907. 

JOHN A. KOPP Born Providence in 
February, 1862 ; learned printing in office 
of Journal, beginning in 1882 ; admitted 
to Providence Union by card July 1, 1883 ; 
worked in Providence on the Journal until 
1892, when he went to the Boston Jour- 
nal, remaining there until Hearst's Ameri- 
can was started, where he is now em- 
ployed as a linotype operator. 

MARCUS KOPPLEMANN Born Odes- 
sa, Russia, Nov. 22, 1873 ; learned print- 
ing at Athol, Mass. ; worked in Providence 
on the Telegram in 1892 ; located in Hart- 
ford, Conn., in 1904. 

MAX KRIEDEL Born in 1865; he 
learned printing in Germany ; was initi- 
ated into Providence Union April 30, 1899. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Dates Named : 

FRANK KAY, March 28, 1886; Presi- 
dent Atlantic City Union in 1901 ; finan- 
cial secretary in 1906. 

JAMES KELLY, Nov. 24, 1895. 

CHARLES H. KING, Feb. 27, 1884 ; 
located in New York city. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named : 

E. S. KAHN, July 10, 1888 (stereo- 
typer. ) 

J. D. KAVANAGH, June, 1886. 

JOSEPH KEARNS, September, 1888. 

J. T. KEISER, March 31, 1901. 

MILTON KELLEY, May 31, 1903. 

C. J. KELLY, August, 1886. 

EDWARD J. KELLY, May 29, 1898; 
also Jan. 29, 1893. 

JOHN KELLY, Sept. 10, 1870 ; also May 
28, 1899. (May be different persons.) 

S. T. KELLY, Jan. 29, 1893. 

HENRY KENNEY, June, 1888. 

H. T. KENNY, June 24, 1900. 

WILLIAM KINSMAN, December, 1884. 

CHARLES E. KIRK, October, 1886. 

J. F. KITSON, May 31, 1891. 

Names from Providence Directory : 

C. D. KENYON 1891-'92 on Telegram. 

J. W. H. KILTON 1856 at 24 West- 
minster street; 1857 clerk Commercial 
Steamboat Co. 

WILLIAM KNOWLES 1841 at Jour- 
nal office; 1844 at Whipple building; 1847 
attorney. 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



RICHARD E. LACY Born Providence 
Oct. 28, 1875 ; learned printing at Ryder 
& Dearth's, beginning in 1892 ; initiated 
into Providence Union March 25, 1900 ; 
worked at Snow & Farnham's and J. C. 
Hall Co. ; now employed on Evening 
Bulletin. 

HENRY B. LADD Born Providence 
Feb. 16, 1841. At the beginning of his 
apprenticeship in 1857 he was rechris- 
tened "Pica" by N. Bangs Williams, and 
the name has clung to him in printing 
circles ever since. For several years he 
was in charge of the news department 
of the Morning Herald, and on its sus- 
pension in 1873 entered the employ of 
the Journal Co. as telegraph editor, which 
position he retained for 30 years. He 
was initiated into Providence Union April 
13, 1867, and was granted an honorable 
withdrawal card at the March (1904) 
meeting. 

GEORGE LA FA YE Was a composi- 
tor on the Journal in 1850. He went to 
New York city and became a master 
printer there. The Turf, Field and Farm, 
Police Gazette, Sunday Democrat and 
other periodicals were .printed in his 
office. He died in that city. 

JOHN J. LAFFEY, JR. Born Nov. 8, 
1884, at No. 174 Harold street, Provi- 
dence ; learned printing in the office of 
the Journal, beginning Sept. 16, 1900; 
initiated into Providence Typographical 
Union Nov. 27, 1904 ; now employed on 
Tribune. 

THOMAS E. LAHEY Born Mystic, 
Conn., Oct. 9, 1861 ; learned printing in 
that town, in the Press office ; initiated 
into New Haven Union in 1883; worked 
in Providence in 1884, '85 and '88, on the 
Telegram, Journal, at E. A. Johnson's 
and at the Marion Printing Co. ; admit- 
ted to Providence Union by card Sept. 
24, 1884; located in the Westerly Sun 
office since 1889. 

JOHN M. LA VIS Born London, Eng- 
land, June 6, 1851 ; learned printing in 
office of Rand & Avery, Boston, begin- 
ning in 1868 ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card March 14, 1874 ; visited 
this city again in 1884 ; delegate from 
Boston Union in 1892 to the I. T. U. 
convention at Philadelphia, Pa. ; was 
instrumental in unionizing the Boston 
Traveler in 1890 (the office had been 
non-union since 1864) ; has been a mem- 
ber of "Big 6" of New York city ; at 
present resident of Boston. 

GEORGE P. LAWRENCE Died West 
Barrington, R. I., Dec. 9, 1873. He was 
a member of Providence Union, having 
been admitted that year ; also of Prescott 
Post, G. A. R. ; served as corporal in 
Co. .C, 4th R. I. Inf., in Civil war, Sept. 
9, 1861, to March, 1863 ; wounded at 
battle of Newberne, N. C. 



ROSCOE N. LAWTON Born Natick, 
R. I., Jan. 14, 1859 ; learned printing in 
office of Pawtuxet Valley Gleaner at 
Phenix, beginning March 29, 1876, on the 
secon^ issue of that paper ; worked in 
Providence on Journal and Bulletin for 
13 years, beginning in November, 1886 ; 
initiated into Providence Union Feb. 27, 
1887 ; was foreman of Providence News 
for a short time in 1889 ; at present 
owner and manager of the East Avenue 
Bakery, Natick, R. I. 

FRANKLIN A. LEACH Born Bethel, 
Me., June 29, 1878 ; learned printing in 
the office of the Bethel News ; initiated 
into Providence Union Aug. 30, 1903 ; 
has worked in Springfield, Mass., on the 
Homestead ; employed on the Pawtuxet 
Valley Gleaner in 1904. 

ROYAL B. LEACH Born Middleboro, 
Vt., Jan. 31, 1843 ; learned printing on 
the Register in that town ; first came to 
Providence in 1865; initiated into No. 33 
April 10, 1869; worked in almost every 
office in this city ; now a travelling sales- 
man. 

WILLIAM M. LEAVITT Born Leba- 
non, N. H., in 1853 ; learned printing in 
that town, beginning in 1870; initiated 
into Providence Union at the first meet- 
ing of the reorganized Union April 8, 
1883; I. T. U. delegate in 1888; worked 
here on the Journal 1877-1890; at pres- 
ent employed in Government Printing 
Office at Washington, D. C. 

MICHAEL W. LEDDY Born Cork, 
Ireland, Oct. 3, 1880; learned printing 
in Pawtucket Times office 1896-1900; 
worked on Woonsocket Sun, Pawtucket 
Tribune and at Hough Printing Co.; 
joined Pawtucket Union in 1900; admit- 
ted to Providence Union by card June, 
1906 ; now employed on Evening Bulletin. 

CHARLES H. LEE Born Scranton, 
Pa. ; learned printing trade in Boston, 
Mass., with Sparrel Print ; came to Provi- 
dence in 1894 ; initiated into Providence 
Union March 31, 1901 ; conducted the 
eight-hour strike, 1906-'07 ; delegate to 
N. E. Allied Printing Trades' convention, 
1906 ; delegate to Central Trades' and 
Labor Union, 1907. 

GEORGE W. LEE Born Conway, 
Mass., Sept. 13, 1880; learned printing 
on Providence Telegram, beginning in 
1896; initiated into No. 33 Feb. 24, 1901; 
went to Boston in 1904 ; now employed 
on Boston Herald. 

E. P. LEGNARD Born 1875 ; learned 
printing at Rouse's Point, N. Y. ; elected 
to membership in Providence Union May 
29, 1898; at the October meeting initia- 
tion fee was ordered returned, as Mr. 
Legnard had left the business. 

JOSEPH E. LEMIRE Born St. Ger- 
main, Canada, July 14, 1881 ; learned 
printing on Worcester Gazette, beginning 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LI 



in 1900 ; worked in Boston, Worcester 
and Montreal ; admitted by card to Provi- 
dence Union at February meeting, 1906 ; 
now linotype operator on Pawtucket Times. 

JOHN P. LENAHAN Born Provi- 
dence, R. I., March 25, 1880; learned 
trade on Providence Journal, beginning 
in 1903 ; initiated into Providence Union 
May, 1906 ; employed on copy desk of 
Journal. 

JOHN F. LENNON Born Pawtucket, 
R. I., Nov. 29, 1875 ; learned printing 
trade in the offices of the Providence 
Journal and Pawtucket Times ; worked 
in Providence in the years 1889-1900; 
now employed on Tribune. 

PETER F. LEONARD Born Albany, 
N. Y., Feb. 28, 1866 ; began to learn 
printing in 1879 on Albany Express; ini- 
tiated into Albany Union in 1883 ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card June, 
1887 ; worked here about one year on 
Evening Telegram. 

CARL, W. LEUFGREN Born Stock- 
holme, Sweden, in 1871 ; learned printing 
in Chicago and Providence ; worked in 
this city, 1889 to fall of 1893, at Reid's, 
Johnson's, Wilson's and Evening Tele- 
gram : in the last office had his "first 
experience at newspaper work, and also 
learned the linotype machine there ;" 
initiated into No. 33 December, 1892 ; 
in 1896 subbed on the Journal ; now 
located in New York city. 

JOSEPH B. LEVENS Began to learn 
printing in Fall River in 1868, coming to 
Providence in 1871, at the expiration of 
his apprenticeship ; in this city he worked 
on the Press, and later on the Journal ; 
for a time he was telegraph editor on 
the latter paper. He was initiated into 
Providence Union June 10, 1871, and was 
financial secretary in 1878, when the 
charter was surrendered ; again initi- 
ated June 27, 1886 ; went to Boston in 
1891; now employed on the Transcript. 

HERCULES LEVEQUE Born Woon- 
socket, R. I., Nov. 4, 1867 ; learned print- 
ing in Winnipeg, Manitoba, on the Times, 
beginning Aug. 28, 1883 ; admitted by 
card to Providence Union Oct. 30, 1892, 
when he worked on the Philanthrope, a 
French paper, and again May 30, 1897, 
when he worked on the News ; member 
of the printing firm of Church & Le- 
veque at 18 Rose street, New York city, 
in 1904. 

ANDREW J. LEWIS Died at the 
Union Printers' Home in Colorado 
Springs, Colo., April 3, 1901, aged 52 
years ; he was initiated into Providence 
Union Nov. 9, 1873 ; worked on the Star 
and Journal, and afterward was fore- 
man of the Pawtucket Times. 

WILLIAM LEWIS Born St. John, 
N. B., July 26, 1860 ; learned the print- 
ing trade with Barnes & Co. in that city. 



beginning in 1874 ; worked in Boston, 
Lynn, Haverhill, Salem, Lawrence, Lowell 
and Marlboro in Massachusetts until 1885, 
when he came to Providence and entered 
the Journal office ; learned to run a lino- 
type on the introduction of the machines. 
Mr. Lewis is a noted checker player and 
for many years edited the checker col- 
umn of the Providence Sunday Journal ; 
now located in New Bedford, Mass. 

WILLIAM D. LILLY Born Hope, 
R. I., Nov. 28, 1867 ; learned printing in 
the office of the Rumford Chemical 
Works, where he is now employed. 

JOHN B. LINCOLN Died Providence, 
R. I., Aug. 8, 1874, in his 55th year. His 
name appears in the Providence Direc- 
tory of 1847 as a printer; in 1852 he 
started the Kent County Atlas, the first 
newspaper printed in that county ; he 
was a charter member of Providence 
Union in 1857. In the Civil war he 
served as 1st sergeant in Co. D, 2d R. I. 
Vols., from June 5, 1861, to Jan. 8, 1862. 

WILLIAM P. LINN Born Providence 
May 1, 1887 ; learned trade of machine 
tender with Snow & Farnham ; joined 
effort for eight-hour day October, 1906 ; 
now located in Providence. 

KARL LISKER Born Medziboz, Pad, 
Russia, Oct. 26, 1884 ; learned printing at 
J. C. Hall's, beginning in 1901 ; initiated 
into Providence Union Sept. 24, 1905 ; 
participated in the effort for eight-hour 
day in 1906. 

FRANK LIVINGSTON Born Worces- 
ter, Mass., Nov. 18, 1883 ; learned printing 
at Franklin Press, beginning in 1898 ; ini- 
tiated into Providence Union June 30, 
1901 ; participated in the effort for the 
eight-hour day in 1906. 

JOHN J. LIVINGSTON Born Worces- 
ter May 19, 1881 ; learned trade at 
Thompson & Thompson's, beginning in 
1904 ; participated in the effort for the 
eight-hour day. 

WALTER I. LOCKE Born Providence 
Feb. 7, 1875 ; learned printing in a job 
office on Mathewson street, beginning in 
1894 ; was head pressman for the Alber- 
type Co. when located at 80 East George 
street ; admitted to I. T. U. at Tucson, 
Ariz., in 1905. 

JOHN LOCKHART Born Glasgow, 
Scotland, in 1832; learned printing in 
Glasgow, beginning in 1847 ; admitted to 
Providence Union by Troy card March 
9, 1872 ; at Union Printers' Home, Colo- 
rado, in 1905. 

JOHN J. LOCKLIN Born Lancashire. 
England, Feb. 8, 1854 ; learned printing 
at Journal job office, beginning in 1869 ; 
initiated into Providence Union July 13, 
1872 ; worked on Evening Press and in 
Journal office ; now employed at latter 
office. 



LII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



JOHN F. LONSDALE Born Port Hu- 
ron, Ontario, Can., June 3, 1844 ; served 
a four years' apprenticeship on the Port 
Hope Guide, beginning Nov. 2, 1858; ini- 
tiated into Providence Union May 21, 
1864 ; worked in this city on the Evening 
Press until the spring of 1869, except 
about one year spent in New York city ; 
was "the last person to come down the 
chain" on the occasion of the fire, Dec. 
31, 1868; employed at American Press 
Association, New York city, in 1905. 

JABEZ LORD Died New York city 
Nov. 26, 1883 ; he was a charter member 
of Providence Union in 1857, President 
in 1858, delegate to the national conven- 
tion at Boston in 1859, Vice President 
in 1863 and secretary in 1860 and 1863; 
President of Columbia Typographical 
Union, No. 101, of Washington, D. C., in 
1870 ; member of No. 6 at time of death. 

ED. PHINNEY LOTHROP Born Barn- 
stable, Mass., April 30, 1836 ; learned 
printing in office of Yarmouth (Mass.) 
Register, beginning in 1855 ; served in 
both army and navy in the Civil war, 
after which he returned to printing in 
1866; worked on Pawtusket Gazette and 
Chronicle, Central Falls Weekly Visitor, 
Providence Evening Press, Pawtucket 
Gazette and Chronicle and at E. L. Free- 
man & Sons, in the order named ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Dec. 12, 1868; 
charter member of Pawtucket Union ; at 
present proofreader at E. L. Freeman & 
Sons. Mr. Lothrop has succeeded in 
"compiling a voluminous volume (unpub- 
lished) containing a summary statisti- 
cal and otherwise of some of the opera- 
tions of the Army of the Potomac dur- 
ing the Civil war, with personal expe- 
riences." He has also contributed articles 
for the press, among which are "Recol- 
lections of Cape Cod in Boyhood," "Seven 
Historic Days Army of the Potomac," 
"Only a Memory Now," "A Cruise on 
U. S. Frigate Sabine During Civil War," 
"The Nation's Dead," etc., etc. 

WALTER W. LUDLOW Born Penn 
Yan, N. Y., Feb. 26, 1856; learned print- 
ing there, beginning in March, 1871 ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union May 28, 
1884 ; foreman Evening Telegram for 
about four months in 1884 ; now chief 
clerk of the U. S. Treasury Department 
at Washington, D. C. 

CHARLES J. LUNDERGAN Died 
suddenly while on a visit to his mother 
in East Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 8, 1904. 
He was a member of New York Herald 
chapel at the time of death, having 
worked there since leaving Providence 
the previous May. His funeral was one 
of the largest ever seen in his native 
town. Mr. Lundergan was born in Cam- 
bridge Aug. 1. 1876; learned printing in 
the office of the Boston Journal ; admit- 
ted to Providence Union by card at the 
May meeting, 1904. 



WILLIAM A. LUTHER Born Swan- 
sea, Mass., June 18, 1844 ; learned print- 
ing in the offices of the Warren Gazette 
and Fall River News, beginning in 1858; 
when 17 years old he enlisted in the 2d 
R. I. Inf. and served in Co. G during: 
the Civil war ; initiated into Providence 
Union March 14, 1868; worked on New 
York World in 1869 and later was a 
policeman in the metropolis ; returned to 
Providence in 1873 and has worked in 
this city since until incapacitated. 

WINFIELD V. LUTHER Member of 
Providence Union in 1877 ; worked at 
Press book room ; now in the employ of 
the Providence Gas Co. 

JOHN J. LYNCH Born Montreal. 
Canada, Aug. 31, 1857 ; learned printing 
in the office of the Irish World, begin- 
ning in 1870, when it was published in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; returning to Montreal, 
Mr. Lynch was initiated into No. 176 and 
worked on the Montreal Gazette and 
other newspapers of that city ; visited 
Providence in 1877 ; deposited his card 
in New York Union Aug. 8, 1878, and 
has been an honored member of "Big 
Six" since that date. 

CHARLES LYONS Learned printing 
in St. Catherines, Canada ; was admitted 
to Providence Union by card July 13, 
1872 ; worked on the Morning Herald 
and later on the Morning Star ; went 
from here to Chicago; he died either in 
that city or at his home in St. Cather- 
ines in the 80's. 

JAMES P. LYONS Born Providence 
July 22, 1873; learned printing at Wliit- 
temore & Colburn's, beginning in 1888; 
worked in Pawtucket and Woonsocket ; 
initiated into Providence Union May 29, 
1892; participated in the effort for the 
eight-hour day in 1906 ; now employed on 
the News-Democrat. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Dates Named : 

GODFREY LABELLE, Dec. 12, 1868. 

EUGENE N. LANCASTER, April 15, 
1883. 

EUGENE R. LATHROP. July 11, 1868. 
Now employed on Boston Journal. 

JOHN P. LENNIS, December, 1892. 

WILLIAM P. LIVESEY, March 14, 1868. 

ALBERT LOCKWOOD, July 9, 1859. 

ALBERT LYON, Feb. 27, 1887. (Stereo- 
typer.) 

WILLIAM LYON, Feb. 27, 1887 ;' by 
card January, 1889. (Stereotyper.) 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named : 

JOHN LAIRD, July 25, 1897. 
BYRON LANE, November, 1886. 
ERNEST LANE, Feb. 22, 1885. 
GEORGE W. LANGE, June 29, 1890. 
W. F. LANGWILL, June, 1889. 
H. F. LEE, November, 1905. 
WALTER A. LEE, January, 1885. 
EDWARD J. LENNON, March 25, 1906. 




THE JOURNEYMEN 



LIII 



GEORGE F. LEONARD, May 27, 1883. 
EDWARD LESLIE, February, 1886. 
CHARLES LETT, June 8, 1872. 
BERTRAM C. LORING, March 27, 1904. 
W. G. LOY, March 27, 1884. 
HENRY P. LYNCH, November, 1884. 

Names from Providence Directory : 

GARDINER LILLIBRIDGE 1824 
worked over 5 Market square. 
CHARLES H. LORD 1838. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here : 

WILLIAM G. LARNED Publisher of 
Morning Courier, began June 6, 1836; 
sold to Journal Jan. 29, 1841. 

ORLANDO LE BARRON Before 1874. 

HENRY LEIS 1855 worked at 24 
Westminster street; 1857 at Journal 
office ; member of Providence Union be- 
fore 1865. 

WILLIAM A. LEONARD 1857 char- 
ter member; worked at 101 Westminster 
street ; member in 1'865. 

CHARLES W. LITTELL Member 
Providence Union in 1877 ; now in busi- 
ness at 333 Westminster street. 

WILLIAM K. LOGEE Name in 1870 
constitution ; honorary member Provi- 
dence Union in 1877. 

VICTOR LOOMIS 1873 and at other 
times ; one of the old-time swifts. 

CHARLES LOOP Card rejected by 
Providence Union Jan. 14, 1871. 

CLEM LUCAS Worked at R. I. Print- 
ing Co. Reported in Raleigh, N. C., in 
April (1907) Typographical Journal. 

KENNETH MacCASKELL Died Bos- 
ton, Mass., May 30, 1899 ; member of 
Cambridge Typographical Union at time 
of death ; had worked on most of the 
Boston newspapers ; his name appears on 
the list (1857-1865) of members of Provi- 
dence Union taken from the 1865 consti- 
tution. 

JOHN A. MACDONALD Began to 
learn printing in the office of the St. 
Catherines (Onatrio) Post in April, 1861 ; 
in 1862 he enlisted in the Union Army 
and fought in the ranks of Hooker's 
Division, Army of the Potomac, until the 
end of the war ; after the war he went 
back to the "case," joining Buffalo Typo- 
graphical Union in 1866; he worked on 
the Providence Journal in 1873 and again 
in 1878 ; previous to 1880 he worked in 
nearly every city of prominence in the 
Western, Middle and Eastern States; in 
1880 he purchased a newspaper at Am- 
pion, Ontario, and published it for 15 
years ; he is now in the insurance busi- 
ness in Toronto, Canada. 

WILLIAM J. MACDONALD Born 
Clinton, Mass., where he also learned 
the trade of printer; came to Providence 
in November, 1903, and worked on the 
Telegram. 

JOHN DOUGLAS MACDOUGAL Was 
employed in the printing house of John 



Waterman, the paper manufacturer of 
Providence, previous to 1775. He also 
worked in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1775, and 
before that year. In the Providence 
Gazette of June 7 and Aug. 16, 1778, 
Macdougal advertised his business of 
publisher, bookbinder and stationer. Later 
he was in business in Boston, Mass., in 
the firm of Macdougal & Greene, opposite 
the Province House, and still later in 
partnership with John Boyle. He was 
a native of Ireland and died in New- 
York city in August, 1787. 

JOHN W. MACKARCHER Initiated 
into Providence Union Dec. 26, 1883 ; he 
worked in this city a few years and went 
West in 1884. "While riding on a freight 
train he fell between the cars and in 
addition to having both legs cut off was 
otherwise severely crushed. This oc- 
curred at Tulore, Cal. He was taken to 
Visalia, Cal., where he died the follow- 
ing day." The accident occurred in the 
spring of 1887. 

THOMAS- MURRAY MACKAY Born 
Edinburgh, Scotland, May 25, 1870 ; learned 
the printing trade in that city ; has 
worked in New York city, Boston, Nor- 
wood and Providence. 

GEORGE F. MACKINNON Learned 
printing in the job office of Marcus B. 
Young, this city. In 1871 A. S. Rey- 
nolds, who had purchased the business of 
Young the previous year, gave the plant 
to his son, M. M. Reynolds, and young 
Mackinnon. Peter J. Trumpler entered 
the firm in 1873, and a profitable busi- 
ness was carried on until 1878, when the 
partnership was dissolved and the plant 
removed to East Greenwich. Mackinnon 
then became a reporter on the Journal. 
In 1897 Mackinnon, with Charles H. How- 
land and Martin C. Day, left the Journal 
and became publishers of the News. 
Afterward Mackinnon became clerk of 
the Sixth District Court, which position 
he now holds. 

SAMUEL R. MACREADY Born Cum- 
berland county, Me., July 14, 1850 ; 
learned printing trade in office of Alfred 
Mudge & Son, Boston ; worked in Provi- 
dence since 1892 ; member executive com- 
mittee of No. 33 in 1907, and also dele- 
gate to Central Labor Union ; now em- 
ployed in proofroom of Journal. 

FRANK C. MADDEN Born Montreal, 
Canada, Nov. 14, 1853 ; began to learn 
the printing trade in the office of A. 
Crawford Greene, this city, in 1866 ; be- 
came a member of Providence Typo- 
graphical Union July 13, 1872 ; has 
worked in the offices of the Press Co. and 
the News; at present (1907) he is located 
at Wm. R. Brown's ; in 1868 he became 
connected with the National Band, and 
later with the American Band ; from 1901 
to 1904 was leader of the Pawtucket 
Band. Mr. Madden was instrumental in 
organizing Musicians' Union, Local 196. 



LIV 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



JOSEPH A. MADDEN Born Mount 
Holly, N. J., where he learned printing ; 
worked in Providence inspecting the 
Thorne typesetting machines on the 
News ; located in Hartford, Conn., in 1904. 

JOHN F. MAGUIRE Born Providence 
Feb. 19, 1882 ; learned printing in office 
of News, beginning in 1897 ; initiated into 
Providence Union Jan. 28, 1903 ; now 
employed on Tribune. 

DANIEL S. MAHONEY Born London, 
England, May 3, 1861 ; learned trade of 
pressman in the office of the Providence 
Journal, beginning in 1878, where he, 
worked until 1906 ; admitted to No. 33 
April 29, 1888 ; now employed on Tribune. 

FRANK J. MAHONEY Born Provi- 
dence March 4, 1875 ; learned printing on 
Journal, beginning June 29, 1894, and 
worked in that office until Sept. 2, 1902 ; 
initiated into No. 33 Sept. 30, 1900 ; held 
situations on the Bulletin and Tribune of 
this city, the Post and Herald of Boston 
and the Taunton Herald-News ; worked 
on Pawtucket Times and Boston Journal, 
Advertiser, Traveler and American ; now 
employed on Evening Tribune ; delegate 
to R. I. State Federation of Labor, 1907. 

JOHN W. MAHONEY Born Provi- 
dence April 9, 1872 ; learned printing at 
J. A. & R. A. Reid's, beginning May 10, 
1888 ; initiated into Providence Union Feb. 
24, 1901 ; worked with Albertype Co., J. 
C. Hall Co. and Telegram ; now employed 
on Evening Bulletin. 

AUSTIN E. MALONE Initiated into 
Providence Union April 26, 1896; learned 
printing on Telegram ; worked in Newport 
on the Herald and in this city on Journal ; 
elected I. T. U. delegate in 1900 to Mil- 
waukee convention, but did not attend ; 
now located in New York city. 

WILLIAM J. MALONEY Born Troy, 
N. Y., Dec. 11, 1876; learned printing in 
office of Troy Catholic Weekly ; worked 
in Providence on the Telegram from 1900 
to 1904 ; initiated into Providence Union 
Feb. 24, 1901 ; now on Boston Herald. 

D. J. MANN Born Needham, Mass. ; 
learned printing at Cambridge, Mass. ; 
worked in Providence at Reid's in the 
winter of 1884 ; located in Baltimore, Md., 
in 1905. 

FRED A. MANSON Died Providence 
Feb. 21, 1897, aged 32 years, 11 months 
and 21 days; came to Providence from 
Lawrence, Mass., where he had learned 
printing on the American ; admitted to 
Providence Union by card October, 1888 ; 
worked on Evening Bulletin and News. 
Two months before his death an uncle 
left him a fortune, the interest of which 
would have supported him in leisure. 

WILLIAM METCALF MANN Died 
Smithfield, R. I., March 2, 1817. From 
October, 1813, until his death he was in- 



terested in the publication of the Rhode 
Island American. 

CHARLES MANSHELL Born Skala, 
Austria, in January, 1879 ; learned print- 
ing in Providence, beginning in 1890; ini- 
tiated into Providence Union- June 28, 
1903 ; now proprietor Sun Printing Co., 
198 Pine street. 

PHILIP A. MARKS Born England; 
died Feb. 7, 1876, at 127 Orms street, 
Providence ; his name appears in the 
Directory of 1844 ; he was foreman of the 
Morning Mirror from 1849 to 1855, and 
its publisher the latter year; in 1856 he 
was a real estate broker; May 21, 1864, 
he was initiated into Providence Union. 

JAMES MARRYOTT Died Newport, 
R. I., in August, 1818, aged 62 years. He 
was a printer and had worked in Provi- 
dence, according to the Gazette of Aug. 
22, 1818. 

EDWARD P. MARSH Died Providence 
July 27. 1841 ; aged 26 years. His name 
appears in the Directory of that year. He 
came from Newport, R. I. 

JOHN MARSHALL Born Lewiston, 
Me., Sept. 29, 1855 ; learned printing in 
that city, beginning in 1872; worked in 
Providence in 1885 ; employed on the City 
Record, New York, in 1904. 

WILLIAM MARSHALL Died Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Oct. 23, 1841, aged 36 years. 
Between the years 1828 and 1836 he had 
been a printer in Providence. After he 
removed to Philadelphia he carried on the 
publishing business in that city. 

ANDREW P. MARTIN Born Lubec, 
Me., March 10, 1852 ; learned printing at 
Hammond & Angell's, Providence, and 
worked at the business in this city six 
years; founded Providence Visitor in 1875 
and was its publisher 2^ years; also 
proprietor job office (Martin & Merriam) 
one year ; honorary member Providence 
Union ; now member Providence police 
department. 

JAMES J. MARTIN Born New York 
city in 1866 ; learned printing in Louis- 
ville, Ky., beginning in 1884 ; admitted 
by card to Providence Union at the June 
meeting, 1889 ; was one of the first 
machine operators who visited this city 
and worked on the Journal ; delegate 
from Louisville, Ky., to I. T. U. conven- 
tion at Colorado Springs in 1896 ; em- 
ployed on the Louisville Courier-Journal 
in 1904. 

MICHAEL B. MARTIN Born Provi- 
dence Nov. 21, 1857 ; learned printing in 
office of J. F. Greene Co., beginning in 
1869 ; initiated into Providence Union June 
24, 1888 ; President of Providence Union 
in 1891 and 1892 ; went to Boston in 1893, 
where he assisted in organizing the Press- 
men's Union and Allied Printing Trades' 
Council ; employed by C. H. Buck & Co., 
Boston, in 1904. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LV 



WILLIAM H. MARTIN (a) Died 
Providence June 26, 1863. He was em- 
ployed at the Journal office in 1845-1849 ; 
on the Post in 1850-1855, and in 1856 was 
janitor at 56 Broad street for Y. M. C. A. 

WILLIAM H. MARTIN (b) Born 
Bristol, R. I., Jan. 18, 1856; learned 
printing in the office of the Phoenix, be- 
ginning in 1872 ; worked in Providence in 
the 70's on the Sun, Journal, Star and 
Press and at Hammond, Angell & Co.'s ; 
editor and proprietor of the Warren Ga- 
zette for many years until his death, 
which occurred at Warren, Sept. 20. 1906. 

PETER HENRY MASSIE Born St. 
John, N. B., Jan. 1, 1836 ; learned print- 
ing with Robert Sherman in the Paw- 
tucket Gazette and Chronicle office, be- 
ginning in 1851 ; was a charter member 
of Providence Typographical Union in 
1857 ; worked in this city on the Journal, 
Post and Herald ; withdrew from printing 
and name placed on honorary list Sept. 
12, 1863; Aug. 12, 1865, Chicago Union 
was authorized to furnish him with a 
card. Mr. Massie was in business in Chi- 
cago 1865-1871, and was burned out in 
the big fire of 1871, losing all; he died in 
Boston Oct. 4, 1896 ; was a member of 
Boston Typographical Union at time of 
death. 

THOMAS J. MASTERSON Admitted 
to Providence Union by card July 31, 
"1892. He learned the printing trade in 
office of Portsmouth (N. H.) Times. 

JAMES H. MATHEWS Born New 
York city in 1860 ; learned printing in 
Westerly, R. I. ; foreman of Westerly 
Daily Tribune for eight years, the only 
Prohibition daily newspaper in the United 
States at that time ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union June 28. 1885. and has 
worked in this city more or less since ; 
member of the firm of J. H. & T. J. 
Mathews, master printers. 

THOMAS J. MATHEWS Born New 
York city in 1862 ; learned printing- in 
Providence with J. H. Mathews, begin- 
ning in 1888; initiated into Providence 
Union Aug. 26, 1894; worked in this city 
since 1888 ; now member of the firm of 
J. H. & T. J. Mathews, master printers. 

ALBERT MATHEWSON Born War- 
wick, R. I., Sept. 29, 1832 ; died Newport, 
R. I., Dec. 31, 1880. He learned printing 
with Cranston & Norman (Newport Daily 
News) ; was initiated into Providence 
Union Aug. 14, 1869 ; worked in New 
York in the offices of the Atlas, Tribune, 
American Tract Society and Martin B. 
Brown ; on the Argus in Brooklyn, and in 
Boston, Springfield, Taunton, Fall River, 
and the last two years of his life in 
Newport on the News ; buried in Fall 
River, Mass. 

EATON W. MAXCY Died Providence 
Aug. 13, 1861, in his 62d year; learned 
the printing trade in the Patriot office 



with Jones & Wheeler; Oct. 16, 1823, in 
partnership with Barnum Field, he pub- 
lished the Independent Inquirer. In 1826 
Mr. Maxcy published the Literary Mu- 
seum at 10 North Main street. In 1830 
he conducted a circulating library ; 1832 
to 1836 a jewelry store; 1838 agent 
Providence Screw Co. 

WILLIAM B. MAXFIELD Died March 
13, 1879, aged 54 years. His name first 
appears in the Directory as a printer in 
1844 ; initiated into Providence Union 
August, 1858. 

JOHN S. MAXWELL Born St. John, 
N. B., in August, 1855 ; learned printing 
trade in that city ; was admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card Feb. 22, 1885 ; worked 
on the Star in this city and in the princi- 
pal cities of New England ; was killed in 
a railroad accident in northern New York 
in 1896. 

JOSEPH N. B. MEEGAN Died Provi- 
dence Nov. 9, 1895, in his 40th year; 
learned printing at A. Crawford Greene's 
and on the Evening Press ; initiated into 
Providence Union April 8, 1883 ; I. T. U. 
delegate to Buffalo convention in 1887 ; 
was assistant foreman of the Evening 
Telegram. He was active in city politics 
and was clerk of the Tenth Ward for 13 
years ; brother of William J. Meegan. 

WILLIAM J. MEEGAN Born North 
Providence June 1, 1864 ; learned trade in 
office of Morning Star, beginning Septem- 
ber, 1881 ; worked in Providence on Star, 
Press, Item, Republican, Dispatch, Tele- 
gram, The People, Record, News, Journal 
and Bulletin ; in Boston on Globe and 
Post ; on Somerville Journal and Paw- 
tuxet Valley Gleaner ; at present em- 
ployed as foreman of Providence Morning 
Tribune ; became member Providence 
Union Nov. 26, 1884, and officiated as 
President 1896-'97-'98 ; elected delegate to 
I. T. U. 1896 (Colorado Springs) and 1904 
(St. Louis) ; elected chairman Journal 
chapel April, 1903-'04, being the first to 
fill that office after a vacancy of about 
30 years ; was appointed Deputy Sheriff 
June, 1887, and was appointed during that 
year a member of the State police for the 
enforcement of the Prohibitory laws. 

ANTOINE MEILLUERE Born Dec. 18, 
1848, at Sault-au-Recollet, He de Mon- 
treal ; he learned printing in Montreal, 
beginning in 1863 ; deposited a card in 
Providence Union March 11, 1871 ; worked 
in this city on the Journal and other 
papers ; I. T. U. delegate from Worces- 
ter Union to Buffalo convention in 1887. 
He died in New York city Dec. 3, 1906, 
and is buried in Mount Hope Cemetery. 

ROBERT S. MENAMIN Born Newton- 
Stewart, county Tyrone, Ireland, Dec. 2, 
1833. He came to this country with his 
parents when he was about three years of 
age, and settled in Washington, D. C. At 
school in that city he had for one of his 
teachers Mrs. E. D. E. N. Southworth, 



LVI 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



the famous novelist. His parents re- 
moved to Philadelphia, where he was ap- 
prenticed to the printing trade with T. K. 
& P. G. Collins of that city. To be an 
apprentice in a city office in those days 
meant long hours, hard work and small 
pay, and Robert became dissatisfied with 
his lot and emigrated to New York with- 
out saying the customary farewell to his 
employers. There he developed into a 
journeyman. In 1854 he worked on the 
Cincinnati Enquirer, and in the winters 
of 1855, '56 and '57 in New Orleans and 
Baton Rouge, La. In 1858 he returned 
to New York city, where he was a mem- 
ber of both No. 6 and the New York 
Typographical Society. In 1865 he re- 
moved to Philadelphia and established a 
printers' warehouse, which was success- 
ful from the start. In 1866 he issued 
"The Printers' Circular" as an organ for 
the craft, and at the session of the Na- 
tional Union in 1867 the "Circular" was 
made its official organ, which honor it 
held for some years. In 1866 Mr. Mena- 
min was elected a delegate from Provi- 
dence (R. I.) Typographical Union, No. 
33, to the 14th session of the National 
Union, that met in Chicago in June of 
that year. His services in that body were 
so acceptable to No. 33 that on Jan. 1, 
1867, its members presented him a 
massive gold ring. He again, in 1868, 
represented Providence Union as delegate 
to the National convention at Washington. 
Mr. Menamin died in Philadelphia April 
19, 1887. He was a member of the fol- 
lowing societies : Melita Lodge, No. 295, 
F. and A. M. ; Jerusalem R. A. Chapter, 
No. 3 ; Philadelphia Commandery, No. 2 ; 
Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Free- 
masonry ; West Philadelphia Lodge, No. 
9, K. of B. ; Philadelphia Typographical 
Society ; Hibernian Society ; Quaker City 
Lodge, No. 116, A. O. U. W. ; Lycurgus 
Senate, No. 1, Order of Sparta ; Pennsyl- 
vania Editorial Association ; Franklin In- 
stitute ; Book Trade Association of Phila- 
delphia ; Journalists' Club ; Sylus Club ; 
Northwestern Masonic Aid Association, 
Chicago. His son, Will S. Menamin, is 
president and general manager of Guten- 
berg Machine Co., Chicago, 111. 

ANITA METIVIER Born Victoriaville, 
Quebec. Jan. 15, 1884 ; began to learn 
printing in Waterville, Quebec, in 1902 ; 
worked at Remington's in this city ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union July, 1906. 

ALBION N. MERCHANT Born Law- 
rence, N. Y., June 28, 1843; died Provi- 
dence May 15, 1884 ; began to learn the 
printer's trade in Canton, N. Y., receiving 
for his first year's work $40 and board. 
In the Civil war he served in the 47th 
Regt., N. Y. V. After the war he estab- 
lished a printing business in Chateaugay, 
N. Y. Later he removed to Burlington. 
Vt., where he published the Democrat and 
Sentinel. June 14, 1879, he began the 
publication of The Rhode Island Democrat 
in this city, which he continued until his 



death. Mr. Merchant was a member of 
the Masonic, Odd Fellow and G. A. R. fra- 
ternities, and of the United Train of Artil- 
lery and Providence Press Club. 

LUCIEN MERCIER Born St. Johns, 
Canada, P. Q. ; learned printing trade at 
A. Crawford Greene's, Providence, begin- 
ning in 1884 ; initiated into Providence 
Union Nov. 24, 1895 ; located in Central 
Falls in 1904. 

GEORGE MERRILL Assistant editor 
Providence Journal in 1873 ; foreman 
1874-'77. 

DAVID B. METCALF Born West 
Point, Ky., Oct. 26, 1851 ; learned printing 
at Decatur, 111., beginning in 1868; worked 
in Providence in 1903 at Franklin Press 
and Standard Printing Co. ; located in 
Chicago in 1907. 

WILLIAM MILL Born Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, in 1848; learned printing in Chi- 
cago, beginning in 1862 ; worked in Provi- 
dence in 1862 ; in Chicago in 1904. 

SAMUEL M. MILLARD Born in 1810 ; 
was one of the publishers of the Provi- 
dence Daily Sentinel in 1846-'47 and after- 
ward was connected with the job printing 
establishments of Knowles, Anthony & 




SAMUEL M. MILLARD. 

Co.. Millard & Harker and S. M. Millard 
& Co. He ended his work as a compositor 
in the Journal composing room, dying at 
the age of 71 years, June 29, 1881. 

HELEN F. MILLER Born Moosup. 
Conn., Oct. 2, 1881 ; began to learn print- 
ing in office of Journal and Press, Moosup. 
in 1900 ; worked in Providence at E. A. 
Johnson & Co. ; initiated into Providence 
Union Aug. 13, 1906. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LVII 



JAMES A. MILLER Born Bristol, R. I., 
June 1, 1827 ; began to learn printing in 
Providence in the office of the Daily Eve- 
ning Chronicle, of which J. M. Church 
was editor. From 1847 to 1851 he was 
employed on sailing packets. In the latter 
year Mr. Miller returned to the printing 
business. His brother, W. J. Miller, was 
then one of the owners of the Post, and 
he remained with that paper until 1866, 
when he went into the grocery business 
at Bristol, where he is now a member of 
the firm of James A. Miller & Son. 
Clement Webster, George W. Danielson, 
Samuel Millard and Mr. Miller were part- 
ners in the publication of the Daily Sen- 
tinel in 1846 ; the paper had a brief ex- 
istence. Mr. Miller was initiated into 
Providence Union June 13, 1863, and was 
an honorary member in 1878. 

JOHN MILLER Died New York city 
on Sunday, Oct. 15, 1848, after long suf- 
fering, from dropsy. He conducted a 
printing office in Providence before 1813, 
when he was interested in the publica- 
tion of the American. In January, 1820, 
in partnership with John Hutchens, Mr. 
Miller began the publication of the Manu- 
facturers and Farmers Journal. He relin- 
quished his interest in the paper in 1835, 
when he removed to Philadelphia, and 
later to New York city. His obituary in 
the Journal said : "John Miller never had 
an enemy. All the kindly virtues were 
in him most harmoniously mingled and 
blended ; and amid all the sharp encoun- 
ters of business and all the asperities of 
politics, the community saw only the un- 
affected urbanity of the gentleman, the 
unostentatious and unfailing generosity of 
the man." His funeral took place Oct. 17 
from No. 29 Broadway, and "many of his 
old friends, those who knew him in his 
prosperity, came to pay the last tribute of 
respect to one who is remembered only 
with kindness." 

WILLIAM JONES MILLER Born Bris- 
tol Jan. 19, 1818. His grandfather, Nel- 
son Miller, was at the battle of Bunker 
Hill. Young Miller attended the Bristol 
schools and at the age of 15 began an 
apprenticeship in the office of the Bristol 
Gazette, leaving at the end of one year. 
In 1836 he was working at the case in the 
office of the Providence Journal and for a 
time was foreman of the composing room. 
In 1842, during the Dorr excitement, the 
firm of Low & Miller, of which he was a 
member, published the Providence Daily 
Express and also the weekly New Age. 
These papers stopped in 1843 and he 
printed for other parties the Providence 
Gazette and Chronicle. In 1845 he was 
collector of customs for Bristol and War- 
ren, then an important position. With 
Welcome B. Sayles in 1850 he started the 
Providence Daily Post, retaining connec- 
tion with the paper until after the Civil 
war. He was delegate to the National 
Democratic conventions of 1856, '64 and 
'72 ; President of the Bristol town council 



in 1859, '70 and '71 ; clerk of the House 
of Representatives in 1853 and '63 ; Rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly in 
1873 and '74, and for many years served 
on the school board of Bristol. He was 
connected with the Bristol Gas Works 
from its organization, first as superintend- 
ent and secretary and later as treasurer. 
In 1874, '75 and '76 he read papers on 
the Wampanoag Indians before the Rhode 
Island Historical Society. These led to 
the placing of a stone, marking the spot 
where King Philip was shot, at the 200th 
anniversary of the event. He died in 
Bristol Jan. 29, 1886. 

ALEXANDER OSBORN MILNE Born 
Fall River, Mass., Sept. 10, 1845 ; learned 
printing on the Daily News of that city, 
becoming its foreman about 1865 ; he re- 
moved to Providence, working on the Eve- 
ning Press, and was initiated into Provi- 
dence Union April 10, 1869 ; from this city 
he went to San Francisco, Cal., where he 
was night foreman of the Bulletin. Later 
he returned to the East, settling in Taun- 
ton, where he purchased the Bristol 
County Republican (weekly) and con- 
ducted that paper for several years. Get- 
ting tired of the publishing business, the 
Republican was taken off his hands by its 
former owner, Mr. William Read, and Mr. 
Milne returned to the Pacific coast, where 
he resides on a ranch at Elk Grove, Cal. 

JOSEPH S. MILNE Lieutenant in 
R. I. Battery B ; received a fatal wound 
during the battle at Gettysburg, and his 
dead body has been received by his friends 
in Fall River. Lieut. Milne was a printer, 
who enlisted from the office of the Post 
into Battery E, and arose by merit until 
he received a commission as Second Lieu- 
tenant and was assigned to Battery B. 
A short time since, when Capt. Gushing 
of the regular army desired the assistance 
of another officer in his battery, Lieut. 
Milne was detailed for the honorable duty, 
and it was in fighting with this battery 
that the gallant young fellow received 
his death wound. Every officer of that 
battery was either killed or wounded. 
Lieut. Milne commanded the warmest 
esteem of his brother officers and was 
much beloved by his men. Providence 
Journal, July 16, 1863. He was a brother 
of William O. Milne of Newport. 

JOHN H. MILNE Born Newport, R. I., 
February, 1843 ; died in this city Oct. 
22, 1903 ; learned the printing trade in 
the office of the Fall River News. About 
1863 he came to this city and entered the 
office of the Providence Journal as fore- 
man of the night force. After holding 
that position for about two years he re- 
turned to Fall River and became foreman 
of the Monitor of that city. In 1866 he 
returned to the Journal composing room 
as foreman of the day force, which posi- 
tion he held about 30 years. During his 
service the linotype machines were intro- 
duced into the composing room. 



LVIII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



THOMAS F. MILNE Born Fall River, 
Mass., June 6, 1847; learned the trade of 
pressman in the Providence Journal press 
room ; went to the Evening Press and in 
1876 returned to the Journal and worked 
there until July 1, 1901, when he retired 
from the business. He was initiated into 
Providence Union June 24, 1888. Alex- 
ander, John and William Milne were his 
brothers. He resides in this city. 

WILLIAM L. MILNE Born Fall River, 
Mass., July 31, 1849 ; learned printing in 
that city on the News ; worked in Paw- 
tucket for a short time after learning the 
trade and on the Evening Press in this 
city ; was initiated into Providence Union 
Jan. 11, 1873, and again initiated into the 
reorganized body June 26, 1887. He was 
employed on the Evening Bulletin for 
more than 20 years previous to his death, 
which occurred March 16, 1901. He is 
buried in Oak Grove Cemetery, Fall River. 

JOHN J. MINCHIN Died Providence 
Aug. 28, 1905. He was born in this city 
and learned printing in the job office of 
the Evening Press. For about 15 years 
previous to his death he had been a 
member of the John F. Greene Co. 

PARK MITCHELL Born Manchester, 
N. H., Nov. 16, 1856; learned printing in 
office of Manchester Union, beginning in 
1873 ; first came to Providence in Novem- 
ber, 1880 ; was admitted to No. 33 by card 
May 27, 1883 ; worked on the Journal, 
Telegram, Star, Transcript, Sunday Dis- 
patch and Weekly Visitor ; employed on 
the Manchester (N. H.) Union in 1904. 

DANIEL E. MOONEY Born Paw- 
tucket, R. I., Sept. 14, 1873; learned print- 
ing in Concord, N. H., beginning in 1888; 
initiated into Concord Union in 1893, and 
joined Providence Union by card Feb. 28, 
1897 ; worked in this city since ; now em- 
ployed on the Evening Bulletin. 

JAMES MOORE Born Providence Jan. 
29, 1854 ; learned printing in office of 
the Journal, beginning in 1878; was initi- 
ated into Providence Union April 15, 1883, 
and his name is on the 1883 charter; 
worked on the Telegram and in other 
offices in this city ; now employed on the 
Tribune. 

ANDREW F. MORAN Learned print- 
ing in the office of the Providence Jour- 
nal, beginning in 1871 ; initiated into 
Providence Union March 14, 1874 ; I. T. 
U. delegate to Denver, Colo., in 1889 ; as- 
sistant foreman of the Telegram until 
the strike of 1889 ; worked in New York 
on the Herald and Journal ; came back 
to Providence in 1902 and was night fore- 
man of Journal ; in February, 1906, he 
became foreman of the Evening Tribune. 

JAMES MORAN Born in county Gal- 
way, Ireland ; came to Providence in 
1851 ; learned printing in office of A. 
Crawford Greene ; served in Union army 
from August, 1861, to January, 1865, 



rising from rank of second lieutenant to 
that of captain ; also held highest rank in 
militia of Rhode Island, resigning in 1898 ; 
employed in Custom House 1881-'85 and 
1890-'94 ; in the Capitol at Washington, 

D. C., 1885-'90 ; city gauger of Provi- 
dence since 1895. 

ALBERT E. MORRILL Born Durham, 
N. H., Sept. 13, 1857 ; learned printing in 
the office of Bristol Phoenix, beginning in 
1876 ; came to Providence in 1880 to work 
on the Journal and remained until 1883, 
when he went West for two years ; initi- 
ated into Los Angeles Union in 1883, and 
admitted by card into Providence Union 
in September, 1885 ; night foreman Provi- 
dence Journal from 1900 to 1903 ; now 
assistant foreman Evening Bulletin. 

HAROLD W. MORRILL (son of Albert 

E. Morrill) Born Los Angeles, Cal., 
March 8, 1884 ; learned printing in Provi- 
dence Journal office, beginning in 1899 ; 
initiated into Providence Union Feb. 28, 
1904 ; employed on Journal in 1907. 

BENJAMIN F. MORRISON Born in 
Canada in 1873 ; learned printing at Port 
Huron, Mich., beginning in 1884 ; worked 
in Providence in 1892 ; located in New 
York in 1907. 

JEREMIAH MORRISSEY Born Ports- 
mouth, N. H., May 19, 1860; learned 
printing in Portsmouth Journal office, be- 
ginning in 1876 ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card Sept. 24, 1884, and worked 
in this city on the Journal and Star ; died 
in Portsmouth, N. H., July 27, 1887. 

CHARLES L. MORSE Initiated into 
Providence Union May 31, 1885; in this 
city he worked at What Cheer, Journal 
and Star offices; in 1886 he went to Bos- 
ton and worked on the Post until the 
1891 lockout; he then went to Chicago, 
where he was employed in 1906 on the 
Chronicle. 

EDWIN TAYLOR MORSE Born Cam- 
bridgeport, Mass., June 13, 1850 ; learned 
printing in Worcester, Mass., beginning in 
1868; joined Union there in 1874, and 
was present at the meeting of Providence 
Union April 8, 1883, when the reorgani- 
zation was effected ; worked in this city 
on the Telegram, Press, Star, Journal and 
Sunday Dispatch ; in New York city on 
the Press; in Hartford since 1897. 

WILLIAM H. MOULTON Born Lowell, 
Mass., April 7, 1863 ; learned printing in 
office of Lowell Morning Mail, beginning 
in 1879 ; came to Providence in 1902, and 
was initiated into No. 33 Aug. 30, 1903. 

DANIEL MOWRY (3d) Born Smith- 
field, R. I. ; died Worcester, Mass., in 
September, 1870, at the age of 82 years. 
In the early 3'0's in this city he printed 
the Daily Advertiser, the Microcosm and 
the Rhode Island American. 

MICHAEL MULLALLY Born Tipper- 
ary, Ireland, in 1834; learned printing in 
New York city, beginning in 1848; came 






THE JOURNEYMEN 



LIX 



to Providence in 1857 and worked in the 
office of A. Crawford Greene for about 
24 years as foreman; since 1881 he has 
been with the What Cheer Printing Co. 

LAWRENCE F. MULLEN Born Provi- 
dence ; learned printing in Evening Tele- 
gram office, beginning in 1894 ; initiated 
into Providence Union Feb. 24, 1901. 

JAMES WRIGHT MUNROE Born 
Bristol, R. I., Aug. 21, 1821 ; died in 
Providence Aug. 10, 1905. He was a car- 
rier for the Morning Courier and served 
an apprenticeship on that paper, begin- 
ning in 1835. He left the business be- 
cause of his objections to working Sun- 
days. He was crier of the Appellate 
Division of the Supreme Court at the 
time of death, having served the State 
as deputy sheriff or court crier for 40 
years. 

BARTHOLOMEW MURPHY Born 
Ayer, Mass., July 29, 1858 ; learned print- 
ing at John H. Turner's in that city, be- 
ginning in 1875 ; admitted to Providence 
Union at the September meeting, 1886, 
and worked here on the Dispatch and 
Telegram until 1889 ; visited Providence 
on the occasion of the celebration of the 
50th anniversary ; located in Lowell 
Mass., in 1907. 

CHARLES H. MURPHY Born Provi- 
dence in 1874 ; learned printing on Eve- 
ning Telegram, beginning in 1888; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Dec. 31, 1893 ; 
participated in the effort for the eight - 
hour day in 1906 ; now located in Provi- 
dence. 

DENNIS J. MURPHY ( a )_Born New 
Bedford, Mass., Nov. 13, 1871 ; learned print- 
ing in that city at Knight & Rowland's, 
beginning in 1887 ; admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card Nov. 29, 1903 ; 
worked at Livermore & Knight's ; in New- 
port, R. I., at Milne Job Office, in 1905. 

EDWARD A. MURPHY Born Provi- 
dence, R. I., Oct. 9, 1880; learned the 
printing trade at Journal office, beginning 
in 1898; has been a linotype operator on 
the Journal since 1902. 

JOHN J. MURPHY Born Fall River, 
Mass., in 1868 ; learned printing in office 
of Morning-Star, Providence, beginning in 
1885; initiated into No. 33 June 29, 1890; 
employed in Tribune proofroom in 1907. 

TIMOTHY J. MURPHY Born Provi- 
dence May 21, 1882 ; started to learn 
printing in 1900 in the office of the Eve- 
ning Telegram ; died April 26, 1901. 

WALTER E. MURPHY Born Fall 
River June 1, 1859; died June 20, 1895; 
learned printing in office of Fall River 
Daily Herald, beginning in July, 1872; 
worked in Boston on the Post, Herald 
and Globe ; in New York on the Sun and 
Tribune ; in Providence on the Press, Star 
and Journal ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card Nov. 28, 1883. 



CHARLES H. MURRAY Died at the 
State Hospital for the Insane Oct. 26, 
1903, of softening of the brain, having 
been adjudged insane May 28, 1903. He 
had been arrested for offering a worth- 
less check for $5 in payment for 30 cents 
worth of food. When searched at the 
Central police station he had in his pock- 
ets slips of paper on which were written 
in pencil the prescribed forms for checks, 
four of which had evidently been framed 
with the purpose in mind of disbursing 
the sum of $11,050,000. Two were of 
$5,000,000 each, another was for $1,000,000 
and a fourth was for $50,000. Mr. Mur- 
ray was born in this city on Transit 
street in 1848. He had worked for the 
Providence Journal Co. for more than 30 
years, first as pressman, then as composi- 
tor, and later as assistant foreman of the 
Evening Bulletin, which position he relin- 
quished about two years before his death. 
He became a member of Providence 
Union Dec. 12, 1868. He is buried at the 
North End Burial Ground. 

FRANK H. MURRAY Was found dead 
by the side of the track of the Midland 
Division of the Consolidated railroad near 
Arctic Centre, R. I., June 13, 1904. He 
was admitted to Providence Typographi- 
cal Union by card in January, 1887, and 
had worked in various printing offices in 
this city. 

JAMES J. MURRAY Born South- 
bridge, Mass., Feb. 11, 1859 ; learned 
printing on the Southbridge Journal, be- 
ginning July 10, 1877 ; came to Providence 
in August, 1880, and worked in the Press 
book room, at Reid's, the What Cheer, 
Press and Star, Bulletin, Journal and 
Telegram until 1887; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union April 8, 1883 ; located on 
News-Tribune, Duluth, Minn., in 1904. 

JOHN E. MURRAY Born Howard, 
111. ; learned printing in Pawtucket, R. I. ; 
worked in Providence in 1897 ; located in 
Hartford, Conn., in 1904. 

THOMAS P. MURRAY (brother of 
James J. Murray) Born Southbridge, 
Mass., May 20, 1864 ; died Boston, Mass. ; 
learned printing in Providence in the book 
and job office of the Evening Press, be- 
ginning in 1881 ; initiated into No. 33 in 
January, 1887 ; worked in New York on 
the Sun and in Brooklyn on the Eagle, 
and later came back to Providence and 
worked on the Telegram ; his last work 
was in Boston. 

JAMES MUSPRATT Born New Bed- 
ford, Mass., Feb. 15, 1843; learned print- 
ing trade in office of Providence Journal 
and worked there until the introduction 
of the linotype ; since that time he has 
worked on the Telegram and News in 
Providence, and in Pawtucket on the 
Chronicle ; was initiated into Providence 
Union Feb. 28, 1886; located in Hartford, 
Conn., in 1907. 

JOHN MUSPRATT Born New Bed- 
ford, Mass., Sept. 11, 1841, where he also 



LX 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



learned the trade of a printer ; he worked 
in Providence in the years 1866, '68 and 
'69, on the Press and Herald ; was initi- 
ated into Providence Union Sept. 8, 1866; 
now located in New Bedford, Mass. ; re- 
tired from printing. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Dates Named : 

JAMES J. MAKER, May 17, 1888. 

WILLIAM E. MAHONEY, May.17, 1888 

JOHN A. MARCUS, Feb. 24, 1901. 

CLARENCE J. MARENESS, December, 
1892. 

JEANNETTE M. MARTIN (Miss), May 
17, 1888. 

JAMES C. MEAGHER, July 25, 1886 ; 
by card June, 1887. 

CHARLES K. MELLVILLE, Jan. 14, 
1870; worked at A. Crawford Greene's in 
1863. 

H. A. MERRITT, Feb. 26, 1893. 

HENRY F. MILLER, Dec. 21, 1902. 

JOHN T. MONAHAN, June 24, 1888 
(Pawtucket). 

FRED B. MOREY, May 29, 1894. 

CYRUS O. MOULTON, April 30, 1893. 

DENNIS J. MURPHY (b), July 26, 
1885. 

LAWRENCE A. MURPHY, Feb. 25, 
1900. Now a comedian ; home in East 
Providence. 

HENRY MURRAY (b), May 29, 1887. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named : 

JOHN O. MACKIN, March, 1886. 

T. J. MAGUIRE, July, 1886. 

WILLIAM M ALLOY, Aug. 8, 1874. 

W. F. M ALONE, July, 1888. 

FRED B. MANNING, April 30, 1893. 

LEWIS MANNING, June 8, 1872. 

J. G. MARSHALL, August, 1887. 

WILLIAM J. MARSHALL, New York 
card, Aug. 8, 1868. 

J. P. MARTIN, Dec. 27, 1885; May, 
1888. 

WILLIAM MATTHEWS, Sept. 10, 1870; 
May 27, 1883. 

M. E. MATWIN(Mrs.) September, 1888. 

PATRICK MEEHAN, April 24, 1898. 

J. F. MILLARD, Sept. 27, 1891. 

E. T. MILLIGAN, Sept. 30, 1883. (Re- 
ported died in Omaha, Neb.) 

WALTER S. MITCHELL (name in 
1870 constitution). 

V. R. MONTGOMERY, July 30, 1884. 

JAMES MOON, July 28, 1901. 

JOSEPH MOORE, Aug. 28, 1898. 

SAMUEL MOORE (Rocky), July 9, 
1870. At Boston, Mass. 

E. A. MORAN, February, 1886. 

FRED MORGAN. Oct. 14, 1871. 

JOHN L. MORRIS, Oct. 25, 1903. 

JOHN J. MULLEN, Feb. 7, 1904. 

THOMAS E. MUMFORD, Nov. 24, 1901. 
Central Falls. 

DANIEL MURPHY (a), Dec. 10, 1870. 

CHARLES MURRAY, January, 1887. 
At New Bedford. 

W. A. MURRAY, Oct. 12, 1874. 

WILLIAM J. MURRAY, Sept. 28, J890. 



Names from Providence Directory : 

ETHELBERT A. MARSHALL 1830 
worked at 12 Market square; 1836 over 
19 and 27 Market square. 

WILLIAM MASTERS 1844 worked 
over 15 Market square; 1847 at Journal 
office; 1850 at 15 Market square. 

BENJAMIN F. MOORE 1841 worked 
at 19 Market square; 1844 at 12 South 
Main street ; published Providence Al- 
manac. 

GEORGE H. MOORE 1844 worked at 
12 South Main street; 1847 over 15 Mar- 
ket square. 

JOHN F. MOORE 1847 worked over 
15 Market square. 

DANIEL MURPHY (b) 1838. 

JOHN MURPHY 1850 (Hill, Murphy 
& Tillinghast) publisher of Constellation 
at 15 Market square. 

HENRY MURRAY (a) 1850 worked 
at 15 Market square; 1853 at 27 Ex- 
change place; 1855 at 24 Westminster 
street. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here : 

DANIEL MAN 1812. 

HERMAN B. MAN 1812. 

JAMES MARTIN Worked at R. I. 
Printing Co. Came from Patterson, N. J. 

SARAH MILLER (Mrs.) 1891 Eve- 
ning Telegram. 

WILLIAM O. MILNE (brother of 
Joseph) Worked on Daily Post ; in Civil 
war ; now proprietor of job office in 
Newport. 

JAMES MORRIS Worked for R. I. 
Printing Co. 

GEORGE W. MOWRY Afterward at 
Government Printing Office. 

WILLIAM A. MOWRY Applied for 
admission to Providence Union in 1862 ; 
left city before application was acted 
upon. 

CHARLES E. McANDREWS Born 
Bristol, R. L, April 20, 1876; learned 
printing in office of Whittemore & Col- 
burn, beginning in 1892 ; initiated into 
Pawtucket Union at February meeting, 
1901 ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card November, 1902 ; worked for several 
years on Journal ; now employed on 
Tribune. 

JOHN McAULIFFE Died Providence 
Dec. 18, 1872, in the 26th year of his age ; 
he had learned printing in the Journal 
office and worked there until his death. 

DANIEL A. McCANN Born Newport, 
R. I., where he learned printing; in the 
Civil war served in the 1st and 7th Regi- 
ments, R. I. Vols. ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union, Sept. 30, 1883 ; worked on 
Morning Star ; now inmate of Soldiers' 
Home at Bristol. 

JOSEPH V. McCANN Born Provi- 
dence Dec. 22, 1863 ; learned printing in 
the office of the Evening Press and has 
worked in this city at various times since 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LXI 



1880; was initiated into Providence Union 
July 31, 1887, and was Vice President in 
1903 and financial secretary in 1904. Mr. 
McCann has travelled extensively. In 
1878 and '79 was in New Mexico, Arizona 
and Colorado. He has been a member 
of more than 100 Unions affiliated with 
the I. T. U. 

JAMES H. MCCARTHY Born Provi- 
dence Nov. 11, 1871 ; learned printing at 
Livermore & Knight's and on the Journal ; 
initiated into Providence Union Aug. 26, 
1894 ; went to Boston in 1895, where he 
is at present employed as a linotype 
operator on the Herald. 

ROBERT E. MCCARTHY Born Provi- 
dence Aug. 8, 1866 ; learned printing in 
Willimantic, Conn., beginning in 1882; 
initiated into Providence Union May 29, 
1887 ; worked in this city at printing 
about two years, and then gave up the 
business to engage in railroading ; at 
present a locomotive engineer. 

SAMUEL N. McCARTY Elected a 
member of Providence Union Dec. 30, 
1900. He was born in 1874, learned print- 
ing in Leaderer's office, Buffalo, N. Y., 
and had worked in Norwich, Conn. 

JOHN McCAULEY Born Washington, 
D. C., Nov. 5, 1878; learned printing in 
offices of T. M. Curry and T. P. Morse, in 
that city ; came to Providence April 25, 
1904. 

JOHN PHILIP McCAULEY Born San 
Francisco, Gal., April 2, 1865; learned 
printing at Bangor, Me., beginning in 
1881, and finished in the office of the 
Rhode Island Printing Co. in this city ; 
worked here in 1883-'84 ; now employed 
on the Boston Globe. 

NORMAN L. McCAUSLAND Born 
Providence Sept. 6, 1868 ; learned trade 
at Rhode Island Printing Co., beginning 
in 1882 ; learned to operate a linotype on 
the Evening Bulletin. 

JAMES E. McCLINTOCK Born Fall 
River, Mass., Dec. 17, 1863 ; learned) 
printing on Fall River News ; initiated 
into Providence Union Aug. 27, 1884 ; 
worked on Journal until 1889 ; in New 
York 1889-'91 ; in Boston 1891-1907 ; now 
employed on Evening Bulletin. 

GEORGE McCLURE Born Coshockton, 
O., March 15, 1863 ; learned printing in 
that town, beginning Sept. 2, 1878 ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card at 
the July meeting, 1888; "worked in every 
town in the United States and Canada of 
any importance, and in a great many that 
were not of importance ;" located in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1904. 

ALEXANDER McCOMB Committed 
suicide Sept. 26, 1886, in the printing 
office of Hammond, Angell & Co., this 
city. He was discovered by the fore- 
man of the office, Arthur Shaw. He had 
learned the trade of a pressman in the 



Journal press room, coming there in 1856, 
when the first Hoe cylinder press was in- 
stalled. He was initiated into Providence 
Typographical Union April 18, 1857 ; had 
worked in almost every printing office in 
Providence ; was about 55 years old at 
time of death. 

ANDREW J. McCONNELL Born West 
Chester, Pa. ; began to learn printing in 
New York city in 1874; admitted to 
Providence Union by card Sept. 27, 1891. 
He came to this city from Brooklyn, 
N. Y., with Mr. and Mrs. John L. Heaton, 
founders of the Providence Daily News, 
and was its first foreman. Toward the 
end of 1892 there was a lock-out of the 
Union force in the News composing room 
and Mr. McConnell lost his position there- 
by. Shortly after he went to Woonsocket 
and became interested in the Evening 
Call of that city and is now part owner 
and managing editor of that successful 
paper. 

HUGH McDEVITT Born Dublin, Ire- 
land, Jan. 1, 1837 ; learned printing in 
Liverpool, Eng. He writes : "First worked 
in Providence in the fall of 1864, on the 
Journal. There as an alleymate met 
the first Mormon I ever knew, who, as 
soon as he learned I was a soldier of 
European experience, offered me a com- 
mission in the Mormon army and tried to 
get me to go to Utah ; but his descriptions 
of Mormondom conflicted with my taste 
and I concluded to remain a Puritan." In 
the spring of 1865 he worked on the Post ; 
employed on the Boston Globe in 1907. 

PETER A. McDONALD Died Paw- 
tucket, R. I., Nov. 22, 1866, aged 28 years, 
7 months and 20 days, the first member 
of Providence Union to pass away after 
its organization. He was a native of 
Nova Scotia; initiated into No. 33 Sept. 
11, 1858; President in 1860 and '61 and 
delegate in 1862. The members of the 
Union attended the funeral in a body. 

TERESA McDONALD Born Bristol, 
R. I. ; learned printing in Woonsocket, 
R. L, beginning in 1882 ; initiated into 
Providence Union Sept. 26, 1886. Miss 
McDonald writes : "I am at present (1904) 
employed as proofreader on the Washing- 
ton Post and have been since 1894, ex- 
cepting three months in 1902, which I 
spent in the Government Printing Office. 
Since leaving Providence I have worked 
in seven States, viz. : Connecticut, Mas- 
sachusetts, Ohio, Illinois, Colorado, New 
York, Virginia and the District of Colum- 
bia. My affiliation with the Typographi- 
cal Union has continued without a break, 
and it is my hope and desire to retain my 
membership therewith, either actively or 
passively, as long as I live." 

PATRICK E. McELROY Born Provi- 
dence in 1870 ; died in this city June 23, 
1900 ; learned printing on the Evening 
Bulletin and was a linotype operator ; he 
was initiated into Providence Union Sept. 
24, 1893. 



LXII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



JOHN McGINTY ("Texas Jack") 
Born in 1837 ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card April 11, 1868; admitted 
to Union Printers' Home from New York 
Jan. 1, 1899 ; probably died in New York 
State Insane Asylum on Ward's Island. 

JOSEPH H. McGUINNESS Born Mis- 
souri March 3, 1866; learned printing on 
Providence Telegram, beginning April, 
1886 ; admitted to Providence Union as 
apprentice member May 26, 1889 ; initi- 
ated into Boston Union, No. 13, Feb. 23, 
1890, and worked in that city on the 
Globe ; also in Phenix, on the Gleaner ; 
now foreman Westerly Daily Sun. 

JAMES McGWIN Died Providence 
Feb. 26, 1876, aged 37 years. He was a 
native of Ireland. In the Civil war he 
served three years in the 7th R. I. Inf. 
and was wounded at Fredericksburg, Va. 
Probably learned printing at A. Craw- 
ford Greene's and was foreman of that 
office for a time. 

MICHAEL J. McHUGH Born Provi- 
dence July 14, 1868 ; learned printing with 
Whittemore & Thompson, beginning in 
1885 ; then worked about 2 Ms years with 
E. L. Freeman, Central Falls ; since that 
time has been with the Providence Jour- 
nal, of which he was assistant foreman 
for many years ; now a linotype operator. 
Mr. McHugh joined Providence Union as 
an apprentice member April 24, 1887. He 
is the inventor of an improved printers' 
galley. 

J. M. McINERNEY Born Worcester, 
Mass., where he learned printing, begin- 
ning in 1889 ; worked in Providence in 
1897 ; employed on the New York H'erald 
in 1904. 

FRANK J. McKAY Born Buenos Ayres, 
Argentine Republic, S. A., July 4, 1870; 
learned printing in Providence, R. I., on 
the R. I. Democrat, beginning in 1882; 
initiated into Providence Union Feb. 26, 
1889; worked in several Eastern cities; 
served in the 2d Artillery, D Battery, in 
Cuba, and in the 46th Infantry in the 
Philippines ; at present in press room of 
Providence Journal. 

MRS. LULU BENNER (nee McKay) 
Born Providence Nov. 10, 1881 ; learned 
printing in office of Telegram, beginning 
in 1898; now retired from the business. 

ALEXANDER McKEE Initiated into 
Providence Union June 24, 1900. He was 
born in 1872, learned printing in Barrie, 
Vt., and had been in the regular army. 

JAMES FRANCIS McKENNA Born 
Providence in 1888 ; learned printing with 
J. J. Ryder, 1903-'07 ; participated in the 
effort for the eight-hour day at the end 
of his apprenticeship. 

WILLIAM D. McKENZIE Born Provi- 
dence Nov. 1, 1877 ; learned printing in 
the office of Charles W. Littell, beginning 



in 1892 ; initiated into No. 33 June 30, 
1898; enlisted in the Hospital Corps dur- 
ing the Spanish War ; worked on the Eve- 
ning Bulletin ; now on New York Herald. 

W. R. McKENZIE Born Duquoin, 111., 
Aug. 7, 1868 ; learned printing on Chester 
(111.) Clarion, beginning in 1882; worked 
in most towns of any size in the United 
States ; also, City of Mexico ; Nome, 
Alaska ; London, England ; now employed 
on New York Tribune ; worked on Provi- 
dence Journal summer 1906. 

CHARLES T. McKINLEY Died at the 
Soldiers' Home, Chelsea, Mass., Dec. 22, 
1900, and was buried in the Soldiers' 
Home lot, Forest Dale Cemetery, Maiden, 
grave No. 227. He was admitted to 
Providence Union by card April 8, 1883, 
and had worked in various printing offices 
in this city. 

MILES A. McNAMEE Born Provi- 
dence Jan. 7, 1861 ; learned printing in 
the Evening Press job office ; worked at 
A. Crawford Greene's ; now employed in 
the printing office of the Rumford Chemi- 
cal Works. In politics Mr. McNamee has 
been chairman of the Democratic City 
Committe of Providence, delegate to the 
National Democratic convention of 1896, 
and is councilman from the Tenth Ward 
of Providence in 1907. 

P. J. McNULTY Born Providence May 
23, 1872 ; learned printing at M. J. Cum- 
mings's office, beginning in 1901 ; em- 
ployed at Phenix, R. I., in 1904. 

WILLIAM McPHERSON Born Pictou, 
N. S., March 26, 1838 ; learned the print- 
ing trade there, beginning in 1853 ; came 
to Providence in June, 1859, working at 
A: Crawford Greene's, then located at 24 
Westminster street ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union March 12, 1884 ; from 1873 
to 1894 he was with J. A. & R. A. Reid, 
and from the latter date he has worked 
with E. A. Johnson & Co. ; in the State 
militia he rose to the rank of major. 

THOMAS BOYD McQUEEN Born 
Glasgow, Scotland, where he learned the 
printing trade ; worked in Providence 
about seven weeks in 1885 on the Star 
and Journal. Mr. McQueen prepared for 
the operatic stage and has sung in Europe 
and America in grand opera. Now em- 
ployed on the New York Herald. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Dates Named : 

WILLIAM McCANN, April 8, 1883. 
Died in Fall River. 

F. D. McCARTER, Feb. 26, 1893. 

J. G. McCARTY, Dec. 15, 1867. 

W L. McCLINTOCK, Dec 28, 1890. 

GEORGE D. McCULLOCH, Jan. 29, 
1893. 

HUGH F. McCUTCHEN, Oct. 29, 1887. 
Learned trade on Bulletin.. (Deceased.) 

GEORGE w. MCDONALD, NOV. 28, 

1896. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LXIII 



PHILIP McGEE, Feb. 26, 1889. (Press- 
man.) Lived in Pawtucket ; worked on 
Morning Star. 

THOMAS McGUIGAN, Jan. 29, 1893. 

J. A. McGUINNESS, April 15, 1883. 
(Reported dead.) 

WILLIAM J. McKAY, Nov. 28, 1883. 

KATIE McKIERNAN (Miss), June 27, 
1886. 

WILLIAM McMAHON, May 17, 1888. 

JOHN McMANUS, Nov. 14, 1874. 

PETER McNAMARA, Aug. 31, 1890. 

N. A. McPHERSON, Feb. 24, 1901. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named : 

JAMES McCANN, November, 1883. 

JOHN H. McCANN, February, 1886. 
Worked on Journal and later in Boston 
and New York. 

WILLIAM B. McCANN, April 8, 1883. 
(Deceased.) 

J. R. McCONICA, June 25, 1884. (Re- 
ported dead at St. John, N. B.) 

H. C. McCONNELL, deposited and 
withdrew card in 1877. 

JAMES McCONVILLE, January, 1887. 
(Dead.) 

WILLIAM H. McCORMACK, Dec. 31, 
1899. 

WILLIAM A. McCORMICK, July 28, 
1901. 

E. P. McCREARY, from Scranton, Pa., 
Jan. 9, 1869. 

RONALD S. McDONALD, Feb. 26, 1899. 

ROBERT C. McDOWELL, Aug. 13, 
1870 ; Oct. 8, 1870. 

A. J. McFARLAND, October, 1888. 

T. N. McGILL ("Charley Ross"), July 
30, 1884; August, 1888. (Reported dead.) 

JOSEPH J. McGINLEY, January, 1889. 
(Dead.) 

WILLIAM H. McGOWAN, August, 1888. 

WILLIAM F. McGRATH, Feb. 28, 1892. 

GEORGE A. McGUINNESS, July 30, 
1884. Brother of Joseph H. McGuinness. 

JOHN B. McILVAIN, Feb. 27, 1884. 

THOMAS G. McKEAN, August, 1888. 

P. H. McKENNA, February, 1886. 

T. P. McKINNEY, February, 1886. In 
1905 at San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

JOHN A. McKINNON, Oct. 31, 1897. 

W. J. McMICKING (Sidewheeler"), 
April, 1886. 

FRANK McNAMEE, May 10, 1873. No. 
4173 in "Big Six" in 1906. 

JOHN McNAMEE, Sept. 30, 1883. 

GOODWIN B. McNARY, Dec. 27, 1885. 

T. K. McNEIR, May, 1885. 

B. H. McQUEENEY, March, 1885. 
CHARLES McQUILLAN, Oct. 26, 1890. 
DANIEL McSWEENEY, Sept. 25, 1898. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here : 

JAMES McCORMICK 1883. 
MINNIE McCOY At Freeman's, . Cen- 
tral Falls. 

W. H. McCANN 1903. 

SAMUEL McNAUGHT Directory 1904. 

ALBERT NELSON Born Boston, Mass., 
in 1852 ; learned printing in that city, be- 
ginning in 1873 ; worked in Providence in 
1887 ; visited this city again in 1904. 



WILLIAM A. NEWELL Born Alle- 
ghany City, Pa. ; learned printing in Fall 
River, Mass., beginning in 1877 ; admit- 
ted to Providence Union by card Dec. 26, 
1883 ; worked on Evening Bulletin for 
about 18 years until 1901 ; for about 10 
years had charge of the advertising de- 
partment in the composing room ; since 
1901 he has been in the hay and grain 
business at Auburn, R. I. 

JOSEPH T. NEWTON Died at the R. 
I. Hospital Feb. 13, 1900, in his 44th 
year. He was found in the early morn- 
ing unconscious on Jackson street, in 
front of the Y. M. C. A. building, where 
he probably fell and fractured his skull 
while on his way home from work on the 
Journal. He was a native of England, 
but came to this city from Springfield, 
Mass. ; initiated into Providence Union 
Nov. 30, 1885 ; worked on the Journal as 
compositor, linotype operator and night 
editor. Walter Scott, Albert E. Morrill 
and C. E. Burtwell were bearers at the 
funeral. Burial was at Pocasset Ceme- 
tery. 

ROBERT E. NEWTON Born Wake- 
field, Mass., Sept. 3, 1867 ; learned print- 
ing in the "Kindergarten" of the Provi- 
dence Journal office, beginning in 1884 ; 
initiated into No. 33 Sept. 25, 1887 ; at 
present assistant foreman Evening Bul- 
letin. 

ELIAS S. NICKERSON Initiated into 
Providence Union June 28, 1885 ; worked 
in Pawtucket and on Evening Press ; in 
the Civil war served in navy ; now mem- 
ber of firm of John F. Greene Co. 

JAMES L. NICKERSON Died Paw- 
tucket, R. L, April 5, 1866, aged 31 years 
and 26 days ; learned printing in office of 
Pawtucket Gazette and Chronicle ; in 1854 
he worked at 11 Market square in Provi- 
dence. 

WILLIAM C. NICKERSON Born 
Providence May 15, 1880; learned print- 
ing in office of Jou-rnal, beginning in 1897 ; 
left Providence in 1901 for Boston, where 
he is at present employed. 

ALEXANDER P. NIGER Died Provi- 
dence Jan. 13, 1898, aged 68 years. He 
was the first man of color to work at 
printing in Providence and probably the 
first one to be admitted to any Typo- 
graphical Union in the United States. His 
name appears in the Directory of 1850 as 
working at 15 Market square, where the 
Daily Post was printed. Later he worked 
at 24 Westminster street, A. Crawford 
Greene's office. He was a charter mem- 
ber of Providence Union in 1857 and 
retained his membership until 1878, when 
the Union disbanded. 

JAMES C. NIXON Born Drogheda, 
county Meath, Ireland, July 2, 1864 ; 
learned the printing trade in that city ; 
came to Providence in 1882 ; was initiated 
into No. 33 April 29, 1888. 



LXIV 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



GEORGE A. NOBLE Died at East 
Side Hospital Oct 12, 1903, aged 49 years, 
after undergoing a surgical operation. 
He was one of the proprietors of the 
What Cheer Printing Co. ; in 1900 he was 
a member of the General Assembly from 
Harrington, of which town he was a resi- 
dent at the time of death. 

JOHN J. NOLAN Born Woonsocket 
Aug.. 1, 1857 ; learned printing trade in 
the office of the Providence Journal, be- 
ginning in 1876; was admitted to the 
Union April 15, 1883; has worked on the 
Telegram, Star and Press, and on the 
Pawtucket Times ; located in Olneyville 
in 1907. 

STEPHEN HENRY NOLAN Died 
Providence July 29, 1896, aged 30 years; 
he learned printing in the office of the 
Evening Press, beginning in 1883 ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union at the De- 
cember meeting, 1886 ; at time of death 
was employed on the Journal ; he was 
brother of Thomas M. Nolan of Boston. 

THOMAS M. NOLAN Born Providence 
Dec. 14, 1859 ; learned printing in office 
of Evening Bulletin, beginning in 1876 ; 
worked in Providence on the Bulletin, 
Journal, Press, Star, Dispatch, Telegram, 
and in book and job offices from 1876 to 
August, 1885, when he went to Boston to 
.live ; was initiated into Providence Union 
April 15, 1883, the first meeting after 
the reorganization, and took an active 
part in the work of building it up ; was 
Vice President, also delegate to the R. I. 
C. L. U. ; also on the charter list of the 
labor newspaper, "The People." In Mas- 
sachusetts Mr. Nolan first worked on the 
Somerville Journal and the Boston Her- 
ald ; in October, 1885, was day foreman of 
the Post, and from 1891 to 1900 was its 
night foreman ; was chairman of the Post 
chapel at time of lockout in 1891 ; was 
reading clerk for Boston T. U., No. 13, 
for several years, and delegate to New 
England Printing Trades' and State 
Branch, A. F. of L. Mr. Nolan has edited 
the Union Label Magazine since 1898. 

HENRY NORFOLK Born Kirkstall, 
England, in 1864 ; learned printing in 
Leeds, England ; admitted by card to 
Providence Union Aug. 25, 1901 ; was 12 
years father of chapel in one office ; for 
three years delegate to Providence Allied 
Trades' Council ; participated in effort for 
eight-hour day in 1906 ; located in Provi- 
dence in 1907. 

CLARENCE NORTHROP Born Ham- 
den, Conn., Oct. 22, 1855 ; learned printing 
on the Bridgeport Farmer, beginning in 
1870; Providence "was the first city I 
struck on my first trip 'on the road ;' " 
admitted by card to No. 33 June 25, 1884 ; 
worked on the Evening Telegram ; with 
C. G. Whaples & Co., New Haven, Conn., 
in 1904. 



WALTER BYRON NORTON Born 
Providence Feb. 21, 1882 ; learned print- 
ing in office of Visitor, beginning in 1897 ; 
assistant foreman Morning Tribune in 
1907. 

ALPHA H. NUTTING Born Delevan, 
111., Sept. 19, 1863 ; learned printing in 
office of Fall River Sun, beginning in May, 
1878; initiated into Providence Union 
Sept. 30, 1883 ; worked in most of the 
large cities of the United States ; several 
years on the New York World, and since 
1894 in Boston ; on Hearst's American, 
Boston, in 1907. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Date Named: 

HAROLD E. NOCK, May 28, 1893. 
Admitted by Card on Dates Named : 

H. E. NEWTON, from New York, July 
8, 1871. 

JAMES W. NEWTON, Sept. 9, 1871. 
J. H. NORTON, Aug. 10, 1872. 

Name from Providence Directory: 

FREDERICK A. NIGER 1863; proba- 
bly learned at A. Crawford Greene's. 

JOSEPH B. OAKLEY (Little Joe) 
Died Greenfield, Mass. ; admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card Nov. 14, 1868 ; 
worked in this city at various times. 

G. R. O'BRIEN Born Oswego, N. Y., 
Feb. 19, 1867; learned printing in Oswego, 
beginning in 1879 ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card at the April meeting, 1886, 
and worked in this city during that spring 
and summer ; located in Chicago, 111., in 
1904. 

JOSEPH A. O'BRIEN Born Providence 
Sept. 2, 1869; learned printing on Eve- 
ning Bulletin, beginning in 1888, and 
worked on that paper as a linotype opera- 
tor until 1906 ; initiated into Providence 
Union Aug. 31, 1890 ; now employed on 
Evening Tribune. 

STEPHEN W. OCKREY Born Provi- 
dence April 19, 1866 ; learned trade at 
Utley's Printing Office, Norwich, Conn., of 
which office he was foreman from 1885 to 
1891 ; foreman of Norwich Printing Co. 
from 1891 to 1894 ; foreman Norwich 
Morning Post from 1894 to 1897 ; initiated 
into Providence Union Feb. 25, 1900 ; with 
E. A. Johnson & Co. from 1897 to 1906 ; 
participated in the effort for the eight- 
hour day in 1906. 

DANIEL O'CONNOR Born Tiguish, 
P. E. I., Jan. 31, 1879 ; started his appren- 
ticeship to printing in his native town 
and finished at What Cheer Print in this 
city, where he began to work in 1895 ; 
obligated in Providence Union May 27. 
1900 ; financial secretary in 1903, and was 
elected Vice President in 1904, succeed- 
ing to the presidency when Mr. Geer left 
the city ; Vice President again in 1907 ; 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LXV 



delegate to Colorado Springs I. T. U. con- 
vention in 1906 ; now employed on Eve- 
ning Bulletin. 

JOHN EDWARD O'CONNOR Born 
Manchester, N. H., March 11, 1849 ; began 
apprenticeship in Providence Journal office 
in 1867 ; worked on Journal and in Bos- 
ton, and recently in book offices in Provi- 
dence. 

ROBERT O'CONNOR Born Ireland in 
1850 ; began to learn printing in 1864 in 
London, Ontario ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card Sept. 10, 1870 ; worked on 
the Morning Herald until 1873 ; on the 
Inter-Ocean, Chicago, in 1905. 

FRANK O'DONNELL Born Pawtucket, 
R. I., Nov. 8, 1868; learned printing in 
the office of Sibley & Lee in that city, 
beginning in 1883 ; worked in Providence 
at various times between 1886 and 1890 
on the Telegram and Journal ; initiated 
into Providence Union July 31, 1887 ; char- 
ter member of Pawtucket Union, No. 212, 
organized Monday, Dec. 3, 1888 ; deposited 
card in New York Nov. 6, 1890 ; em- 
ployd on the New York American in 1904. 

CHARLES STANLEY OGDEN Born 
Bridgeport, Pa., May 26, 1865 ; learned 
printing in Philadelphia ; worked at Snow 
& Farnham's from 1887 to 1906 ; initiated 
into Providence Union Dec. 30, 1888; par- 
ticipated in the effort for the eight-hour 
day in 1906 ; now employed on Attleboro 
Sun. 

THOMAS J. O'GORMAN Born Clon- 
mel, county Tipperary, Ireland, June 12, 
1863 ; learned printing on the Tipperary 
Free Press, beginning in 1876; initiated 
into Tipperary Union in 1882 ; came to 
New York in 1885 ; and to Providence in 
1906. 

HENRY WILLIAM O'HARA Born 

Taunton, Mass., Sept. 14, 1878; learned 
printing in office of C.. A. Hack & Son 
in that city, beginning in 1894 ; initiated 
into Providence Union March 25, 1900 ; 
worked in this city in the offices of the 
Journal and Chaffee-Mclndoe ; in Boston 
on the Herald ; now conducting the 
Oxford Printing Co. in this city. 

JOHN F. O'HARA Born Feb. 27, 1873, 
at Taunton, Mass. ; learned printing on 
the Taunton News and Providence Jour- 
nal, beginning in 1890 ; initiated into 
Providence Union Nov. 28, 1896 ; worked 
a short time on Pawtuxet Valley Gleaner 
before coming to Providence ; worked as 
linotype operator on Bulletin and Journal 
until 1906 ; now employed on Tribune. 

W. H. O'HARA (pressman) Died Rox- 
bury, Mass., June 4, 1901. He was one 
of the most skilful pressmen in the coun- 
try and had worked in Providence, Worces- 
ter. New York and Boston. He was initi- 
ated into Providence Union June 27, 1886. 



JAMES D. O'HERN Born Providence 
Aug. 13, 1870 ; learned printing at Reid's, 
beginning in 1889 ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union June 26, 1892. 

WILLIAM OLNEY Died Providence 
Jan. 10, 1807, in the 24th year of his age. 
He bought the Phoenix July 7, 1804, and 
published it to the time of his death. 

JOHN A. O'NEILL Born in 1857; 
learned printing in offices of Millard, Gray 
& Simpson and Rhode Island Printing Co. ; 
worked in Boston and New York ; initi- 
ated into Bix Six ; admitted to Providence 
Union by card at May meeting, 1887, and 
soon after placed on honorary list, hav- 
ing engaged in other business ; in 1901 
returned to printing and is now located 
in Boston on the Globe. 

LOUIS B. O'NEILL Born Detroit, 
Mich., Feb. 5, 1859 ; learned printing there, 
beginning in 1873 and receiving card in 
1877 ; withdrew card from Providence 
Union July 1, 1883, having worked on the 
Telegram ; has worked in various cities 
and again visited Providence in June, 1906. 

NATHAN M. ORMSBEE Born Provi- 
dence Sept. 1, 1821, in a house on Gaspee 
street. He attended schools kept by Mrs. 
Seagrave and Oliver Angell. Learned the 
printing trade in the office of the Repub- 




NATHAN M. ORMSBEE. 

lican-Herald ; worked on the Gaspee 
Torchlight, the Journal, Post, Herald and 
Star in this city, the Tribune and Morning 
Star in New York city and in Pawtucket 
for Robert Sherman. He was initiated into 
Providence Union April 18, 1857 ; was 
financial secretary in 1873. Mr. Ormsbee 
became the oldest printer in Rhode Island 



LXVI 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



Oct. 28, 1904, by the death of Samuel S. 
Wilson. For many years he was a promi- 
nent figure in ward politics in the old 
First Ward, now the Second Ward. He 
retired from printing in 1877. 

WILLIAM A. ORAHOOD Was killed 
in a railroad wreck on the Norfolk & 
Western railroad, near Marion, Va., Dec. 
13, 1897. The body was frightfully 
mangled. A certificate of membership, 
issued by Pittsburg Typographical Union, 
was found on the remains, and U. S. Com- 
missioner Williams of Marion, formerly 
a printer, notified Secretary Cully of Pitts- 
burg. The relatives of the deceased re- 
sided in Marysville, O. Mr. Orahood had 
been admitted to Providence Union by 
card in 1885. He was 37 years of age. 

HENRY K. ORME Born Ireland Sept. 
12, 1850 ; learned printing with Providence 
Press Co., beginning about 1868; his "first 
job as an apprentice was inking poster 
work for the late John H. Campbell on 
large hand presses ;" worked for Millard, 
Gray & Simpson and J. A. & R. A. Reid, 
and one year at printing in New York 
city ; now with Flint & Co., this city, as 
salesman. 

THOMAS F. O'ROURKE Bom Provi- 
dence Jan. 31, 1860 ; learned trade of 
proofreader on Journal, beginning in 1885, 
and is at present employed there in that 
capacity ; initiated into Providence Union 
Sept. 24, 1899. 

JOHN F. O'SULLIVAN Born Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., March 22, 1873; learned print- 
ing on the Standard-Union, beginning in 
1888 ; worked in Providence for a short 
time in 1905, between the meetings of the 
union ; located in Beverly, Mass., in 1905. 

ANDREW M. OTIS Born Nashua, 
N. H., Aug. 3, 1850; learned printing in 
office of the Nashua Daily Telegraph, be- 
ginning in 1871 ; worked in Providence 
after serving his time until Dec. 22, 1881 ; 
was foreman of the Sunday Dispatch, the 
first Sunday paper published in Provi- 
dence, while it was printed on Weybosset 
street ; then on the Evening Bulletin and 
Daily Journal until 1881. when he re- 
turned to Nashua. Mr. Otis is. a charter 
member of Nashua Typographical Union 
and foreman of the Telegraph, 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 
Union on Dates Named : 

CHARLES W. OBERTON, Sept. 30, 
1888. Was assistant foreman of Bulletin; 
took foremanship of Telegram after the 
lockout, when James Russell was deposed ; 
in Rockland, Me., in 1905. 

JOHN J. O'FLANAGAN, Feb. 24, 1901. 
(Writer on Boston Advertiser 1905.) 

F. J. O'LEARY, April 25, 1886. 

JOHN O'MEARA, Aug. 27, 1884 ; worked 
on Journal ; died in Boston. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named. : 
JOSEPH O'CONNELL, Nov. 9, 1873. 



ED. B. O'CONNER, Feb. 24, 1901. 
J. KERRY O'CONNER, Dec. 9, 1871. 
JAMES O'CONNER, April 8, 1871. 
DAVID OHLE, April 12, 1873. 
J. H. OLDFIELD, October, 1883. 
O. OLSEN, Dec. 18, 1892. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here : 

EUGENE F. O'BRIEN ("Duffy") I. 
T. U. delegate from Norwich (Conn.) 
Union to Detroit convention, 1899 ; worked 
in Providence that year ; home in Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 

T. J. O'CONNER 187 . 

PAUL P. ORTH 1874. 

JOHN E. PACKENHAM Born Ire- 
land; died in this city Oct. 22, 1887, aged 
23 years ; learned printing in Ireland ; ini- 
tiated into Providence Union July 3, 1884 ; 
worked in this city on the Morning Star ; 
also in Boston. 

WILLIAM PALMER ("Scotia") Born 
Tillicoultry, Scotland, Oct. 3, 1861 ; learned 
printing in Scotland and England, begin- 
ning in 1879 ; first came to Providence in 
1882, and was obligated at the first meet- 
ing of the reorganized Union April 8, 
1883 ; worked on the Evening Press, Morn- 
ing Star, Journal and Evening Telegram ; 
was foreman of The People ; also worked 
in Boston; delegate to I. T. U. conven- 
tion in 1893; President of No. 33 in 
1895, 1902 and 1903 ; in the latter year the 
first recognized chapel was organized in 
the Journal office ; member of the souve- 
nir . committee and toastmaster at the 
Fiftieth Anniversary banquet (1907) ; now 
employed on the Evening Bulletin as 
proofreader. Mr. Palmer was candidate 
for Secretary of State of Rhode Island 
on the Democratic ticket in 1906. 

HERBERT PARKER Initiated into 
Providence Union Dec. 27, 1885 ; worked 
on the Morning Star until its demise, and 
then returned to Nantucket, where he 
took up the business of grocer. 

EDWARD LEON PARKINS Born 
Salem, Ore., June 23, 1877 ; learned print- 
ing at Spokane, Wash., beginning in 1893 ; 
admitted to Providence Union by card 
September, 1906 ; worked in this city as a 
linotype operator until the following De- 
cember, when he left the city. 

JONATHAN C. PARMENTER Died 
New Bedford, Mass., March 4, 1838, aged 
35 years. In 1826-'28 he was a partner 
in the printing firm of Smith & Parmen- 
ter at 9 Market street, Providence. About 
a month before his death Mr. Parmenter 
started the New Bedford Advertiser. 

CHARLES HENRY PARTRIDGE 
Born Franklin, Mass., April, 1860; died 
(suicide) Woonsocket, R. I., April 11, 
1903 ; began to learn printing in Frank- 
lin about 1876 ; initiated into Providence 
Union Feb. 27, 1887. His father, G. I. 
Partridge of Franklin, wrote : "The rea- 
son of his death, or why he took his life, 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LXVII 



will always remain a mystery. He had 
worked in the office of the Woonsocket 
Reporter nearly five years, was always 
steady, and received a good salary." 

WILLIAM J. PASSMORE Committed 
suicide by cutting his throat with a razor 
in this city Oct. 10, 1895, owing to de- 
spondency caused by illness ; he was initi- 
ated into Providence Union May 31, 1885, 
and had worked in various job offices 
here. 

ALFRED W. PEARCE In 1857 worked 
at 24 Westminster street ; lived in Paw- 
tucket ; name in list of members in 1865 
constitution. 

BENJAMIN W. PEARCE Born Swan- 
sea, Mass., April 9, 1819 ; died Newport, 
R. L, April 15, 1904. From his eighth to 
his eighteenth year he was employed in 
a Fall River factory ; then he was ap- 
prenticed to the printing business in the 
office of the Fall River Patriot. Without 
finishing his apprenticeship he came to 
Providence in August, 1837, and entered 
the employ of Knowles, Vose & Co. at 
$3 per week. His work was printing lot- 
tery tickets on a hand press. At the end 
of six months he went to New York city 
to work as a "two-thirder."' No man in 
the office would correct his first proof for 
the price it would bring. While in New 
York Mr. Pearce started the Sunday- 
School Monitor, probably the first Sunday 
school paper published in America. He 
did all the work on it himself, but it was 
not successful, and he returned to Fall 
River, working along the shore for two 
years. In June, 1840, he went to Paw- 
tucket, where, in partnership with Elder 
Tappan H. Bacheller, he printed the 
"Christian Soldier," occupying all positions 
from devil to assistant editor. Later he 
published a weekly temperance paper 
called "Sparkling Fountain." In its col- 
umns he waged a bitter warfare against 
liquor selling. He was repeatedly threat- 
ened with bodily harm, and one night his 
type was thrown into the Blackstone 
river. In 1843 he sold out his business 
and accepted the position of foreman in 
the office of Ray Potter & Son. In June, 
1852, Mr. Pearce went to Boston to work 
in the office of J. E. Farwell & Co. While 
in their employ he occupied the dual posi- 
tion of editor and foreman of a weekly 
political paper through two political cam- 
paigns. Here Mr. Pearce acquired the 
rare accomplishment of putting his 
thoughts into type without having previ- 
ously written them. Standing at the 
"case," apparently engaged in the manual 
occupation of typesetting, ideas flowed 
from his fingers in lead, as in the case of 
others from a penpoint, in ink. This prac- 
tice he followed thereafter. The fall of 
1856 found Mr. Pearce in Providence 
again, at work in the office of A. Crawford 
Greene. April 3, 1857, in company with 
Noel A. Tripp, he started the Fall River 
Daily Evening Star, the first daily in that 



city. The Star suspended March 27, 1858. 
He went to Biddeford, Me., for a month, 
and then entered the employ of George T. 
Hammond, publisher of the Newport Daily 
News, to have charge of its local depart- 
ment. In 1861 he entered the employ of 
the Providence Evening Press as their 
Newport local and marine correspondent, 
in which capacity he continued for 25 
years, during which time he was elected 
Harbor Master for eight years. In 1886, 
when he was 67 years of age, he started 
the Newport Enterprise, and continued its 
publication 11 years, when failing health 
compelled him to abandon the work. For 
this paper he was editor, reporter, type- 
setter, office boy, pressman, printer's 
"devil," poet, advertising agent, bill col- 
lector, manager and newsboy. His poems 
have been collected and printed in a small 
volume, and he also printed a book, "Rec- 
ollections of a Long and Busy Life," 
probably doing all the work himself. 

ROBERT. M. PEARSE Born Reho- 
both, Mass., Oct. 21, 1803; learned print- 
ing in the office of Miller & Hutchens, 




ROBERT M. PEARSE. 

Providence, beginning in 1819. While 
an apprentice he set some of the type for 
the first number of the Journal in 1820. 
After his apprenticeship he worked in 
this city, Boston, Cambridge, New Bed- 
ford and Taunton, varying his work at 
printing with two attempts at farming. 
In 1863 he entered the job office of 
Knowles, Anthony & Co. and continued 
until 1876, when sickness compelled him 
to leave his "case." From Feb. 13, 1877, 
until his death, Dec. 8, 1886, he was the 
oldest printer in the State. 



LXVIII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



ARTHUR S. PEASE Born Putnam, 
Conn., March 26, 1864: learned printing 
on the Woonsocket Evening Reporter, be- 
ginning in September, 1878; initiated into 
Providence Union May 28, 1884, and 
worked in this city a few weeks in that 
year ; was transferred to "Big Six," New 
York, in 1898, and granted a withdrawal 
card in 1902, since which date he has 
represented the Goss Printing Press Co. 
of Chicago, 111., with headquarters in 
New York City. 

LEROY B. PEASE Born Enfield, 
Conn., Feb. 2, 1842 ; learned printing in 
Rockville, Conn., 1858-'61 ; initiated into 
Hartford Union in 1861 ; New York 
Union, No. 6, in 1866; Providence Union 
by card Dec. 9, 1871 ; took a withdrawal 
card from No. 33 July 9, 1872; founded 
the Woonsocket Evening Reporter Oct. 
1, 1873, and continued with that paper 
until the fall of 1897; started the Paw- 
tucket Sun in November, 1897, and the 
Woonsocket Sun Jan. 1, 1899. These 
last two papers had but a brief exist- 
ence. Mr. Pease was made an honorary 
member of Woonsocket Union upon its 
organization. His chief distinction will 
be that without capital he started and 
conducted to success the Evening Re- 
porter, in Woonsocket, in opposition to 
the long-established weekly Patriot. 

'WILLIAM M. PECKHAM Born Peter- 
sham, Mass., Feb. 2, 1846 ; learned print- 
ing at Barre, Mass., beginning April, 
1860; worked in Providence on the Jour- 
nal 1866-'67 ; joined Providence Union 
Aug. 10, 1867; worked 9% years on 
Pawtucket Chronicle, lO 1 /^ years at E. L. 
Freeman's, Central Falls; 18 years Over- 
seer of the Poor of Pawtucket and at 
present holds that position. 

DAVID N. PENDERGAST Initiated 
into Providence Union Dec. 31, 1899 ; 
learned printing in Newport, R. I. 

EDGAR A. PERKINS Initiated into 
Providence Union Sept. 14, 1872, and 
continued a member until 1878, when the 
charter was surrendered. He was again 
initiated May 17, 1888. He is dead. 

HOWARD R. PERRY Born Provi- 
dence, R. I., in 1868; learned printing at 
East Greenwich ; came to Providence in 
1892, from Taunton ; worked on News, 
Telegram and Tribune ; now employed on 
the Saratogian, Saratoga, N. Y. ; was ini- 
tiated into No. 33 Dec. 27, 1896. 

GEORGE HENRY PETTIS Born 
Pawtucket, R. L, March 17, 1834. At the 
age of 12 years he began to learn print- 
ing in the office of the Advertiser, a 
weekly newspaper published at Cohoes. 
N. Y. In August, 1849, he removed to 
Providence, where he followed the occu- 
pation of printer until May, 1854, being 
employed most of the time on the Morn- 
ing Mirror, when he went to California, 
arriving at San Francisco on June 17 of 



that year on the steamer Brother Jona- 
than via Nicaragua. He engaged at min- 
ing in the vicinity of Carrote, Tuolumne 
county, from June, 1854, until May, 1858, 
when he returned to San Francisco. He 
resumed his occupation as a printer, and 
was employed upon the Alta California. 
Morning Call and Herald. He also, at 
one time, held a situation upon the Stock- 
ton Argus and was for a time employed 
at Sacramento. When President Lincoln 
made a call upon California for volun- 
teers he entered the military service of 
the United States as second lieutenant, 
Co. B, 1st California Inf. ; promoted to 
first lieutenant, Co. K, same regiment. 
Jan. 1, 1862, commanding the company 
nearly all of the time until mustered out 
on Feb. 15, 1865, when he was immedi- 
ately mustered into the service again as 
first lieutenant, Co. F, 1st New Mexico 
Inf. He commanded Co. F until pro- 
moted to adjutant of the regiment, June 
1, 1865, and was finally mustered out 
Sept. 1, 1866, having served continuously 
five years and fifteen days. He was in a 
number of skirmishes with the Apache 
and Navajo Indians ; brevetted captain. 
U. S. Vols., March 13, 1865, "for distin- 
guished gallantry in the engagement at 
the Adobe Walls, Texas, with the Com- 
manche and Kiowa Indians," Nov. 25, 
1864, in which he commanded the artil- 
lery. In November, 1868, he removed 
from New Mexico to this city. He was a 
member of the Common Council from the 
Ninth Ward from June, 1872, to January, 
1876, and a member of the Rhode Island 
House of Representatives in 1876 and 
1877 ; was boarding officer of the port of 
Providence from 1878 to 1885 ; was marine 
editor of the Providence Journal from 
1885 to 1887 ; was sealer of weights and 
measures and superintendent of street 
signs and numbers at Providence, R. I., 
from March, 1890, to 1897 ; was ap- 
pointed state sealer of weights, meas- 
ures and balances Jan. 31, 1901, which 
position he now holds. Mr. Pettis is a 
member of the G. A. R., Military Order 
of the Loyal Legion, R. I. Soldiers and 
Sailors' Historical Society, U. S. Veteran 
Association and Society of California Pio- 
neers of New England. 

GEORGE H. PETTIS, JR. (son of 
George H. Pettis) Born San Francisco, 
Cal., June 30, 1860 ; learned printing at 
Hammond, Angell & Co.'s, beginning in 
1876 ; worked at Whittier, Cal., in 1905, 
and was a member of Los Angeles Union ; 
now employed in San Francisco, Cal. 

EDWIN PHARE (son of Henry Phare) 
Died Providence Oct. 20, 1896, in his 
40th year; learned printing in the Jour- 
nal office ; admitted to Providence Union 
by card April 26, 1896. 

HENRY PHARE (Dummy) Died 
Providence June 24, 1881 ; in 1849 and for 
many years later he was employed on 
the Journal ; initiated into Providence 
Union April 18, 1857. 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LXIX 



JAMES P. PHELAN Admitted by card 
to Providence Union January, 1885 ; died 
Boston, Mass., Jan. 23, 1888, and buried 
in printers' lot there. 

LOUIS G. PHILLIPS Born Jersey 
City, N. J., Nov. 29, 1862; died Central 
Falls, R. I., June 16, 1902, from paralysis; 
learned printing in Providence, in the 
offices of the Evening Press and Tele- 
gram, and worked at the business in this 
city until 1891, when he went to Central 
Falls and embarked in the undertaking 
business and carried it on successfully 
until his death ; initiated into Providence 
Union Aug. 27, 1884. 

THOMAS H. PHILLIPS (brother of 
Louis G. Phillips) Born Jersey City, 
N. J., Aug. 15, 1865 ; learned printing in 
the office of the Providence Evening 
Press", beginning in 1882 ; worked in 
Providence until 1890, when he removed 
to Pawtucket and worked at E. L. Free- 
man & Son's, Central Falls, until the 
eight-hour struggle in 1906 ; initiated into 
Providence Union March 29, 1885 ; Presi- 
dent Pawtucket Union 1893-'94 ; Vice 
President R. I. State Federation of Labor 
1907 ; now employed on Bulletin. 

L. O. PHINNEY Died Rochester, 
N. Y., Sept. 12, 1905, aged 67 years; born 
Syracuse, N. Y., and joined the Union 
there in 1853 ; he worked in many of the 
eastern cities, visiting Providence in 1864, 
when he was admitted to No. 33 on June 
11. In the Civil war he served in Co. A, 
1st N. Y. Mounted Rifles. 

ORANGE M. PICKETT Born New 
Haven, Conn., Dec. 14, 1847; learned 
printing in office of Journal and Courier, 
New Haven, beginning Dec. 14, 1863 ; 
initiated into New Haven Union in 1867 ; 
admitted to Providence Union by card 
Dec. 11, 1869 ; worked in this city about 
six months on the Morning Herald ; dele- 
gate from New Haven to I. T. U. in 
1873 ; now employed on the Boston Globe. 

ROBERT A. PIERCE Died Boston 
July 17, 1900. He was working at print- 
ing in Providence as early as 1854, and 
was a charter member of No. 33 in 1857. 
In the constitution of that year his name 
appears in the list of past officers as the 
first President of the society. 

EDWARD LESLIE PIKE Born St. 
John's, N. F., Sept. 23, 1847; learned 
printing in a job office in Boston, begin- 
ning in 1865 ; came to Providence in 
1880; worked on Journal, Telegram, 
Morning Star, Evening Press, Sunday 
Dispatch, Journal of Commerce, Visitor 
and at Reid's ; was active in the reorgani- 
zation of the Union in 1883 and was its 
first financial secretary ; participated in 
the effort for the eight-hour day in 1906 ; 
now employed at Providence Printing Co., 
setting type for "Printers and Printing 
in Providence." 



ALONZO E. PITMAN Born Newport, 
R. I., Jan. 3, 1865 ; learned printing on 
Newport Mercury, beginning in 1881 ; ini- 
tiated into Providence Union June 27, 
1886 ; worked at Johnson's and Reid's 
and on the Morning Star, Telegram and 
Dispatch ; at E. L. Freeman's, Central 
Falls ; Times, Pawtucket ; Newport Her- 
ald since 1892. 

ANDREW J. PITMAN Died Newport, 
R. L, March 21, 1884 ; learned printing in 
the office of the Newport Daily News ; 
initiated into Providence Union Dec. 9, 
1871 ; worked in many cities in the West 
and returned to Providence a few years 
before his death ; his card was deposited 
in No. 33 April 22, 1883, for the last time. 

, JEROME P. PLUMMER Born Law- 
rence, Mass., July 10, 1860 ; learned 
stereotyping on the Providence Journal, 
beginning in 1881, and has worked there 
since ; he is now night foreman of stereo- 
type room ; admitted to membership in 
No. 33 May 29, 1887. 

ALFRED POLIQUIN Born Levis, 
P. Q., Canada, in 1864 ; learned printing 
in the office of the Pawtucket Chronicle ; 
initiated into Providence Union June 27, 
1901. 

P. P. POMEROY Elected an honorary 
member of Providence Union in January, 
1884. The next year he removed to St. 
Paul, Minn. 

ORRIN SCOTT POND Born Foxboro, 
Mass., in 1836; died there Feb. 5, 1886. 
His name appears on the pay roll of the 
Providence Journal for the week ending 
Aug. 13, 1853; then he worked on the 
Daily Post and later on the Evening 
Press, and again on the Journal. He 
left this city for a time and was fore- 
man of the Worcester Press, but returned 
to the Journal office, where his last work 
at printing was performed. He was a 
charter member of Providence Union in 
1857. In the Civil war he served in the 
llth R. I. Vols. 

JOHN H. PORTHOUSE Born England 
in 1847 ; learned printing in Journal job 
office, Providence, beginning in 1864 ; ini- 
tiated into Providence Union Dec. 11, 
1869 ; worked for George H. Whitney, this 
city, and for Mudge & Sons, Boston ; re- 
turned to Providence after a few months 
and worked for Pierce & Budlong ; in 
1875, with O. A. Carleton, purchased the 
Franklin Printing Office (formerly Pierce 
& Budlong) and started the What Cheer 
Printing Co. ; firm dissolved in 1880 ; at 
present (1904) "John H. Porthouse, Com- 
mercial Printer, No. 668 Baltic Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y." Organized the first flute 
and drum corps in Rhode Island (1873) 
and was drum major (the first one they 
had) of the United Train of Artillery, to 
which the flute and drum corps was at- 
tached. He served from 1861 to 1864 in 
the 3d R. I. Heavy Artillery. 



LXX 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



HARRY B. POTTER Born Reading, 
Mass., June 26, 1882 ; began to learn 
printing in Wakefleld, Mass., in 1897 ; 
'admitted to Providence Union by card in 
April, 1906 ; participated in eight-hour 
strike, 1906; linotype operator; located in 
Boston in 1907. 

HENRY W. POTTER Born Cranston 
July 8, 1856 ; learned the printing trade 
in the office of the Evening Press in this 
city, beginning Oct. 4, 1873 ; was admit- 
ted to the Union in 1876 and again July 
5, 1885 ; has worked at the business in 
Westerly, Pawtucket and Phenix, in this 
State, and at the Norwood Press in Mas- 
sachusetts ; participated in eight-hour 
strike in 1906 ; is at present located in 
Providence. 

S. FRANK POTTER Born April 12, 
1863, on the whaling ship Illinois of New 
Bedford, Mass., while the vessel was 
cruising off the coast of New Zealand ; 
learned printing in Norwich, Conn. ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Nov. 12, 1884 ; 
worked on the Journal and later removed 
to Brooklyn, N. Y., where he died. 

STEPHEN B. POTTER Worked on 
Journal in 1856-'57 ; was member of 
Providence Union previous to April 18, 
1857 ; foreman of Evening Press book and 
job office in 1862; admitted to St. Louis 
Union in 1864. 

JOHN A. POWERS Born Providence 
Feb. 6, 1887 ; learned printing on Evening 
Bulletin, beginning in 1903 ; initiated into 
Providence Union as an apprentice mem- 
ber January, 1906 ; now copy cutter on 
Evening Bulletin. 

JOHN H. POWERS Died at St. 
Mary's Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y., May 
28, 1904. He was born in Nova Scotia 
in 1854 and after learning printing came 
to Providence, depositing his card in No. 
33 Aug. 10, 1872 ; later he went to New 
York city, where he worked at his trade 
on the Mercury, Shoe and Leather Re- 
porter and at Tyrrell's on Fulton street. 
He was buried in Holy Cross Cemetery. 

WILLIAM A. PRATT Born Apalachi- 
cola, Fla., Nov. 22, 1867 ; learned printing 
in Palatka, Fla., beginning in 1877; 
worked on Providence Journal in 1887 
and applied for membership in No. 33 in 
that year, but left the city before it was 
acted upon ; is now member of Washing- 
ton Typographical Union, No. 101, and 
employed in Government Printing Office. 

JOHN P. PURCELL (Brockey ) Born 
Hudson, N. Y., March 17, 1859 ; died at 
the Union Printers' Home, Colorado 
Springs, Col., Oct. 28, 1901, having been 
admitted from Newark, N. J. ; learned 
printing in Hudson, N. Y., and Milwau- 
kee, Wis. ; was admitted to Providence 
Union by card at the May meeting, 1888 ; 
had travelled extensively in the United 
States. 



Initiated Into Providence Union on Dates 
Named: 

FRANK H. PARKER, Oct. 30, 1892 ; 
January, 1899. 

CHARLES A. PEABODY, Nov. 9, 1872. 

JAMES PHILLIPS, Dec. 18, 1892. 

DANA W. PHIPPS, Feb. 28, 1892. 

ARTHUR K. PIERCE, July 27, 1890. 

LELAND H. PLAISTED, Aug. 13, 1864. 

FRED POLOQUIN, April 29, 1888. 

EDWARD PORTER, Jan. 31, 1892. 

BARNARD M. PRESCOTT, Sept. 11, 
1869. 

NELSON PURNELL, June 26, 1892; 
also by card July 30, 1893. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named: 

B. F. PAGE, July 13, 1872. 
BURTON S. PALMER, September, 1883. 
ROBERT PARRY, March, 1885. 
GEORGE PERRYMAN, July 13, 1872. 
A. S. PETERSON, December, 1888. 

C. F. PHILLIPS, Nov. 12, 1884. 
A. H. PIERCE, April 23, 1892. 
FRANK A. PIKE, July, 1887.. 
ISAAC D. PORTER, May 14, 1870 
JAMES POWERS, March, 1885. 

J. PULLEN, May 31, 1891. 

Names Found in Directory: 

HARRISON G. O. PARKS 1828 and 
1830. 

MATTHEW S. PATTERSON 1850 to 
1855. Worked at 15 Market square. 

DAVID S. PEARCE 1853 to 1856. 
Worked at 15 Market square and at H. 
H. Brown's. 

CYRUS W. PRATT 1841 to 1844. 

HENRY PRATT 1830 to 1836. 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here: 

T. PETERSON 1851 worked on Jour- 
nal. 

JOHN W. PATTON 1891-'92 on Eve- 
ning Telegram. 

EDWARD QUINN Died Boston, Mass.. 
and his death was announced by J. W. 
Douglass of that city in the 1885 conven- 
tion of the I. T. U. He had represented 
Worcester Union in that body in 1876 ; 
initiated into Providence Union April 9, 
1870, and admitted by card at the meet- 
ing of April 8, 1883 : was then assistant 
foreman of the Journal. During the Civil 
war he served in a Massachusetts regi- 
ment. 

ROBERT QUINN (b) Died at the R. 
I. Hospital July 13, 1903, a few minutes 
after being admitted to that institution. 
He had probably been overtaken by sick- 
ness in the office of the Narragansett 
Printing Co. on the llth (Saturday) and 
had not been discovered until Monday. At 
his lodgings directions were found telling 
how to communicate with relatives and 
with Hartford lodge, No. 88, A. F. and A. 
M., Hartford, Conn. He had been a well- 
known printer, brother of Edward Quinn ; 
had been foreman of the Hartford Times 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LXXI 



and night foreman of the Providence 
Journal, succeeding E. B. Rose in that 
position ; was initiated into Providence 
Union April 5, 1888. 

Initiated Into Providence Typographical 

Union on Date Named: 
GUSTAVUS P. QUIMBY, Dec. 12, 1868. 

Admitted by Card on Date Named: 
M. E. QUINN, Sept. 30, 1883: 

Printers Known to Have Worked Here: 
JAMES QUINN 1860 (Union list). 
ROBERT QUINN (a) Suicided (Union 

list, 187 ). 

FRANCIS M. RAFTERY Born Taun- 

ton, Mass., Nov. 9, 1872 ; learned print- 
ing in the office of Cashman & Keating, 
Boston, Mass. ; worked in Providence 
since 1901, and was admitted to the 
Union Feb. 24 of that year; now em- 
ployed on the Tribune. 

EDWIN F. RANAGAN Born Somer- 
ville, Mass. ; learned printing in office 
of Boston Herald, beginning in 1886; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card Sep- 
tember, 1888 ; worked in this city on the 
Telegram and Dispatch until 1889 ; now 
employed on the Boston Globe. 

ALBERT L. RANDALL Born Ken- 
tucky in 1853 ; learned printing in the 
West ; initiated into Providence Union 
Dec. 27, 1885 ; President of the Union in 
1889; worked on the Journal while in 
this city ; located in Washington, D. C., 
since 1889. 

CHARLES W. RANDALL Born Jef- 
fersonville, Ind., Jan. 28, 1849 ; learned 
printing in Cincinnati, Ohio, beginning in 
1859, when about nine years old; initi- 
ated into Providence Union April 15, 
1883 ; worked in various cities of the 
United States east of St. Louis. 

GEORGE S. RAWCLIFFE Born 
Wrentham, Mass., June 30, 1860 ; began 
to learn printing in Providence in 1895 
and worked nine years at the business ; 
established the Industrial Printing Co. at 
18 College street during the winter of 
1897-'98; took a partner in August, 1903, 
and added a gold stamping and badge- 
making department ; sold his interest to 
George H. Brown July 20, 1904 ; was 
travelling salesman in 1904. 

JOHN C. READ Died Providence 
June 12, 1873, in the 24th year of his 
age. He was initiated into Providence 
Typographical Union Aug. 13, 1870. His 
funeral took place Sunday, June 16, and 
was attended to the Jefferson Street 
Baptist Church by an escort of the United 
Train of Artillery of 40 men, under com- 
mand of Col. Oscar Lapham. A large 
delegation of printers, under the marshal- 
ship of John H. Porthouse, joined the 
funeral procession at the church. Inter- 
ment was at North Burial Ground. 



ROBERT NEWTON READ Born 
Lonsdale, R. I., July 4, 1860 ; learned 
printing at John F. Greene's, Canal street, 
beginning in 1879 ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union April 24, 1887 ; worked at 
Snow & Farnham's, Telegram and Jour- 
nal ; with Aldrich-Eldredge Co., whole- 
sale grocers, in 1904. 

JOHN J. REARDON Born 1876; 
learned printing on the Webster (Mass.) 
Times, beginning in 1890; initiated into 
Providence Union Dec. 30, 1900. 

OSCAR H. REDMAN Born Wellend- 
port, Ont, Canada, July 24, 1878; learned 
printing with Chronicle Printing Co., in 
Willimantic, Conn., beginning in 1894 ; 
joined Pawtucket Union in 1901 ; admit- 
ted by card to Providence Union May 
28, 1905 ; worked on the Telegram, Trib- 
une and Evening Bulletin until incapaci- 
tated by sickness in 1907 ; now located in 
Willimantic, Conn. 

C. F. REED Born 1869 ; learned print- 
ing in office of Reed & Stickney, Wal- 
tham, Mass., beginning in 1895 ; worked 
in North Attleboro, Mass. ; initiated into 
Providence Union Nov. 29, 1903. 

L. FRANCIS REENEY Born Lowell, 
Mass., May 10, 1874 ; learned printing 
trade in office of Providence Telegram, 
beginning in 1890; initiated into Provi- 
dence Typographical Union Feb. 25, 1900 ; 
now employed on the Evening Bulletin. 

NICHOLAS W. REES Born Pembroke 
Dock, South Wales, Great Britain, in 
1865; began to learn printing in 1882, at 
J. A. & R. A. Reid's ; has worked in 
Providence since, at Angell & Co.'s and 
What Cheer Print; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Nov. 28, 1886; held the 
offices of Vice President, treasurer and 
recording secretary in that organization 
and was delegate to the N. E. Typo- 
graphical Union and Allied Trades' con- 
vention at New Bedford in 1895 ; now 
employed at the post office as letter 
carrier. 

JAMES ALLAN REID Born Provi- 
dence Jan. 5, 1848 ; began to learn print- 
ing in September, 1861, in the office of 
the Bristol Phoenix and finished his ap- 
prenticeship in Providence with A. Craw- 
ford Greene ; initiated into Providence 
Union Dec. 9, 1865 ; worked as a jour- 
neyman in this city, Hartford and New 
York ; was senior member of the print- 
ing firm of J. A. & R. A. Reid, estab- 
lished in this city in 1874 and continued 
until 1894. There is no record of a labor 
dispute occurring in that office. Mr. 
Reid's present home is in St. Louis, Mo. 

ROBERT ALLAN REID Born Provi- 
dence May 5, 1851 ; learned printing at 
Hammond, Angell & Co.'s, beginning in 
1867 ; initiated into Providence Union Feb. 
11, 1871; junior member of firm of J. A. 
& R. A. Reid for 19 years; also worked 
in Chicago and Philadelphia. Since the 



LXXII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



dissolution of the Reid partnership he 
has resided in Boston, and has continued 
in the publishing business. 

JAMES REVENS Born parish of Tal- 
low, county Waterford, Ireland, in 1840 ; 
initiated into Providence Union Aug. 14, 

1869, and worked at printing in this city 
in the Evening Press job office, at A. 
Crawford Greene's and on the Evening 
Telegram ; he also worked at the business 
in Boston; he died here July 17, 1893. 

CHARLES W. REXFORD Was initi- 
ated into Providence Union June 13, 1863 ; 
he served in Co. G, 15th U. S. Inf., in 
1865, and was discharged for disability 
at Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. 

CLARENCE N. REYNOLDS Born 
Troy, N. Y., Dec. 3, 1859 ; learned print- 
ing in New Lebanon, N. Y., in office of 
Samuel J Tilden ; was initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Oct. 25, 1903, and worked in 
this city for a short time ; located in 
Boston in 1906. 

MILTON M. REYNOLDS Born Davis- 
ville, R. I., April 19, 1851 ; began work- 
ing at printing in Providence April 1, 

1870, in the office of Marcus B. Young, 
then located at 33 Westminster street. 
The same year his father (A. S. Rey- 
nolds) purchased the business. In 1871, 
because of ill-health, the latter gave the 
plant to his son and George F. Mackin- 
non. Changes in the building caused the 
removal of the office to Harkness court. 
In October, 1873, Peter J. Trumpler en- 
tered the partnership, making it Rey- 
nolds, Mackinnon & Trumpler, and the 
office was again moved, this time to 9 
Calendar street. Here the firm printed 
the "Christian Union" for a man named 
Nickerson, and the "Daily Chronicle" for 
James Hanrahan. In 1875 another mov- 
ing carried the office to Washington row, 
where the Journal office formerly had 
been. Here the Sunday Dispatch, the 
first Sunday newspaper published in 
Providence, was printed in its most pros- 
perous days. In 1878 the office reverted 
to Mr. M. M. Reynolds, who moved it 
to East Greenwich and continued to con- 
duct it there until February, 1884, when 
it passed into other hands. Mr. Reynolds 
took up his residence in Davisville and 
for a time was interested in woolen manu- 
facturing there. He is now in business 
in Providence, but resides in Davisville. 

PHILIP RICHARDS Born Montreal, 
Canada ; learned printing in Fall River 
Mass. ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card April, 1900, and worked in this city 
on the Journal and News until summer of 
1904, when he went to Montreal in search 
of health. 

HERBERT SELLER RICHARDSON 
Born Leeds, England, April 10, 1872 ; 
learned printing in offices of A. Sutcliffe 
Co., Henry Doyle and F. F. Sibley & Co., 
Pawtucket ; worked in Providence since 



1901 ; was admitted to the Union by card 
May 25, 1902 ; now employed at Frank- 
lin Press Co. 

JOHN W. RILEY Born England July 
5, 1875 ; learned printing with J. A. & 
R. A. Reid in Providence, and worked in 
that office and at E. A. Johnson's from 
1892 to 1900 ; now located in New York 
city. 

STEPHEN J. RILEY Born Provi- 
dence Sept. 17, 1870 ; learned printing in 
office .of Whittemore & Colburn, begin- 
ning in 1885 ; initiated into Providence 
Union ; worked in Central Falls at E. L. 
Freeman's and in this city on the Jour- 
nal ; now employed on Evening Tribune 
as linotype operator. 

WILLIAM H. RINGWOOD Born Chat- 
ham, N. Y., June 21, 1874 ; learned print- 
ing in office of Chatham Republican, be- 
ginning in 1890 ; initiated into Albany 
(N. Y.) Union in 1895; joined Providence 
Union by card June 26, 1904 ; was em- 
ployed at Snow & Farnham's. 

THOMAS EDWARD RITCHIE Born 
South Andover, Mass., Aug. 26, 1873 ; 
learned printing with Angell & Co., this 
city, beginning in 1885 ; initiated into 
Providence Union April 5, 1888; at the 
latter date the owners of the Morning 
Dispatch had acquired the business of 
Angell & Co. and were issuing the paper 
from No. 5 Washington row. In 1890 Mr. 
Ritchie enlisted in the U. S. Army. His 
regiment, the 18th Infantry, was sta- 
tioned at Fort Clark, Texas. During the 
winter of 1891 his company was as- 
signed the duty of breaking up a noto- 
rious gang of cattle thieves, located on 
the Rio Grande. After being honorably 
discharged from the 18th Infantry he 
enlisted with the 1st H. A., stationed at 
Fort Barrancas, Fla., where he served 
his term as a bugler. He served through- 
out the entire Spanish-American war and 
was in the battles that took place at 
Guantonamo, Cuba. In 1899 Mr. Ritchie 
returned to printing and has since worked 
in Newport on the Herald, in Attleboro 
on the Sun and on the Providence Eve- 
ning Tribune. 

CARL CONRAD ROBB Born Copen- 
hagen, Denmark, June 11, 1865 ; learned 
printing in that city and has worked at 
the business in 16 of the principal cities 
of Europe, viz. : Copenhagen, Christiania, 
Stockholm, Hamburg, Berlin, Dresden, 
Leipzic, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Antwerp, 
Zurich, Vienna, St. Petersburg, Paris, 
Aberdeen and London ; admitted by card 
to Providence Union Jan. 27, 1901-; 
worked on the Evening Bulletin for sev- 
eral years ; now a master printer 

HARRY WOLCOTT ROBBINS Born 
Vershire, Vt, Jan 31, 1883; learned print- 
ing at Ballston Spa, N Y., beginning in 
1897 ; was student at Brown University 
and also worked in Providence in 1906- 
'07 ; now at Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 




THE JOURNEYMEN 



LXXIII 



ALEXANDER MARSHALL ROBERT- 
SON Born Fall River, Mass., June 5, 
1836 ; served a five-year apprenticeship 
in the office of the Fall River Monitor, of 
which Henry Pratt was proprietor, be- 
ginning July 14, 1850 ; commenced work 
in Providence in July, 1856, "in the job 
and book office of Knowles, Anthony & 
Co., located in the Washington building, 
on Washington row, on the floor above 
that occupied by the Journal newspaper, 
to which establishment it had formerly 
wholly belonged, but then only partially." 
Since then he has worked in most of the 
book and job offices of the city, and for 
a number of years on the Evening Bul- 
letin. Mr. Robertson is an 1857 charter 
member of Providence Typographical 
Union, was Vice President in 1869 and 
President in 1877 and 1878. He has been 
a resident of Lakewood, R. I., for a num- 
ber of years. 

GEORGE ROBERTSON Born Smith- 
field, R. I., July 10, 1828, and died of 
softening of the brain in a Worcester 
insane asylum Aug. 16, 1888 ; he began 
to learn printing in 1842 in the office of 
the Fall River Monitor (Tripp & Pratt) ; 
was initiated into Providence Union Aug. 
10, 1867 ; worked on the Worcester Spy, 
Woonsocket Patriot, New Bedford Stand- 
ard and Fall River News. In 1859 he 
started the Fall River Journal, a weekly 
paper, issued "simultaneously in Rhode 
Island and Massachusetts," and in 1878 
the New Bedford Signal, which he con- 
tinued until his health failed. He was 
brother of Wm. S. Robertson, publisher 
of the Fall River Monitor, and of A. M. 
Robertson of Lakewood. 

J. W. ROBERTSON (Cigarette Bill) 
Born San Francisco Oct. 25 ,1855 ; learned 
printing at Harper Bros., New York, be- 
ginning in 1868; worked in Boston and 
New York for many years; admitted by 
card to Providence Union June 26, 1904. 

CHARLES H. ROBINSON Born 
Greenville, O., Aug. 25, 1858 ; learned 
printing in Washington, D. C., beginning 
in 1875 ; admitted to Providence Union 
by card at the June meeting, 1888, and 
worked in this city during that summer ; 
now located in New York city, holding 
card 2632, and is a member of St. John's 
M. E. Church 

GEORGE W. ROBINSON Born 
Waterford, Ireland, April 26, 1865 ; ap- 
prenticed Sept. 3, 1877, in Waterford; 
initiated in 1884 into Society of Com- 
positors of Dublin, Ireland ; worked in 
Providence in 1891 for a month, and 
again in 1905 at Livermore & Knight's ; 
admitted to Providence Union at August 
meeting, 1905 ; worked in various Boston 
and Brockton offices previous to 1905. 

NELSON J. RODGERS Barn Balti- 
more, Md., Oct. 19, 1860 ; learned print- 
ing in Baltimore, beginning in 1876 ; ad- 



mitted by card to Providence Union July, 
1886; worked on Journal; now employed 
on Boston Globe. 

JOHN ROGERS Born Glasgow, Scot- 
land, June 17, 1857 ; learned printing in 
office of Eastern Chronicle, published at 
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia ; came to 
Providence in 1875 and began work on 
the Journal ; has since worked on Tele- 
gram, Star and Press and in most of the 
job and book offices of the city ; initiated 
into No. 33 April 15, 1883. 

CHARLES ROLFE Born England in 
1841 ; he learned printing in that coun- 
try ; came to Providence in the summer 
of 1871, depositing in No. 33 Aug. 12 of 
that year a travelling card from the 
London Society of Compositors, and began 
work on the Star and Press ; he also 
occasionally worked on the Herald, and 
in the fall accepted a regular situation 
on the Journal, which he retained until 
March, 1872, when he went to the Boston 
Globe, under the foremanship of Robert 
P. Boss. Mr. Rolfe has been with the 
Globe ever since and is now its night 
foreman, 

EDWARD P. ROLLINS Died Hart- 
ford, Conn., Feb. 19, 1903, aged 62 years. 
He was initiated into Providence Union 
Sept. 11, 1869, and his card was received 
at the first meeting of the reorganized 
Union, April 8, 1883 ; had worked in many 
cities of the United States ; was Presi- 
dent of Columbus (Ohio) Union, No. 5. 
Burial was in the printers' lot at Hartford. 

HUGH ROONEY Died Hartford, Conn. ; 
he was admitted by card to Providence 
Union at the November meeting, 1886. 

ALFRED J. ROSE (son of E. B. Rose) 
Born Providence in 1869 ; after gradu- 
ating from high school he began work in 
the proofroom of the Journal in 1888, and 
later learned to operate a linotype ; joined 
No. 33 June 30, 1895 ; in 1907 he estab- 
lished a jobbing business in jewelry which 
has been successful. 

EDWARD B. ROSE Born East Green- 
wich, R. I., in 1842 ; he attended the pub- 
lic schools in Bristol and began to learn 
printing in the office of the Phoenix of 
that town in 1857 ; on becoming a jour- 
neyman he worked in Fall River, Mass., 
on the News ; in Dover, N. H., on the 
Gazette, and in Providence on the Post 
and Evening Press, joining No. 33 Jan. 
11, 1862. In 1863 he enlisted in the navy 
and was appointed hospital steward on 
the sloop-of-war Vandalia ; he resigned 
in 1864, shipped again as landsman, was 
promoted to doctor's steward, and served 
until July 11, 1865. He then returned to 
the printing trade and Providence, and 
became foreman of the Herald. In 1872, 
when the Boston Globe was started, he 
accepted the position of assistant fore- 
man on that paper. Before leaving the 
Herald he was presented with a solid gold 



LXXIV 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



chain and a Masonic keystone with the 
Masonic emblems of the various degrees 
he had passed through. In 1873 he re- 
turned to the foremanship of the Herald, 
and in the spring of that year, when the 
paper suspended, he went to the Journal. 
In three weeks he was made assistant 
foreman and later foreman, holding the 
latter position about 16 years. In 1889, 
on account of sickness, he became a day 
assistant, which position he now holds. 
In the 34 years of his work on the Journal 
he has handled nearly all the advertise- 
ments that have been published in that 
paper, especially the "legals," and with 
very few errors. Mr. Rose is an honor- 
ary member of St. John's Lodge, No. 1, 
A. F. and A. M., of Portsmouth, N H ; 
Providence Royal Arch Chapter of Ma- 
sons ; Providence Lodge, K. of H. ; Cal- 1 
vary Commandery, K. T. ; Westminster 
Lodge of Odd Fellows ; honorary member 
of Daughters of Rebekah Lodge. 

LESTER E. ROSS Was admitted by 
card to Providence Union July 9, 1870; 
he was publisher of the Sun in 1876, when 
it became a daily. 

ARTHUR H. ROSSALL Born Roch- 
dale, England, May 8, 1870; served his 
apprenticeship with his uncle, John R. 
Cort, on the Webster Weekly Times ; af- 
terward worked in Southbridge and Attle- 
boro, Mass. ; "made up" the first edition 
of the Attleboro Daily Sun ; initiated into 
Providence Union Aug. 31, 1890, and 
worked in this city on the Telegram until 
the lockout on that paper during the fore- 
manship of Clarke, when he refused to 
surrender his Union card as the price of 
retaining a situation ; went to Boston and 
held cases from life to death of the Bos- 
ton News. In 1894 he returned to Web- 
ster and was editor of the Times for six 
years; in 1890 returned to Boston and 
worked on the Journal, where he learned 
to operate the linotype ; soon after he 
received a civil service appointment for 
the Government Printing Office at Wash- 
ington, where he is now located. 

CHARLES J. ROTHEMICH Born 
Providence in 1880; learned trade of lino- 
type machinist on Evening Telegram, be- 
ginning in 1896; initiated into Providence 
Union Aug. 26, 1900; at present employed 
on the News-Democrat. 

THOMAS M. ROUNDS Died Provi- 
dence April 22, 1892, in the 74th year of 
his age ; he learned printing in the office 
of Knowles & Vose, and was a journey- 
man on the Journal in 1845-'47. Member 
of Common Council of the city of Provi- 
dence from the Fourth Ward 1867 to 1869 
and in 1876; from the Sixth Ward 1877 
to 1882 and 1886 to 1888. 

ANGELO RUFFO Born Naples, Italy, 
April 13, 1864 ; learned printing in New 
York city, beginning in 1896; published 
the Harlem Courier, an Italian weekly 
paper, in New YorK for nine years ; also 



in the same city L'Araldo Italiano, daily ; 
worked in Providence on 1'Eco ; admitted 
to Providence Union in January, 1906 ; 
now a master printer in this city. 

ANNA RUSHLOW (Miss) Born 1877; 
learned printing at Phillip & Casey's, 
Rouse's Point, N. Y., beginning in 1891 ; 
initiated into Lowell Union, No. 310 ; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card Feb. 
7, 1904. 

THOMAS RUSHTON Born Coventry, 
England, May 19, 1832. When a boy of 
9, he came to New York with his father, 
where they remained a year. He dis- 
tinctly remembered seeing President Tyler 
and the ceremonies attending the intro- 
duction of the Croton water into New 
York. Returning to England, at the age 
of 14 he began to learn printing. At the 
end of seven years he became a journey- 
man and also a freeman of his native city. 
That is to say, anyone who has served 
seven years at a trade, appearing before 
the mayor of the city and having the fact 
certified to by his employer, is made a 
freeman of the city with certain special 
privileges. Thus at the time of his death 
Mr. Rushton was nearly eligible to a pen- 
sion of $1.50 a week. Working at his 
trade for a time in England, he again 
came to America, this time settling in 
Providence in 1863, where he worked on 
the Press until 1868, when he returned to 
the old country. After a year's absence 
he returned to Providence, working on the 
Press again, and later on the Star. In 
1872 he removed to Boston, finding em- 
ployment on the Globe. In 1881 he took 
a vacation of six months, travelling in 
England and on the continent. He then 
returned to his work on the Globe, and 
the rest of his life was uneventful. In 1898 
his health failed perceptibly, and after a 
short illness he passed away on Nov. 19, 
1900, at the age of 68 years and 6 months. 
He left a widow and two children. One 
of them, Thomas Rushton, is employed on 
the Globe ; the other is the wife of R. W. 
Townsend, also an employe of the Globe. 
While in Providence Mr. Rushton was a 
frequent contributor in prose and verse to 
the Evening Press of that city. 

JAMES H. RUSSELL Born Providence 
Jan. 14, 1859 ; learned printing at office 
of Franklin Printing Co., beginning in 
1876 ; was foreman of the Telegram until 
the strike in 1889 ; foreman of the Paw- 
tucket Times for five years ; worked sev- 
eral years on the Weekly Visitor ; now 
assistant foreman of Worcester Telegram. 
He was initiated into Providence Union 
April 8, 1883, and has held many import- 
ant offices in it, including that of I. T. U. 
delegate in 1888. 

JOHN F. RUSSELL Born Providence 
Aug. 25, 1886 ; learned printing on Eve- 
ning Bulletin, beginning March 10, 1902 ; 
initiated into Providence Union at the 
March meeting, 1906 ; now employed on 
Evening Bulletin 



THE JOURNEYMEN 



LXXV 



E. J. RYAN Born Hartford, Conn., 
July 10, 1845 ; learned printing in that 
city; worked in Providence in 1867; was 
bankman on the Hartford Post in 1905. 

GEORGE F. RYAN Born New York 
city in 1846 ; began to work at printing 
in Warren, R. I. ; initiated into Providence 
Typographical Union Nov. 11, 1865 ; since 
1868 has been in the employ of the Rum- 
ford Chemical Works as foreman of its 
printing department and has superin- 
tended its growth from the beginning. It 
is now probably one of the largest private 
printing plants in this country. 

JAMES S. RYAN (Big Injun) Born 
Vergennes, Vt, Feb. 28, 1833 ; learned 
printing in the office of the Vergennes 
Vermonter, beginning Nov. 9, 1848 ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union Oct. 10, 1868; 
worked in this city from that date to 
1876 at various times; was located in 
Hartford, Conn., in 1904. Mr. Ryan writes : 
"Can't think of any reminiscences ; all old 
stories, some true and some lies, but told 
so often I most believe some of them 
myself." 

JOHN CROIL RYAN Died Boston 
May 7, 1901, aged 53 years. He was 
born in Montreal, where he learned print- 
ing. He came to Providence, worked on 
the Journal, and was a member of No. 
33 previous to 1877 ; later he worked on 
the Star and Press and for a time at 
Gorham's Silver Works ; he had worked 
some years in Boston just previous to his 
death. 

MARVIN M. RYAN Was drowned at 
Bullock's Point Sunday, Aug. 16, 1874, 
He was of a sailing party of three, and 
about 5 :30 p. m. went swimming alone. 
He swam under water a short distance, 
came up and struck out for the boat. 
As he neared it, it was noticed that he 
was looking very badly in the face, and 
one of his companions, asking him if he 
was tired, reached out an oar for him to 
take hold of. The oar touched his shoul- 
der, when he pushed it away with his 
hand, and, turning around as if to swim 
out again, he sank and did not come up. 
His companions made no attempt to re- 
cover the body, but brought his clothing 
to the Third Police Station in this city 
and reported the fatality. The body was 
found Aug. 19 and brought to Providence 
by friends, who attended to the burial. 
Mr. Ryan was born in Charlestown, Mass., 
in 1821. He was initiated into Providence 
Union April 18, 1857. He possessed abili- 
ties as a compiler of almanacs and as a 
writer that made him very useful outside 
the lines of his trade. In this city he 
worked chiefly at A. Crawford Greene's. 
He served in a Massachusetts regiment 
in the Civil war. 

WILLIAM H. RYAN Born East Provi- 
dence Sept. 6, 1876; learned printing with 
Marion Printing Co., beginning Oct. 1, 
1891; initiated into Providence Union Dec. 
29, 1901. 



VICTOR L. RYBERG Born Providence 
Dec. 11, 1886 ; learned printing with 
Standard Printing Co., beginning in 1902 ; 
joined effort for eight-hour day in April, 
1906 ; now located in Providence. 

Initiated Into Providence Union on Dates 
Named: 

JAMES T. RAFFERTY, March 26, 1893. 
Killed on railroad near Pittsburg, Pa. ; 
learned trade on Dispatch and Journal. 

GEORGE H. RAMSDEN, Dec. 3, 1884. 
In New York city. 

CHARLES RATTHIE, July 25, 1886. 

IRA G. RAWSON, December, 1892. 

JOHN C. RAWSON, May 9, 1868. 

N. L. REEVES, May 9, 1868. 

JOHN F. REILLY, Nov. 8, 1862. 

NICHOLAS J. REILLY, July 26, 1903. 

PATRICK REILLY (stereotyper), Aug. 
25, 1889. Died in this city. 

WILLIAM H. REILLY, Jan. 25, 1885. 

FRANCIS W. RHODES, Dec. 9. 1865. 

B. J. RING, April 5, 1888. In Colorado. 
WILLIAM RILEY, Feb. 25, 1900. 
GEORGE J. F. ROBINSON, Dec. 11, 

1869. 

THOMAS C. ROBINSON, April 5, 1888. 

JOHN ROGERS (b), Jan. 29, 1893. 

PETER RONAN, May 4, 1857. 

EDWIN W. ROPER, May 27, 1883. 

R. W. ROXBURGH, Oct. 29, 1887 ; also 
March 31, 1901. 

WILLIAM H. RUSH, July 5, 1885. 
Learned trade on Evening Telegram. 

MARTIN RYAN, Oct. 14, 1864. 

Admitted by Card on Dates Named: 

GEORGE F. RAND, Aug. 27, 1884. 

FRED E. RAUFF, July 28, 1895. 

L. W. REED, July, 1888. 

L. H. REESE, from Norwich, Nov. 13, 
1869. 

THOMAS REESE, May 10, 1873. 

DANIEL REGAN, May, 1887. 

THOMAS E. REGAN, Aug. 10, 1872. 

DAVID REID, March, 1886 ; August, 1888. 

BERNARD REYNOLDS, member in 
1877. 

JAMES W. REYNOLDS, March 27, 1904. 

C. W. RIANHARDT, Sept. 30, 1900. 
STEPHEN RICE, Sept. 14, 1872. 

LEE RILEY, Nov. 30, 1890. Swift lino- 
type operator. In New York city in 1907. 

ED. P. ROACH, June, 1888. 

JAMES ROACH, Dec. 28, 1890; Feb. 
27, 1898 

C. W. ROBINSON, Sept. 14, 1872. 

GEORGE D. ROBINSON, Sept. 14, 1872. 

J. H. B. ROBINSON, November, 1888. 

JOHN ROBINSON ("Shorty Rob"), 
April 22, 1883 ; was assistant foreman of 
Journal. 

JOHN E. ROBERTS, March, 1889. 

C. A. ROCHFORT, November, 1886. 

G. H. RODDY, July 1, 1883. 

JENNIE ROGERS (Miss), Nov. 30, 1902. 

ROBERT W. ROGERS, July 9, 1870. 

CHARLES ROSS, Sept. 27, 1891. 

J. B. ROSS, Feb. 27, 1884 ; worked on 
Journal. 

THOMAS J. RUSSELL, Feb. 28, 1892. 



LXXVI 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



Names Found in Directory: 

JOHN RANDALL/ 1828 worked at 
Patriot office; 1830 at Journal office; 1832 
at 25 Market square. 

WILLIAM READ 1832 at 12 Market 
square. 

JOSIA.H W. ROBINSON, JR. 1859. 

JACOB. ROTHERMICH 1859. 

GEORGE SADLIER Born New York 
city Aug. 17, 18-57 ; learned printing in 
Middletown, Conn. ; worked in Providence 
in 1885 on the Morning Star; admitted to 
No. 33 by card in May, 1885; was em- 
ployed on the New York American and 
Journal in 1904. 

CHARLES A. SALISBURY Born Paw- 
tucket, R. I., July 12, 1877 ; learned print- 
ing on the Pawtucket Post, beginning in 
1893; worked in Boston, New York, Wor- 
cester and Brockton ; admitted to Provi- 
dence Union by card March 25, 1906 ; now 
linotype operator on Providence Journal. 

HENRY R. SAWYER Died Providence 
Sept. 8, 1898. His age was not known, 
but he .was one of the oldest printers of 
the city at the time. He was a native 
of London, England. When a boy he 
came to this country and at first was a 
whaleman, sailing from New Bedford. He 
then learned printing, working in Paw- 
tucket, and since 1847 in Providence. In 
1857 he was foreman of A. Crawford 
Greene's office, and that year was a 
charter member of Providence Union, re- 
taining his membership until he became 
superanuated. He set the first stickful 
of type for the Evening Press, and worked 
in that office from 1859 until 1886. For 
the last 12 years of his life he worked 
for Snow & Farnham. 

ORIN B. SAXTON (printer) Formerly 
of Providence ; died at the Massachusetts 
General Hospital. Rhode Island Ameri- 
can, Jan. 11, 1825. He was married in 
Salem Jan. 2, 1819, to Merriam S. Eld- 
redge. 

A. R. SAYLES Born 1874; learned 
"printing with F. H. Townsend in this city ; 
located in Redlands, Cal., in 1905. 

THOMAS A. SCALES Born New Bed- 
ford, Mass., Dec. 23, 1879; learned print- 
ing trade in the Mercury job office in that 
city, beginning in 1893 ; admitted to Provi- 
dence Union April 29, 1900, by card ; has 
worked in Providence and Fall River ; 
now located in New Bedford. 

JAMES P. SCANLON Born Providence 
Nov. 23, 1874 ; learned printing in office of 
Evening Bulletin ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union April 26, 1896 ; now linotype 
operator on Attleboro Sun. 

DENNIS J. SCANNEL Died Boston, 
Mass., Feb. 10, 1876 ; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union Sept. 9, 1865 ; its President 
in 1866; charter member of Worcester 
(Mass.) Union and its first President; 
I T. U. delegate from Boston in 1872 at 
Richmond, Va. 



PAUL A. SCHROEN Born Baltimore, 
Md., Sept. 6, 1869 ; learned printing in 
office of John S. Bridges & Co., Balti- 
more, Md., beginning in 1884 ; came to 
Providence in September, 1902, deposit- 
ing a card in No. 33 Feb. 22, 1903 ; before 
coming to this city worked three years in 
the Government Printing Office in Wash- 
ington, and about two years in Chicago, 
Philadelphia and other places ; now fore- 
man Capitol Press. 

C. SCHUBARTH Initiated into Provi- 
dence Union April 18, 1857 ; his name ap- 
pears in the Directory of 1853. 

ALBERT A. SCOTT Died in the Met- 
ropolitan Hospital, New York city, June 
27, 1902, aged 61 years; he was a mem- 
ber of Providence Union previous to April, 
1857, and worked on the Post, of which 
he was for a time foreman. Later he 
was a partner with Noah D. Payne as 
publisher of the Herald, the successor of 
the Post. About 1870 he went to New 
York city, and for years was employed 
on the Sun. 

EDWIN TALLMAN SCOTT Died 
Providence Sept. 20, 1894, in his 75th 
year. From 1841 to 1844 he followed the 
printing trade; 1850-'59 he kept an 
apothecary store at 454 North Main 
street; 1859 until the time of his death 
he was a physician. 

WALTER SCOTT Born Cumberland, 
R. I., Nov. 28, 1841 ; learned presswork 
in Journal office, beginning in 1861, when 
there was but one single-cylinder Hoe in 
the pressroom ; also worked on the Post, 
Evening Press, Herald and Morning Star ; 
was initiated into Providence Union Dec. 
9, 1871, and later on the honorary list. 
Mr. Scott was for many years caterer to 
the newspaper offices, and, to use his own 
words, "Am a lively old cuss yet." His 
lunch wagon was a fixture in front of the 
Barton block, when the Journal was 
printed there, and George W. Danielson, 
after his labors on the paper, often rode 
to his home with Mr. Scott. 

WILLIAM SCOTT (a) Born Carlisle, 
England, Sept. 8, 1869; learned printing 
in Providence, beginning in 1887 ; initi- 
ated into Providence Union May 26, 1889, 
as an apprentice member. While working 
in the Record job office in Norwich, Conn., ' 
he won a prize for artistic job work, 
offered by the Inland Printer of Chicago. 
The entries included English and Ameri- 
can printers. Now employed on Norwich 
(Conn.) Record. 

WILLIAM SCOTT (b) Born Hawick, 
Scotland, where he also learned the print- 
ing trade ; initiated into Providence Union 
Feb. 24, 1901 ; now employed on the 
Tribune. 

FRANK HOPKINS SEARS Born New 
York State Aug. 21, 1855 ; learned print- 
ing on newspapers in Montgomery and 
Newburgh, N. Y., beginning in 1869; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card Oct. 




THE JOURNEYMEN 



LXXVII 



12, 1874 ; worked in this city about seven 
years, on the Journal, Bulletin, Press and 
Star; went West in the fall of 1881, and 
Dec. 19 of that year published one num- 
ber of the Waverly Enterprise in Waverly, 
Coffey Co., Kas. ; went into cattle raising 
business and has not worked at printing 
since 1881 ; was in cattle business at 
Eudora, Kas., in 1904. 

FRANK H. SEFFING Born Sandusky, 
Ohio, Jan. 22, 1864; learned printing in 
office of Register of that city, beginning 
Aug. 25, 1876; admitted to Providence 
Union by card Aug. 27, 1884, and again 
June 28, 1885; worked on the Star and 
Telegram. After enumerating the names 
of the men on those papers when he 
visited Providence, Mr. Sefflng writes: 
"The lapse of 20 years has not served to 
efface from my mind the names of those 
old stalwarts of No. 33, and the rides 
'down the river* and the 'Rhode Island 
clambakes' and the general good times to 
be had in Providence." Mr. Seffing repre- 
sented Cleveland Union at the Hot Springs 
convention in 1907. 

P. A. SEIBERLICH Born Philadel- 
phia, Pa., May 13, 1860; he learned the 
printing trade in that city in the office 
of John P. Murphy, beginning in 1875 ; 
worked in Providence on the Evening 
Telegram from 1894 to 1900, and has 
"worked in nearly every large city in 
the country ;" now located in New York. 

THOMAS C. SHANLEY Died Provi- 
dence Jan. 24, 1885, aged 25 years; he 
learned printing on the Evening Tele- 
gram ; initiated into Providence Union 
Sept. 30, 1883. The funeral was an elab- 
orate one. The bearers were James H. 
Russell, Joseph N. B. Meegan, James 
Moore and George W. Flynn. Mass was 
at the Pro-Cathedral. 

JOHN A. SHANNON Born May 10, 
1863, in England ; he began to learn print- 
ing in the office of the News at Law- 
rence, Mass., finishing his apprenticeship 
in Providence at A. N. Angell's ; he 
worked in Providence from 1887 to 1904 ; 
was an original member of the souvenir 
committee ; now located in New York city. 

C. C. SHARP Born Brandt Co., Can- 
ada, Nov. 13, 1861 ; he learned the print- 
ing trade in Sarnio, Can., beginning in 
1878; deposited a card in Providence 
Union April 24, 1904. This was his first 
trip to New England, although he had 
travelled all over the United States, from 
St. Paul, where he joined the Union in 
1880, to New Orleans, and from San 
Francisco to Providence ; employed on the 
Telegram operating a linotype in 1904. 

ARTHUR L. SHAW Born 1862 ; learned 
printing in Sackville, N. B., on the Chig- 
necto Post, beginning in 1880 ; initiated 
into Providence Union April 5, 1888. 

CHARLES S. SHAW Born Jersey 
City, N. J., 1858; learned printing with 



George A. Wilson in this city, beginning 
in 1893 ; initiated into Providence Union 
July 25, 1897 ; now in New York city. 

EARL BRANDON SHAW Born Au- 
gusta, Me., in 1870; learned printing in 
A. N. Angell's office in this city, begin- 
ning in 1884 ; worked in Providence from 
1884 to 1891 and from 1893 to 1901 ; ini- 
tiated into No. 33 April 5, 1888 ; went to 
San Francisco in 1891 for two years, and 
was foreman of the Berkeley Daily Her- 
ald, the first daily in Berkeley, Cal. Mr. 
Shaw was one of five brothers, all print- 
ers Arthur, William, Charles and Frank, 
the latter deceased. 

FRANK N. SHAW Born Hudson City, 
N. Y., June 27, 1862; died in Providence 
December, 1891 ; he learned printing in 
Sackville, N. B., and Brooklyn, N. Y., 
beginning in 1879 ; worked in Providence 
from 1883 to 1889, when he went to Chi- 
cago and was foreman for some time for 
Donahoe & Hennehery ; returned to Provi- 
dence in 1891, and was foreman of J. C. 
Monaghan's paper (Record) ; initiated 
into No. 33 April 15, 1883. 

JAMES C. SHAW Born Providence 
April 23, 1882 ; learned printing on the 
Evening Telegram, beginning in 1899 ; ini- 
tiated into Providence Union March 27, 
1904. 

WILLIAM S. SHAW Born Bridgeport, 
Conn., Sept. 17, 1864 ; learned printing at 
Chatham, Meremichee Co., Can., begin- 
ning in 1882; admitted to Providence 
Union by card at the August meeting, 
1889 ; now employed in this city. 

D. J. SHEA Born Halifax, N. S., Jan. 
27, 1855; learned printing in that city, 
beginning in 1869; worked in Providence 
a short time in the spring of 1884 ; em- 
ployed in New York city on the Journal 
in 1904. 

JOHN SHEEDY Born Norwich, Conn., 
and learned printing there, beginning in 
1870 ; initiated into Providence Union Nov. 
9, 1873, and worked here several months 
on the Morning Star ; now foreman New 
London Morning Telegraph. 

E. J. SHEPARD Born Clifton Park, 
N. Y., in 1857 ; learned printing in Sara- 
toga, N. Y., beginning in 1872; admitted 
to Providence Union by card July 28, 
1896; worked in this city March to Sep- 
tember, 1895, and July to October, 1896, 
mostly on the Journal ; has been em- 
ployed in the Government Printing Office 
in Washington, D. C., since February, 
1897 ; brother of G. E. Shepard. 

GORDON E. SHEPARD Born Jones- 
ville, Saratoga Co., N. Y., in 1856; learned 
printing in Saratoga, N. Y., beginning 
Dec. 1, 1869 ; came to Providence July 5, 
1875, and has worked on the Journal since 
under five foremen, viz. : George Merrill, 
E. B. Rose, John H. Milne, Robert Quinn 
and William Carroll, only two of whom 



LXXVIII 



PRINTERS AND PRINTING IN PROVIDENCE 



are now living ; has held a night "sit," a 
day "sit," an "objectionable sit" for about 
four years ; assistant "ad man" for four 
years ; about one year on the old Mergen- 
thaler linotypes, and since 1894 a "sit" 
in the proofroom. He was initiated into 
Providence Union April 15, 1883. 

P. R. SHEPARDSON Died Newark, 
N. J., Nov. 2, 1906, aged 62 years; ad- 
mitted to Providence Union by card July, 
1888. 

DANIEL A. SHERMAN Born New- 
port, R. I., in 1838; initiated into Provi- 
dence Union March 11, 1865. In a move- 
ment for a short workday at that time 
he was secretary of the organization. He 
is supposed to have died in one of the 
towns in the southern part of the State. 

HOWARD E. SHERMAN Born Pru- 
dence Island, R. I., Jan. 29, 1867; learned 
printing in Bristol, R. I., beginning in 
1880; initiated into Providence Union 
Oct. 25, 1885 ; worked in Providence from 
1884 to 1889 on the Evening Mail, a 
campaign sheet, started in 1884; the R. 
I. Democrat, Journal, Dispatch and Tele- 
gram ; was in the lockout on the last named 
paper in 1889 ; treasurer of No. 33 in 
1888-'89 ; now employed in the Govern- 
ment Printing Office at Washington. 

WILLIAM E. SHIELDS Born Coving- 
ton, Ky., April 30, 1861; learned printing 
in Wapakoneta, O., beginning in 1876 ; 
worked in Providence in 1885 on the Tele- 
gram and Star ; delegate to I. T. U. from 
Washington Union, No. 101, to Boston in 
1892, and afterward President of that 
Union for two years ; now located in 
Denver. 

GEORGE M. SHIPP Born May 12, 
1850, at Hillsboro, O. ; learned printing on 
the Gazette in that town, beginning in 
1867 ; admitted to Providence Union by 
card at the May meeting, 1887, and has 
visited this city at various other times ; 
Mr. Shipp is an extensive traveller, hav- 
ing been in every city and town of any 
importance this side of the Rocky Moun- 
tains ; in New York city in 1907. 

WILLARD F. SHOLES Died Provi- 
dence July 12, 1907, aged 45 years ; 
learned printing in office of Charles L. 
Stewart, Franklin, Mass. ; initiated into 
Providence Union Oct. 25, 1903 ; em- 
ployed in this city until his death ; par- 
ticipated in the effort for the eight-hour 
day irr 1906. 

JOHN S. SIBLEY Born Sutton, Mass., 
Sept. 8, 1823; died Pawtucket, R. L, 
Sept. 13, 1883; learned printing in the 
office of the Woonsocket Patriot, begin- 
ning about 1845 ; in 1850 worked at Jour- 
nal job office in this city and later was 
a member of the firm. With Ansel D. 
Nickerson he published the Pawtucket 
Gazette and Chronicle